Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Wayne State University Dissertations

Articles 1 - 30 of 50

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Appropriate Preconditioning Of The Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Inhibits Preterm Labor, Judith Ann Ingles Jan 2018

Appropriate Preconditioning Of The Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Inhibits Preterm Labor, Judith Ann Ingles

Wayne State University Dissertations

Introduction: In this study, we are testing the overarching hypothesis that preconditioning the myometrial UPR allows for the maintenance of non-apoptotic CASP3 activity and thus sustains uterine quiescence. We have previously demonstrated that the pregnant uterus facilitates uterine quiescence through UPR mediated activation of non-apoptotic CASP3, yet the mechanism in which CASP3 utilizes to avoid its apoptotic cell fate is unresolved. There is a growing body of evidence including our own that demonstrates remote and direct preconditioning with minor stresses propagates cytoprotective mechanisms that allow for the avoidance of apoptotic cell death upon exposure to a subsequent more damaging stress ...


Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Nkcc2 Endocytosis, Thick Ascending Limb Function, Blood Pressure Regulation And Metabolic Function, Ankita Bachhawat Jaykumar Jan 2017

Role Of Alström Syndrome 1 (Alms1) In Nkcc2 Endocytosis, Thick Ascending Limb Function, Blood Pressure Regulation And Metabolic Function, Ankita Bachhawat Jaykumar

Wayne State University Dissertations

NaCl absorption by the Thick Ascending Limb (TAL) is mediated by the apical Na+/K+/2Cl- co-transporter, NKCC2. Increased NKCC2 activity and apical trafficking are associated to salt sensitive hypertension in rodents and humans. NKCC2 endocytosis is important for maintaining surface NKCC2 such that blocking NKCC2 endocytosis increased NKCC2 surface abundance and NKCC2-mediated NaCl reabsorption. Despite its importance, NKCC2 endocytosis has been poorly studied and a part of the reason may be attributed to the lack of availability of methods with good time resolution. Hence, we developed a method to image apical NKCC2 to monitor its endocytosis in real-time by ...


Biomaterials Approaches For Utilizing The Regenerative Potential Of The Peripheral Nerve Injury Microenvironment, Melissa Renee Wrobel Jan 2017

Biomaterials Approaches For Utilizing The Regenerative Potential Of The Peripheral Nerve Injury Microenvironment, Melissa Renee Wrobel

Wayne State University Dissertations

Clinically available treatments are insufficient to achieve full functional recovery in large (>3cm) peripheral nerve injuries (PNI). The objectives in this thesis were 1) to study often overlooked elements of intrinsic PNI repair including release of inhibitory CSPGs and post-injury responses of inflammatory macrophages and dedifferentiated Schwann cells; 2) to create biomaterial scaf-folds featuring topographical and adhesive cues to enhance neurite outgrowth; and 3) to test the ability of those cues to direct macrophages and Schwann cells towards a pro-regenerative phe-notype. It is hypothesized that recapitulating the positive and negative cues of the PNI microenvi-ronment can better improve regeneration. The ...


Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang Jan 2017

Identification Of Oxygen Optima For Mouse Trophoblast Stem Cells And Human Embryos And The Stress Responses Upon Departing Optima, Yu Yang

Wayne State University Dissertations

Low level of oxygen (O2) occurs physiologically during in vivo embryo development. As developing embryos moving from fallopian tube to uterus, oxygen level gradually decreases to ≤ 5% at the time of blastocyst implantation. Blastocysts are made of two major cell populations, trophoblast cells and inner cell mass, from which trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived respectively. TSCs serve as placental stem cells that later on proliferate and differentiate into placenta. Previous study has shown that 2% O2 is the optimal O2 level for mTSC in vitro growth and potency maintenance, which agrees with their low ...


