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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

#3 - Generation Of Sult4a1 Gene Mutations In Sh-Sy5y Cells, Elisabeth Bradberry, Frank Crittenden Nov 2019

#3 - Generation Of Sult4a1 Gene Mutations In Sh-Sy5y Cells, Elisabeth Bradberry, Frank Crittenden

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULT) are a superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the metabolism of various substrates throughout the body. One member, SULT4A1, has no known substrates and is highly conserved among all vertebrates which is not a shared characteristic among the SULT family. Also unique among the SULTs, SULT4A1 localizes with mitochondria of neurons. Recent reports have suggested that this protein is believed play a protective role against oxidative stress. The goal of this project was to generate a SH-SY5Y cell line with a SULT4A1 gene deletion using CRISPR gene-editing technology. These neuroblastoma cells were used because of their ease ...


#7 - The Role Of Rnf216/Triad3 In Neuroinflammation Through Interactions With Toll-Like-Receptors, Dustin Grossman Nov 2019

#7 - The Role Of Rnf216/Triad3 In Neuroinflammation Through Interactions With Toll-Like-Receptors, Dustin Grossman

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Ubiquitin E3 ligases are enzymes that mark certain substrates with ubiquitin proteins which leads to different cellular fates. Ring finger protein 216 (RNF216) is a ubiquitin E3 ligase that is involved in synaptic plasticity, inhibiting cellular autophagy, and the immune response in the peripheral nervous system. Previous literature has demonstrated that RNF216 participates in various aspects of inflammation by regulating ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 1 (RIPK1), toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein (TIRAP), and TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF), targeting TNF receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3) for degradation. TLRs initiate signal transduction pathways which can lead ...


Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D. Jun 2019

Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D.

Western Research Forum

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, one of many different protein signaling pathways found in mammals, is vital in many stage of neural development. A major negative regulator of Hh signaling is a protein known as Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), which acts to sequester the full length Gli transcription factors, proteins that can turn genes on and off, in the cytoplasm or facilitates its conversion to a repressive form. The P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line is a model of hind-brain neuronal differentiation and the involvement of Hh signaling, in particular the role of SUFU in this process has yet to be explored. We ...


Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann Mar 2019

Ultrafine Carbon Nanoparticles Activate Inflammasome Signaling And Cell Death In Murine Macrophages, Alexander Soloniuk, Hadley Lamascus, Jay Brewster, John Mann

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Carbon black (CB) is the primary nanoparticulate component of air pollution from fossil fuel combustion. This work examines the cellular impact of ultrafine carbon (carbon black, CB) nanoparticles, that range in size down to 30 nm, upon murine macrophages. The size analysis of the carbon black nanoparticles was performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. RAW246.7 macrophage cells were exposed to CB doses ranging from 50 – 200 ug/ml in complete media. Analysis of cell survival over time revealed elevated rates of significant nuclear degradation and cell lifting after 48 hours of exposure, and ...


Combined High-Speed Single Particle Tracking Of Membrane Proteins And Super-Resolution Of Membrane-Associated Structures, Hanieh Mazloom Farsibaf, Keith A. Lidke Nov 2018

Combined High-Speed Single Particle Tracking Of Membrane Proteins And Super-Resolution Of Membrane-Associated Structures, Hanieh Mazloom Farsibaf, Keith A. Lidke

Shared Knowledge Conference

Many experiments have shown that the diffusive motion of lipids and membrane proteins are slower on the cell surface than those in artificial lipid bilayers or blebs. One hypothesis that may partially explain this mystery is the effect of the cytoskeleton structures on the protein dynamics. A model proposed by Kusumi [1] is the Fence-Picket Model which describes the cell membrane as a set of compartment regions, each ~ 10 to 200 nm in size, created by direct or indirect interaction of lipids and proteins with actin filaments just below the membrane. To test this hypothesis, we have assembled a high-speed ...


Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen Aug 2018

Structural And Functional Characterization Of Hyper-Phosphorylated Grk5 Protein Expressed From E. Coli, Joseph M. Krampen, John Tesmer, Qiuyan Chen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) are proteins in the cell responsible for regulating GPCRs located on the cell membrane. GRKs regulate active GPCRs by phosphorylating them at certain sites which causes them to stop normal signaling on the membrane. This ultimately affects how the cell responds to its environment. GRK5 is a kinase of particular interest due to its involvement in the pathology of diseases such as cardiac failure, cancers, and diabetes. Understanding the structure and function of GRK5 is essential for discovering ways to manipulate its behavior with these diseases, but not much is known about how GRK5 ...


Mathematical Modeling Of Nutrient Signaling And Growth In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Amogh P. Jalihal, Pavel Kraikivski, T.M. Murali, John J. Tyson Jun 2018

Mathematical Modeling Of Nutrient Signaling And Growth In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Amogh P. Jalihal, Pavel Kraikivski, T.M. Murali, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno Apr 2018

Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Plasmodesmata (PD) are pores that traverse plant cell walls, providing a route for intercellular trafficking of essential metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules between adjacent plant cells, thereby aiding communication. The increased size exclusion limit 2 (ise2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has an increased abundance of branched PD, as well as a greater flux of intercellular trafficking. A search for proteins that interact with ISE2 identified THIOGLUCOSIDE GLUCOHYDROLASE 2 (a myrosinase). A. thaliana also encodes a second, closely-related myrosinase, TGG1. Myrosinases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, a type of secondary metabolite that are amino acid derivatives. The breakdown ...


C1qbp Inhibits Dux4-Dependent Gene Activation And Can Be Targeted With 4mu, Alec M. Desimone, Genila Bibat, Kathryn Wagner, Guido Stadler, Woodring E. Wright, John D. Leszyk, Charles P. Emerson Jr. May 2017

C1qbp Inhibits Dux4-Dependent Gene Activation And Can Be Targeted With 4mu, Alec M. Desimone, Genila Bibat, Kathryn Wagner, Guido Stadler, Woodring E. Wright, John D. Leszyk, Charles P. Emerson Jr.

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

FSHD is linked to the misexpression of the DUX4 gene contained within the D4Z4 repeat array on chromosome 4. The gene encodes the DUX4 protein, a cytotoxic transcription factor that presumably causes the symptoms of the disease. However, individuals have been identified who express DUX4 in their muscle biopsies, but who remain asymptomatic, suggesting that there are other factors that modify FSHD penetrance or severity. We hypothesized that an FSHD-modifying factor would physically interact with DUX4, and we took a proteomic approach to identify DUX4-interacting proteins. We identified the multifunctional C1QBP protein as one such factor. C1QBP is known to ...


Pt-Mal-Lhrh Mediates Breast Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Through Increased Apoptosis, Kendall E. Collins Nov 2016

Pt-Mal-Lhrh Mediates Breast Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Through Increased Apoptosis, Kendall E. Collins

Posters-at-the-Capitol

In the United States one in eight women will be afflicted with breast cancer. It is estimated that in 2016 there will be approximately 246,600 new invasive breast cancer cases and 61,000 new non-invasive cases. Triple negative breast cancers account for 15% of all breast cancers and are significantly more aggressive than other subtypes. Treatment options for triple negative breast cancer are limited due to the cancers not expressing the estrogen, progestogen, or herceptin receptors making them unresponsive to hormonal therapy. Our recent work centers around developing a novel chemotherapeutic agent that will direct therapy selectively to triple ...


Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins Jun 2016

Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Characterization Of Neutrophils And Macrophages From Ex Vivo Cultured Murine Bone Marrow For Morphologic Maturation And Functional Responses By Imaging Flow Cytometry, Klaudia Szymczak, Margery G.H. Pelletier, Anna M. Barbeau, Kevin O'Fallon, Peter Gaines May 2016

Characterization Of Neutrophils And Macrophages From Ex Vivo Cultured Murine Bone Marrow For Morphologic Maturation And Functional Responses By Imaging Flow Cytometry, Klaudia Szymczak, Margery G.H. Pelletier, Anna M. Barbeau, Kevin O'Fallon, Peter Gaines

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Neutrophils and macrophages differentiate from common myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow, where they undergo unique nuclear morphologic changes as they mature into fully functional phagocytes. These changes include condensation of chromatin, the most pronounced exhibited by mature neutrophils. Both myeloid cells acquire multiple functions critical to their ability to kill pathogens, including phagocytosis, the production of proteolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and in the case of neutrophils, release of nuclear material known as nuclear extracellular traps (NETs). Studies on these functions often rely on the use of cells acquired from mature mouse tissues, but these tend to ...


