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Articles 1 - 9 of 9

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde May 2017

Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The method of phagocytosis of a particle can provide information on how macrophages respond to a detected particle. The response elicited varies based on the nature of the particle and in turn changes which receptor-mediated phagocytosis is initiated. We have developed a multi-well cell-based sensor that can monitor real-time biological changes in living cells, such as mass redistribution, and viscoelasticity. This system provides unique kinetic information regarding the phenotypic change in the cells post treatment. As a proof of principle study, we evaluate macrophage phagocytosis using three different particles: latex beads, Zymosan A, and Staphylococcus aureus. These studies show the ...


Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model Mar 2017

Calibrated Brightfield-Based Imaging For Measuring Intracellular Protein Concentration, Nathan Mudrak, Priyanka S. Rana, Michael A. Model

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Intracellular protein concentration is an essential cell characteristic which manifests itself through the refractive index. The latter can be measured from two or more mutually defocused brightfield images analyzed using the TIE (transport-of-intensity equation). In practice, however, TIE does not always achieve quantitatively accurate results on biological cells. Therefore, we have developed a calibration procedure that involves successive imaging of cells in solutions containing different amounts of added protein. This allows one to directly relate the output of TIE (T) to intracellular protein concentration C (g/l). The resultant relationship has a simple form: C ≈ 1.0(T/V), where ...


Activin Limits Progenitor Capability By Promoting Epithelial Cell Differentiation In The Mammary Gland, Karen A. Dunphy, Thiruppavai Chandrasekaran, Niraj Bhatt, Michelle Chen, Amy L. Roberts, Mary Hagen, D. Joseph Jerry May 2014

Activin Limits Progenitor Capability By Promoting Epithelial Cell Differentiation In The Mammary Gland, Karen A. Dunphy, Thiruppavai Chandrasekaran, Niraj Bhatt, Michelle Chen, Amy L. Roberts, Mary Hagen, D. Joseph Jerry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and activin utilize common signaling pathways, via smad2/3 and smad4, to mediate tumor suppression by effecting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Differences in temporal expression patterns suggest that each cytokine has specific roles in mammary gland development. Activin is expressed during pregnancy and lactation and is required for branching and lactogenesis, implying a role in mammary gland maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta is expressed during involution during mammary gland regression and functions to re-organize the mammary epithelial content to the non-lactating state. Previously, we found that TGF-beta and activin do share common signaling pathways allowing ...


High Performance Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Tissue Scaffolds, Artem B. Kutikov, Jie Song May 2014

High Performance Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Tissue Scaffolds, Artem B. Kutikov, Jie Song

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

There is a critical clinical need for alternatives to autograft and allograft bone for over 500,000 bone grafting operations performed each year in the United States. Current synthetic bone grafts suffer from poor handling characteristics, brittle mechanical properties, and inconsistent bioactivity. By blending a biodegradable amphiphilic polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA), the main mineral component in bone, we developed an improved synthetic bone graft. The polymer/HA composites were fabricated in both 2-D and 3-D forms by electrospinning and 3-D printing. These materials exhibited unique handling characteristics such as high tensile elasticity (>200% failure strain) and self-stiffening properties upon hydration ...


Pericyte Nf-Κb Activation Enhances Endothelial Cell Proliferation And Proangiogenic Cytokine Secretion, Katherine E. Labarbera, Robert D. Hyldahl, Sarah Witkowski May 2014

Pericyte Nf-Κb Activation Enhances Endothelial Cell Proliferation And Proangiogenic Cytokine Secretion, Katherine E. Labarbera, Robert D. Hyldahl, Sarah Witkowski

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pericytes are skeletal muscle resident, multipotent stem cells that are localized to capillaries. They respond to damage through activation of nuclear-factor kappa-B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that regulates many cellular processes including inflammation. Research has shown that pericyte NF-κB activation positively affects myoblast proliferation. It is unknown how pericyte NF-κB affects signaling and proliferation of endothelial cells, an important component of muscle tissue microcirculation.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of altered pericyte NF-κB activity on endothelial cell proliferation and identify inflammatory factors involved in this cell-cell signaling.

