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Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde May 2017

Invitro-Q: A High-Throughput Biosensor Used To Evaluate The Mechanism Of Phagocytosis Of Macrophages Using Different Particles, Marynawal Abdou, Abiche H. Dewilde

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The method of phagocytosis of a particle can provide information on how macrophages respond to a detected particle. The response elicited varies based on the nature of the particle and in turn changes which receptor-mediated phagocytosis is initiated. We have developed a multi-well cell-based sensor that can monitor real-time biological changes in living cells, such as mass redistribution, and viscoelasticity. This system provides unique kinetic information regarding the phenotypic change in the cells post treatment. As a proof of principle study, we evaluate macrophage phagocytosis using three different particles: latex beads, Zymosan A, and Staphylococcus aureus. These studies show the ...


Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry May 2017

Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

To evaluate the performance of various designs of crossflow filtration microfluidic devices, blood flow was modeled using computational fluid dynamics software (COMSOL Multiphysics). Velocity profiles were generated and used to analyze four critical design parameters: pillar size, pillar shape, gap size, and wall length. These parameters were optimized to yield greatest flow from an unfiltered main channel into two filtered side channels of the device, thereby maximizing filtration capacity.

Devices containing pillars of 10 µm diameter yielded a significantly greater filtration capacity than devices with pillars of 20 µm diameter. Flow patterns from the main channel to the side channels ...


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. Feb 2017

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


Microengineering Approaches For Regenerative Medicine, Yubing Sun May 2016

Microengineering Approaches For Regenerative Medicine, Yubing Sun

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Stem cells, especially human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), hold significant promise for modeling developmental and disease processes, drug and toxicology screening, and cell-based regenerative medicine. Most hPSC studies have so far focused on identifying extrinsic soluble factors, intracellular signaling pathways, and transcriptional regulatory networks involved in regulating hPSC behaviors. We focus on the development and applications of some novel synthetic micromechanical systems to understand the mechano-sensitive and -responsive properties of hPSCs and their functional regulation of self-renewal, directed differentiation, and survival of hPSCs. First, we have demonstrated that rigid PDMS micropost arrays (PMAs) support the maintenance of pluripotency of hPSCs ...


Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve Aug 2015

Viewing The Extracellular Matrix: An Imaging Method For Tissue Engineering, Michael Drakopoulos, Sarah Calve

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The field of regenerative medicine seeks to create replacement tissues and organs, both to repair deficiencies in biological function and to treat structural damage caused by injury. Scaffoldings mimicking extracellular matrix (ECM), the structure to which cells attach to form tissues, have been developed from synthetic polymers and also been prepared by decellularizing adult tissue. However, the structure of ECM undergoes significant remodeling during natural tissue repair, suggesting that ECM-replacement constructs that mirror developing tissues may promote better regeneration than those modeled on adult tissues. This work investigated the effectiveness of a method of viewing the extracellular matrix of developing ...


High Performance Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Tissue Scaffolds, Artem B. Kutikov, Jie Song May 2014

High Performance Amphiphilic Polymer/Hydroxyapatite Composite Tissue Scaffolds, Artem B. Kutikov, Jie Song

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

There is a critical clinical need for alternatives to autograft and allograft bone for over 500,000 bone grafting operations performed each year in the United States. Current synthetic bone grafts suffer from poor handling characteristics, brittle mechanical properties, and inconsistent bioactivity. By blending a biodegradable amphiphilic polymer with hydroxyapatite (HA), the main mineral component in bone, we developed an improved synthetic bone graft. The polymer/HA composites were fabricated in both 2-D and 3-D forms by electrospinning and 3-D printing. These materials exhibited unique handling characteristics such as high tensile elasticity (>200% failure strain) and self-stiffening properties upon hydration ...


Multiple Approaches To Determine Toxicity Of Micro And Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide Materials When Exposed To Human Red Blood Cells, Aaron Stella, Shu-Feng Hsieh, Dhimiter Bello, Daniel Schmidt, Eugene Rodgers May 2014

Multiple Approaches To Determine Toxicity Of Micro And Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide Materials When Exposed To Human Red Blood Cells, Aaron Stella, Shu-Feng Hsieh, Dhimiter Bello, Daniel Schmidt, Eugene Rodgers

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Introduction: The utility of engineered nanomaterials’ is growing, particularly the titanium dioxide (TiO2) polymorphs. TiO2 is very useful for brightening paints, and coloring foods. Nano-sized TiO2 is also useful for sunscreens, cosmetics, and can be utilized as a photocatalyst. However, the nanometer size and the large specific surface area of the TiO2 materials are physicochemical characteristics which may contribute to human red blood cell (RBC) damage. Using RBCs as a cellular model, we have evaluated the effects of TiO2 nanoparticle exposure to RBCs by quantifying oxidized glutathione, oxidized membrane vitamin E, hemolysis, hemoglobin adsorption, and cellular aggregation. Results: Red blood ...


Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao Oct 2013

Artificial Yeast Polarization Controlled By Chemical Gradient, James K. Nolan, Bernard Tao

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Engineering synthetic multicellular systems will lead to new synthetic biology technological platforms, inform developmental biology through recapitulation of natural systems and possibly unveil novel morphologies with practical applications not before reached throughout natural history (Maharbiz, 2012). Creating an exogenous molecular circuit that will polarize unicellular cells into “apical” and “basal” domains relative to a substrate plane would fulfill a missing component towards fully multicellular synthetic cellular communities (Maharbiz, 2012). To this end, a PIP3 polarization network previously designed by Chau and associates (Chau, Walter, Gerardin, Tang, Lim 2012) was coupled to the specific activation by niacin of a recombinant ...