Reverse Gyrase Is Not Necessary For Survival Of Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus Furiosus, Farshid Taghizadeh, Michael S. Bartlett May 2015

Reverse Gyrase Is Not Necessary For Survival Of Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus Furiosus, Farshid Taghizadeh, Michael S. Bartlett

Student Research Symposium

Reverse gyrase is the only known topoisomerase enzyme with positive supercoiling activity on covalently-closed DNA. This positive supercoiling is required to prevent DNA from denaturation at high temperatures. The gene that codes for this protein is present in all hyperthermophiles and absent from all mesophilic and thermophilic genomes, suggesting that this enzyme is the only hyperthermophile-specific protein. To investigate if this protein is vital for the cells, we knocked out its gene from the genome of living organism Pyrococcus furiosus. Pyrococcus furiosus is a hyperthermophilic archaeon that grows between 70°C to 103°C with an optimum growth temperature of ...


Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold Apr 2014

Investigating Mitochondrial Protein Trafficking In Crithidia Fasciculata, Jeremiah Arnold

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Molecular Mechanisms Of Fsh Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis, Peter L. Jones, Takako I. Jones May 2013

Molecular Mechanisms Of Fsh Muscular Dystrophy Pathogenesis, Peter L. Jones, Takako I. Jones

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Discussion of a new research initiative at UMass Medical School focused on the pathogenesis of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) and efforts towards diagnostics and therapeutics. This presentation is part of the retreat mini-symposium entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathogenesis and the Road to Therapeutics.


Dux4 Target Gene Expression In Mouse Muscle Transplanted With Muscle Cells From Fshd Patients, James A. Windelborn, Charles P. Emerson, Jr. May 2013

Dux4 Target Gene Expression In Mouse Muscle Transplanted With Muscle Cells From Fshd Patients, James A. Windelborn, Charles P. Emerson, Jr.

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most prevalent forms of muscular dystrophy. However, because of the unique nature of the genetic abnormality underlying the disease, there is currently no widely available laboratory model. In order to gain insights into FSHD molecular pathology, we developed a xenograft model by transplanting myogenic cells from patients with FSHD (4qA contractions) as well as from their unaffected relatives into the tibialis anterior muscles of immunodeficient mice. Our findings show that muscle xenografts derived from FSHD myogenic cells express Dux4 target genes, recapitulating the expression of these disease biomarkers in muscle biopsies of ...


Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden Mar 2013

Phosphorylation Regulates Myosin Driven Organelle Movements, Peter Andrew Duden

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells is the continuous flow of cytoplasm and organelles throughout the cell, with the first observation of cytoplasmic streaming being publicized in 1774. However, the mechanism of cytoplasmic streaming remained unclear until components of the cytoskeleton were researched. Research now supports that the motive force generating cytoplasmic streaming is the interaction of myosin XI motor proteins with organelles while sliding along actin filaments. From this, a key topic of interest is how myosin driven organelle movement is regulated. Our research focuses on whether phosphorylation affects the regulation of myosin XI motor proteins. Specifically, the goal of ...


The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos Apr 2011

The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Anthrax infection starts with germination of Bacillus anthracis spores in macrophages. Some bacteria, including B. anthracis, can sporulate in response to environmental stress, such as starvation. During germination, large concentrations of calcium ions are released from the B. anthracis spore. Calcium ions are hydrophilic secondary messengers, and may therefore interfere with detection of the spore by confusing the cell signaling pathways. We investigated calcium release on infected macrophage viability by replacing the calcium stored in B. anthracis spores for other cations via demineralization/remineralization. It was discovered that calcium ions typically out-performed other cations in germination of B. anthracis.