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2017

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Articles 1 - 13 of 13

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Modeling Cdc42 Oscillation In Fission Yeast, Bin Xu Oct 2017

Modeling Cdc42 Oscillation In Fission Yeast, Bin Xu

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde May 2017

Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The method of phagocytosis of a particle can provide information on how macrophages respond to a detected particle. The response elicited varies based on the nature of the particle and in turn changes which receptor-mediated phagocytosis is initiated. We have developed a multi-well cell-based sensor that can monitor real-time biological changes in living cells, such as mass redistribution, and viscoelasticity. This system provides unique kinetic information regarding the phenotypic change in the cells post treatment. As a proof of principle study, we evaluate macrophage phagocytosis using three different particles: latex beads, Zymosan A, and Staphylococcus aureus. These studies show the ...


Broad Repertoire Of T Cell Autoreactivity Directly From Islets Of Donors With Type 1 Diabetes (T1d), Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. Denicola, David M. Blodgett, Inne Crevecoeur, Thomas S. Buttrick, Rene Maehr, Rita Bottino, Ali Naji, John Kaddis, Wassim Elyaman, Eddie A. James, Rachana Haliyur, Marcela Brissova, Lut Overburgh, Chantal Mathieu, Thomas Delong, Kathryn Haskins, Alberto Pugliese, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Clayton Mathews, Mark A. Atkinson, Alvin C. Powers, David Harlan, Sally C. Kent May 2017

Broad Repertoire Of T Cell Autoreactivity Directly From Islets Of Donors With Type 1 Diabetes (T1d), Jenny Aurielle B. Babon, Megan E. Denicola, David M. Blodgett, Inne Crevecoeur, Thomas S. Buttrick, Rene Maehr, Rita Bottino, Ali Naji, John Kaddis, Wassim Elyaman, Eddie A. James, Rachana Haliyur, Marcela Brissova, Lut Overburgh, Chantal Mathieu, Thomas Delong, Kathryn Haskins, Alberto Pugliese, Martha Campbell-Thompson, Clayton Mathews, Mark A. Atkinson, Alvin C. Powers, David Harlan, Sally C. Kent

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the infiltration of lymphocytes into the insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas. We have isolated live T cells sorted or grown directly from the isolated, handpicked islets of human donors with T1D. We received ~500 islet equivalent EQ of variable purity (10-90%) from 12 donors with T1D (disease duration 0.42-20 years) and from seven control donors and two donors with type 2 diabetes (T2D). A total of 321 T cell lines and clones were derived from the islets of donors with T1D (3 lines from the 9 control donors). These ...


C1qbp Inhibits Dux4-Dependent Gene Activation And Can Be Targeted With 4mu, Alec M. Desimone, Genila Bibat, Kathryn Wagner, Guido Stadler, Woodring E. Wright, John D. Leszyk, Charles P. Emerson Jr. May 2017

C1qbp Inhibits Dux4-Dependent Gene Activation And Can Be Targeted With 4mu, Alec M. Desimone, Genila Bibat, Kathryn Wagner, Guido Stadler, Woodring E. Wright, John D. Leszyk, Charles P. Emerson Jr.

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

FSHD is linked to the misexpression of the DUX4 gene contained within the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4. The gene encodes the DUX4 protein, a cytotoxic transcription factor that presumably causes the symptoms of the disease. However, individuals have been identified who express DUX4 in their muscle biopsies, but who remain asymptomatic, suggesting that there are other factors that modify FSHD penetrance or severity. We hypothesized that an FSHD-modifying factor would physically interact with DUX4, and we took a proteomic approach to identify DUX4-interacting proteins. We identified the multifunctional C1QBP protein as one such factor. C1QBP is known to ...


Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry May 2017

Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

To evaluate the performance of various designs of crossflow filtration microfluidic devices, blood flow was modeled using computational fluid dynamics software (COMSOL Multiphysics). Velocity profiles were generated and used to analyze four critical design parameters: pillar size, pillar shape, gap size, and wall length. These parameters were optimized to yield greatest flow from an unfiltered main channel into two filtered side channels of the device, thereby maximizing filtration capacity.

Devices containing pillars of 10 µm diameter yielded a significantly greater filtration capacity than devices with pillars of 20 µm diameter. Flow patterns from the main channel to the side channels ...


Identification Of Novel Interactors Of Sec6 Via Genetic Suppressor Screen Using A Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genomic Dna Library, Y. Ellen France Phd, Emily Parrish, Raira Ank, Tristan Peterman, Sarah Mork, Billie Mills, Lindsey Duke, Jyoti Lama Apr 2017

Identification Of Novel Interactors Of Sec6 Via Genetic Suppressor Screen Using A Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genomic Dna Library, Y. Ellen France Phd, Emily Parrish, Raira Ank, Tristan Peterman, Sarah Mork, Billie Mills, Lindsey Duke, Jyoti Lama

Georgia College Student Research Events

Polarized protein secretion is a fundamental process for all organisms, from yeast to higher eukaryotes. The secretory pathway in eukaryotes includes many steps mediated by hundreds of essential proteins. Our interest lies on Sec6, which is an 88kDa protein subunit of the tethering complex named exocyst, which is known to play diverse roles in recognition, tethering, and SNARE-mediated fusion of secretory vesicles. Previous work on Sec6 done by Munson and Songer (2009) explored phenotypes of two novel SEC6 mutant proteins, whose conserved surface amino acids had been altered. Both sec6-49 and sec6-54 mutant alleles displayed severe temperature sensitive growth and ...