Studies Of Sumoylation In Regulating Mif Stability And Rangap1 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling In Controlling Its Sumo Modification, Progga Sen Jan 2017

Studies Of Sumoylation In Regulating Mif Stability And Rangap1 Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Shuttling In Controlling Its Sumo Modification, Progga Sen

Wayne State University Dissertations

SUMOylation is an essential post-translational modification that regulates a variety of critical cellular pathways ranging from nuclear transport to protein stability. Accumulating lines of evidence have shown that a perturbation of the SUMOylation pathway is associated with human diseases, especially various types of cancer. Our recent proteomic studies revealed a drastic increase in levels of SUMO2/3 modification on the proinflammatory cytokine MIF in the metastatic breast cancer cell line compared to the non-metastatic control cell line. Interestingly, the increase in levels of both MIF and global SUMO-2/3 modification in the metastatic cells are positively correlated to that of ...


Folate Receptor Alpha Targeted Delivery And Characterization Of Polyethyleneimine-Graft-Polycaprolactone-Block-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Containing Sirna Micelleplexes, Steven Jones Jan 2017

Folate Receptor Alpha Targeted Delivery And Characterization Of Polyethyleneimine-Graft-Polycaprolactone-Block-Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Containing Sirna Micelleplexes, Steven Jones

Wayne State University Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the ability of polyethyleneimine-graft-polycaprolactone-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEI-g-PCL-b-PEG-Fol) folate decorated tri-block copolymers ability to deliver a targeted dose of siRNA. The micelleplexes that are formed upon electrostatic interaction with siRNA are used to deliver siRNA in a targeted manner to ovarian cancer cells that over-express Folate Receptor-α (FRα). Each conjugate showed suitable sizes below 200 nm with full siRNA condensation ability. Furthermore, flow cytometry and western blot analysis demonstrated that the best FRα targeted polymer was able to effectively deliver siRNA which resulted in protein knockdown of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Consequently, TLR4 knock down within SKOV-3 ...


Identifying The Function Of The Calpain Small Subunit In The Mechanics Of Cell Migration, Bingqing Hao Jan 2017

Identifying The Function Of The Calpain Small Subunit In The Mechanics Of Cell Migration, Bingqing Hao

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cell migration plays a vital role in many physiological events including: morphogenesis, wound healing, and immune response. Dysfunctional cell migration results in multiple disease states including chronic inflammation, vascular disease, and tumor metastasis, to name a few. Progress in understanding the mechanism of cell migration had been slow until the turn of the century when rapid technological advances in microscopy and omics burst to the forefront. These advances led to the realization that physical factors (dimensions, fluid shear stress, hydrostatic pressure, compression stress, environmental stiffness, and topography) have profound effects on cell migration. This study of cell mechanics has expanded ...


Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam Jan 2017

Effect Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress On Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Its Regulation Of Sm22Α, Neeraja Priyanka Annam

Wayne State University Dissertations

Background: The vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMC) possess the ability to differentiate into a synthetic phenotype in response to stress. This phenotypic modulation may be accompanied by inflammatory or osteogenic response in chronic stress. The synthetic state is characterized by low levels of contractile markers unlike the differentiated state.

Hypothesis: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes phenotypic modulation in VSMCs leading to apoptosis. Many transcription factors induced by ER stress contribute to the downregulation of Sm22α. Perturbation in cytoskeletal dynamics exacerbates the ER stress response.

Methods: Ex-vivo culture was used to establish importance of Sm22 in ER stress. In vitro analysis ...


Loss Of Rap1gap: A Driver In The Progression From Dcis Of The Breast To Idc, Seema Shah Jan 2016

Loss Of Rap1gap: A Driver In The Progression From Dcis Of The Breast To Idc, Seema Shah

Wayne State University Dissertations

The purpose of this study is to determine the role of Rap1Gap in the progression of DCIS (ductal carcinoma in situ) to IDC (invasive ductal cancer). We employed an in-vitro three-dimensional (3D) overlay model that provides a physiologically relevant microenvironment to study mechanisms of malignant progression. Previous studies from this laboratory aimed to determine specific gene expression changes common to three models of DCIS- MCF10.DCIS, SUM 102 and SUM 225 in comparison to MCF10A cells, a model of non-transformed human mammary epithelium. The expression of 295 genes was found to be significantly altered, with 63 being increased in expression ...