METHODS: Human primary pericytes were transfected with vectors designed to increase or decrease ...


Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Rna Interference And Mirna Mimic, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence N. Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo May 2014

Exosome-Mediated Delivery Of Rna Interference And Mirna Mimic, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala, Terence N. Bukong, Gyongyi Szabo

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Exosomes, membranous nanovesicles, naturally carry bio-macromolecules and play pivotal roles in both physiological intercellular crosstalk and disease pathogenesis. Here, we showed that B cell-derived exosomes can function as vehicles to deliver exogenous miRNA-155 mimic or inhibitor into hepatocytes or macrophages, respectively. Stimulation of B cells significantly increased exosome production. Unlike in parental cells, baseline level of miRNA-155 was very low in exosomes derived from stimulated B cells. Exosomes loaded with a miRNA-155 mimic significantly increased miRNA-155 levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and the liver of miRNA-155 knockout mice. Treatment of RAW macrophages with miRNA-155 inhibitor loaded exosomes resulted in statistically ...


Anti-Ppkcθ (T538) Delivery Via Cell Penetrating Peptide Mimics As A Novel Treatment Of Aplastic Anemia, Emrah Ilker Ozay, Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Joe Torres, Gregory N. Tew, Lisa M. Minter May 2014

Anti-Ppkcθ (T538) Delivery Via Cell Penetrating Peptide Mimics As A Novel Treatment Of Aplastic Anemia, Emrah Ilker Ozay, Gabriela Gonzalez-Perez, Joe Torres, Gregory N. Tew, Lisa M. Minter

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The objective of this study is to deliver anti-pPKCθ (T538) into T cells (hPBMCs) by using cell penetrating peptide mimics (CPPMs) to neutralize PKCθ activity both in vitro and in vivo, with the eventual goal of treating aplastic anemia (AA). AA is an immune-mediated bone marrow failure disease caused by T helper type 1 (Th1) autoimmune responses, which destroy blood cell progenitors. It was previously reported that protein kinase C theta (PKCθ), expressed specifically in T cells, plays an important role in T cell signaling by mediating Th1 differentiation. Mice treated with Rottlerin, a pharmacological inhibitor of PKCθ, are rescued ...


Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown May 2014

Transdifferentiation Of Α- To Β-Cells Is Enhanced In Fstl3 Ko Mice, Alan Schneyer, Danielle Andrzejewski, Amy Burnside, Melissa Brown

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes involve loss of functional pancreatic B-cells which is driving research into potential replacement sources. Expansion of functional B-cell mass, such as through induction of B-cell neogenesis or through transdifferentiation of A-cells into functional B-cells represent appealing therapeutic solutions to restoring glucose control. To date, however, these processes have been induced through genetic manipulation or severe pancreatic injury. It remains to be determined whether transdifferentiation or neogenesis contribute to functional B-cell mass under normal physiological conditions and/or contribute to B-cell expansion and how these processes are regulated.

We have reported that inactivation of ...


Activation Of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egrf) Is Required For Cxcl12 Mediated Erk And Akt Signaling During Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska May 2013

Activation Of The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (Egrf) Is Required For Cxcl12 Mediated Erk And Akt Signaling During Prostate Myofibroblast Phenoconversion, Jose A. Rodriguez-Nieves, Jill A. Macoska

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), a condition of the prostate common in aging in men, is associated with urinary voiding dysfunction, or Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS). Although inflammation and abnormal muscle contraction are known to be key players in the development of LUTS, tissue fibrosis may also be an important and previously unrecognized contributing factor. Tissue fibrosis arises from the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, which produce and secrete collagens and fibronectins that remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM). This differentiation process is usually accomplished by activation of the TGF-β/TGFβRII axis. However, in this study we report that the CXC-type ...