Netrin-3 Peptide (C-19) Is A Chemorepellent And A Growth Inhibitor In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Jennifer N. Felzien, Brandon R. Kalb, Bethany C. Khol, Katelyn R. Malik, Matthew S. Merical, Lois Parks, David Paulding, Shannon Rappaport, Kenneth W. Ward, Heather G. Kuruvilla Apr 2017

Netrin-3 Peptide (C-19) Is A Chemorepellent And A Growth Inhibitor In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Jennifer N. Felzien, Brandon R. Kalb, Bethany C. Khol, Katelyn R. Malik, Matthew S. Merical, Lois Parks, David Paulding, Shannon Rappaport, Kenneth W. Ward, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)

The netrins are a family of signaling proteins expressed throughout the animal kingdom. Netrins play important roles in developmental processes such as axonal guidance and angiogenesis. Netrin-1, for example, can act as either a chemoattractant or a chemorepellent for axonal growth cones depending upon the concentration of the protein as well as the cell type. Netrin-1 acts as a growth factor in some mammalian cell types and is also expressed by some tumor cells. Netrin-3 appears to share some signaling apparatus with netrin-1, but is less widely expressed, and its physiological roles are much less understood. Netrin-3 is also used ...


Immunolocalization Of A Netrin-3 Like Peptide In Tetrahymena Thermophila Using Antibodies Against The N- And C-Terminus Of The Protein, Bethany C. Khol, Katelyn R. Malik, Heather G. Kuruvilla Apr 2017

Immunolocalization Of A Netrin-3 Like Peptide In Tetrahymena Thermophila Using Antibodies Against The N- And C-Terminus Of The Protein, Bethany C. Khol, Katelyn R. Malik, Heather G. Kuruvilla

The Research and Scholarship Symposium (2013-2019)

Tetrahymena thermophila are free-living, unicellular, eukaryotic protozoans that live in a variety of aquatic environments. These organisms interact with their environment by responding to chemorepellents and chemoattractants which direct them toward favorable stimuli, such as food, and away from unfavorable stimuli, such as predators. We have previously described two netrin-like proteins, a netrin-1 like protein, and a netrin-3 like protein, which are secreted from Tetrahymena. Both of these proteins act as chemorepellents, and may allow cells to communicate with each other regarding population density, preventing them from outgrowing the available environmental resources. In our current study, we used antibodies against ...


Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model Mar 2017

Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...


P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher Mar 2017

P32. Altered Sensory Processing In Response To Novel Dreadd-Induced Inactivation Of Gaba In Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus, Niveen Fulcher

Western Research Forum

Niveen Fulcher1, Cleusa De Oliveira2, & Susanne Schmid1,2

1Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario

2Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Western Ontario

Altered sensory processing in response to novel DREADD-induced inactivation of GABA in pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus

Background: Sensory processing deficits are associated with certain psychiatric illnesses, such as schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Sensory filtering and sensorimotor gating are evolutionarily conserved preattentive responses that filter and block redundant sensory stimuli that would otherwise overwhelm our brains. To date, underlying mechanisms of these deficits are undefined. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the ...


P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc Mar 2017

P23. Elucidation Of The Signaling Pathway Of Mertk, Kyle Taruc

Western Research Forum

Background

Mer Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) is a receptor which mediates efferocytosis – removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytes such as macrophages. MERTK plays a critical role in homeostasis, with mutations in MERTK associated with the development and progression of atherosclerosis, the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque in the sub-arterial space. Indeed, one MERTK allele is associated with 66% (heterozygous) to 75% (homozygous) protection from atherosclerosis, while other alleles and SNP’s pre-dispose to atherosclerosis and autoimmunity. Complications resulting from atherosclerosis, including heart attack and stroke, are currently the second leading cause of mortality in Canada. Despite the importance of MERTK in atherosclerosis ...


Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer Mar 2017

Pulmonary Surfactant Fortified With Cath-2 As A Novel Therapy For Bacterial Pneumonia, Brandon J. Baer

Western Research Forum

Background: Bacterial pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, with high mortality rates persisting even after antibiotic treatment. Current treatments for pneumonia involve administration of antibiotics, however after the bacteria are killed they release toxic substances that induce inflammation and lung dysfunction. Host defense peptides represent a potential solution to this problem through their ability to down regulate inflammation. However, effective delivery to the lung is difficult because of the complex branching structure of the airways. My study addresses this delivery problem by using exogenous surfactant, a pulmonary delivery vehicle capable of improving spreading of these peptides throughout the ...


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. Feb 2017

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.