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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D. Jun 2019

Knocking Out A Negative Regulator Of Hedgehog Signaling Blocks Differentiation Of Cells Into Neurons, Danielle Margaret Spice, Gregory M. Kelly Ph.D.

Western Research Forum

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, one of many different protein signaling pathways found in mammals, is vital in many stage of neural development. A major negative regulator of Hh signaling is a protein known as Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), which acts to sequester the full length Gli transcription factors, proteins that can turn genes on and off, in the cytoplasm or facilitates its conversion to a repressive form. The P19 embryonal carcinoma cell line is a model of hind-brain neuronal differentiation and the involvement of Hh signaling, in particular the role of SUFU in this process has yet to be explored. We ...


A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald Apr 2019

A Screen For Genetic Modifiers Of Protein Phosphatase 1 Function In Drosophila Collective Cell Cohesion And Migration, Carmen F. Del Real, Yujun Chen, Marissa Komp, Jocelyn A. Mcdonald

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Cells can migrate collectively in tightly or loosely-associated groups during tissue and organ formation, during embryonic development, in tumor metastases, and in wound healing. Drosophilaborder cellsserve as an excellent genetic model of collective cell migration inside a developing tissue. During ovarian development, 6-8 cells form the border cell cluster and migrate together as a cohesive group to reach the large oocyte. Previous experiments have shown that Nuclear inhibitor of Protein Serine Threonine Phosphatase 1 (NiPP1) causes border cells to separate into single cells, rather than stay in a group, and limits their ability to migrate. NiPP1 inhibits the ...


Translating Dosage Compensation To Trisomy 21, Jun Jiang, Yuanchun Jing, Gregory J. Cost, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Heather J. Kolpa, Allison M. Cotton, Dawn M. Carone, Benjamin R. Carone, Meg Byron, Philip D. Gregory, Carolyn J. Brown, Fyodor D. Urnov, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence May 2016

Translating Dosage Compensation To Trisomy 21, Jun Jiang, Yuanchun Jing, Gregory J. Cost, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Heather J. Kolpa, Allison M. Cotton, Dawn M. Carone, Benjamin R. Carone, Meg Byron, Philip D. Gregory, Carolyn J. Brown, Fyodor D. Urnov, Lisa L. Hall, Jeanne B. Lawrence

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Down syndrome is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disabilities, occurring in 1 out of 700 live births. Given that Down syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that involves over-expression of 400 genes across a whole chromosome, it precludes any possibility of a genetic therapy. Our lab has long studied the natural dosage compensation mechanism for X chromosome inactivation. To “dosage compensate” X-linked genes between females and males, the X-linked XIST gene produces a large non-coding RNA that silences one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. The initial motivation of this study was to ...


Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve Aug 2015

Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The field of regenerative medicine seeks to create replacement tissues and organs, both to repair deficiencies in biological function and to treat structural damage caused by injury. Scaffoldings mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM), the structure to which cells attach to form tissues, have been developed from synthetic polymers and also been prepared by decellularizing adult tissue. However, the structure of ECM undergoes significant remodeling during natural tissue repair, suggesting that ECM-replacement constructs that mirror developing tissues may promote better regeneration than those modeled on adult tissues. This work investigated the effectiveness of a method of viewing the extracellular matrix of developing ...


Detection Of Ubiquitination On Syk And Documenting Syk Stability, Izabela Mazur, Wen Horng Wang, Robert J. Geahlen Aug 2015

Detection Of Ubiquitination On Syk And Documenting Syk Stability, Izabela Mazur, Wen Horng Wang, Robert J. Geahlen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Post-translational modifications regulate the activities of proteins important to numerous diseases. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is particularly interesting to researchers because it modifies many targets and plays multiple roles in regulating cells in our bodies and its abnormal modifications may contribute to cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and allergies. In an attempt to study these modifications of Syk, we first looked at detecting ubiquitination on Syk protein. Ubiquitin, a small 8 kDa molecule, attaches to lysine residues on protein. The attachment of ubiquitin to Syk may cause Syk to either propagate signals onwards to activate other proteins or signal it to ...


Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li Aug 2014

Electrophoresis Staining: A New Method Of Whole Mount Staining, Mitchell G. Ayers, Sarah Calve, Zhiyu Li

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Advances in tissue clearing techniques have allowed almost a ten-fold increase in the viewing depth of confocal microscopy. This allows for intact cellular structures to be rendered in 3D. However, viewing tissues to this depth is often limited to endogenous fluorescence as passive diffusion of antibodies via whole mount staining can take weeks. Our lab is developing a new method involving electrophoresis as a driving force that will promote active antibody binding deep into tissue, reducing the amount of time needed to stain for cellular structures. Due to the inherent charge within antibodies, they are able to be directionally forced ...


Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown May 2014

Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve loss of functional pancreatic B-cells which is driving research into potential replacement sources. Expansion of functional B-cell mass, such as through induction of B-cell neogenesis or through transdifferentiation of A-cells into functional B-cells represent appealing therapeutic solutions to restoring glucose control. To date, however, these processes have been induced through genetic manipulation or severe pancreatic injury. It remains to be determined whether transdifferentiation or neogenesis contribute to functional B-cell mass under normal physiological conditions and/or contribute to B-cell expansion and how these processes are regulated.

We have reported that inactivation of ...


The Role Of Maternally Supplied Cell Death Components In Primordial Germ Cell Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Danielle Pohl Apr 2014

The Role Of Maternally Supplied Cell Death Components In Primordial Germ Cell Development Of Drosophila Melanogaster, Danielle Pohl

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

During development, Drosophila melanogaster primordial germ cells migrate from the posterior pole to the somatic gonadal precursor cells, where they form the gonads. During this migratory process, about half of the germ cells die via an unknown mechanism. Maternally supplied gene products play a large role in germ cell development. The mother deposits mRNA into the egg, which is expressed prior to embryonic transcriptional activation. This project investigates the contribution of maternally supplied cell death components on the primordial germ cell development in the embryo. In particular, the apoptotic pathway is under investigation. To generate maternal loss-of-function conditions, germ line ...