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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao Oct 2013

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Engineering synthetic multicellular systems will lead to new synthetic biology technological platforms, inform developmental biology through recapitulation of natural systems and possibly unveil novel morphologies with practical applications not before reached throughout natural history (Maharbiz, 2012). Creating an exogenous molecular circuit that will polarize unicellular cells into “apical” and “basal” domains relative to a substrate plane would fulfill a missing component towards fully multicellular synthetic cellular communities (Maharbiz, 2012). To this end, a PIP3 polarization network previously designed by Chau and associates (Chau, Walter, Gerardin, Tang, Lim 2012) was coupled to the specific activation by niacin of a recombinant ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Fsh Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis, Peter L. Jones, Takako I. Jones May 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Of Fsh Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis, Peter L. Jones, Takako I. Jones

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Discussion of a new research initiative at UMass Medical School focused on the pathogenesis of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) and efforts towards diagnostics and therapeutics. This presentation is part of the retreat mini-symposium entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathogenesis and the Road to Therapeutics.


Dux4 Target Gene Expression In Mouse Muscle Transplanted With Muscle Cells From Fshd Patients, James A. Windelborn, Charles P. Emerson, Jr. May 2013

Dux4 Target Gene Expression In Mouse Muscle Transplanted With Muscle Cells From Fshd Patients, James A. Windelborn, Charles P. Emerson, Jr.

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent forms of muscular dystrophy. However, because of the unique nature of the genetic abnormality underlying the disease, there is currently no widely available laboratory model. In order to gain insights into FSHD molecular pathology, we developed a xenograft model by transplanting myogenic cells from patients with FSHD (4qA contractions) as well as from their unaffected relatives into the tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient mice. Our findings show that muscle xenografts derived from FSHD myogenic cells express Dux4 target genes, recapitulating the expression of these disease biomarkers in muscle biopsies of ...


Activation Of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egrf) Is Required For Cxcl12 Mediated Erk And Akt Signaling During Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Activation Of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egrf) Is Required For Cxcl12 Mediated Erk And Akt Signaling During Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), a condition of the prostate common in aging in men, is associated with urinary voiding dysfunction, or Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). Although inflammation and abnormal muscle contraction are known to be key players in the development of LUTS, tissue fibrosis may also be an important and previously unrecognized contributing factor. Tissue fibrosis arises from the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which produce and secrete collagens and fibronectins that remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). This differentiation process is usually accomplished by activation of the TGF-β/TGFβRII axis. However, in this study we report that the CXC-type ...


Obesity-Induced Diabetes And Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction In A Mouse Model, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Obesity-Induced Diabetes And Lower Urinary Tract Fibrosis Promote Urinary Voiding Dysfunction In A Mouse Model, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Progressive aging- and inflammation-associated fibrosis effectively remodels the extracellular matrix to increase prostate tissue stiffness and reduce urethral flexibility, resulting in urinary flow obstruction and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). In the current study we sought to test whether senescence-accelerated mouse prone (SAMP)6 mice, which were reported to develop prostatic fibrosis, would also develop LUTS, and whether these symptoms would be exacerbated by diet-induced obesity and concurrent Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: To accomplish this, SAMP6 and AKR/J background strain mice were fed regular mouse chow, low fat diet chow, or high fat diet chow for ...


Cxcl-Type Chemokines−Induced Fibrosis In The Lower Urinary Tract, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Cxcl-Type Chemokines−Induced Fibrosis In The Lower Urinary Tract, Mehrnaz Gharaee−Kermani, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

No abstract provided.


Estrogen Receptor Beta Selectively Restricts Proliferation And Favors Surveillance In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Karen A. Dunphy, Erick Roman-Perez, Rehaneh Hooshyar, Mary J. Hagen, Amy L. Roberts, Mara Isel Guerrero-Zayas, D. Joseph Jerry May 2013

Estrogen Receptor Beta Selectively Restricts Proliferation And Favors Surveillance In Mammary Epithelial Cells, Karen A. Dunphy, Erick Roman-Perez, Rehaneh Hooshyar, Mary J. Hagen, Amy L. Roberts, Mara Isel Guerrero-Zayas, D. Joseph Jerry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Estrogen (17β-estradiol) has paradoxical effects in both promoting and preventing breast cancer as estrogen activates proliferation, but also promotes p53-mediated surveillance pathways. Estrogen mediates its effects in target tissues through the activation of estrogen receptor subtypes: ERα and ERβ. To examine the capability of these receptors in mediating surveillance as opposed to proliferation, selective estrogen receptor agonists were compared with 17β-estradiol for induction of proliferation and radiation induced apoptosis in vivo. Transcriptional regulation of estrogen-responsive genes was also compared in mouse mammary epithelium in vivo and in the human mammary MCF7 cell line transduced with a repressible ERβ. Selective activation ...


Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden Mar 2013

Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is the continuous flow of cytoplasm and organelles throughout the cell, with the first observation of cytoplasmic streaming being publicized in 1774. However, the mechanism of cytoplasmic streaming remained unclear until components of the cytoskeleton were researched. Research now supports that the motive force generating cytoplasmic streaming is the interaction of myosin XI motor proteins with organelles while sliding along actin filaments. From this, a key topic of interest is how myosin driven organelle movement is regulated. Our research focuses on whether phosphorylation affects the regulation of myosin XI motor proteins. Specifically, the goal of ...