The Roles Of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Proteins Pul48 And Pul103 During Lytic Infection, Daniel Angel Ortiz Jan 2016

The Roles Of Human Cytomegalovirus Tegument Proteins Pul48 And Pul103 During Lytic Infection, Daniel Angel Ortiz

Wayne State University Dissertations

THE ROLES OF HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS TEGUMENT PROTEINS pUL48 AND pUL103 DURING LYTIC INFECTION

by

DANIEL A. ORTIZ

December 2015

Advisor: Dr. Philip E. Pellett

Major: Immunology and Microbiology

Degree: Doctor of Philosophy

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large double-stranded DNA virus that causes severe disease in newborns and immunocompromised patients. During infection, HCMV is able to reconfigure the host cell machinery to establish a virus producing factory, termed the cytoplasmic virion assembly complex (cVAC). Generating drugs that affect cVAC development or function provides an alternative mode of action for HCMV antivirals that can essentially eliminate virion production. The objective of ...


Studies Towards Broadening The Substrate Profile And Regulation Of Histone Deacetylase 1, Dhanusha Ashanthi Nalawansha Jan 2016

Studies Towards Broadening The Substrate Profile And Regulation Of Histone Deacetylase 1, Dhanusha Ashanthi Nalawansha

Wayne State University Dissertations

Aberrant expression of histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) is implicated in multiple diseases, including cancer. As a consequence, HDAC1 has emerged as an important therapeutic target for drug development. HDAC1 regulates key cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell survival, by deacetylating both histone and non-histone substrates. Due to the lack of simple tools to identify physiological substrates of HDAC1, the full spectrum of HDAC1 activities in the cell remains unclear. Here, we employed a substrate trapping strategy to identify cellular substrates of HDAC1. Using this approach, we identified mitosis-related protein Eg5 as a substrate. HDAC1 colocalizes with Eg5 ...


Hrd1 Partners In Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation, Aaron Alexander Burr Jan 2015

Hrd1 Partners In Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation, Aaron Alexander Burr

Wayne State University Dissertations

Protein Quality Control (PQC) comprises cellular pathways that regulate the turnover of short-lived, misfolded proteins. A main component of PQC is Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)-Associated Degradation (ERAD), which controls the degradation of proteins synthesized in the ER. Aberrations in ERAD have been linked to malignancies such as sarcomas, breast, and pancreatic carcinomas, as well as neurodegenerative disease. The machinery in this system is complex and while significant progress has been made to understand ERAD, it is not clear how the different components come together, or how they are regulated. HRD1 is a resident ubiquitin ligase that has been proposed as ...


Proteasome Inhibition As A Potential Anti-Breast Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms Of Action And Resistance-Reversing Strategies, Rahul Rajesinh Deshmukh Jan 2015

Proteasome Inhibition As A Potential Anti-Breast Cancer Therapy: Mechanisms Of Action And Resistance-Reversing Strategies, Rahul Rajesinh Deshmukh

Wayne State University Dissertations

AMPK activation and Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS) inhibition have gained great attention as therapeutic strategies for the treatment of certain types of cancers. While AMPK serves as a master regulator of cellular metabolism, UPS regulates protein homeostasis. Although the crosstalk between them is suggested, the relationship between these two important pathways is not very clear. We observed that proteasome inhibition leads to AMPK activation in human breast cancer cells. We report that a variety of proteasome inhibitors activate AMPK in all of the tested cancer cell lines. Our data using Liver Kinase B1 (LKB1)-deficient cancer cells suggests that proteasome ...


Adipocyte-Induced Inflammation In Prostate Tumor Progression In Bone: Role Of Cxcr2 And Osteopontin, Aimalie Lynnette Hardaway Jan 2015

Adipocyte-Induced Inflammation In Prostate Tumor Progression In Bone: Role Of Cxcr2 And Osteopontin, Aimalie Lynnette Hardaway

Wayne State University Dissertations

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. Evidence suggests that age and obesity, conditions associated with adipocyte accumulation in the bone marrow, are linked to increased risk of developing PCa and progressing to metastatic disease. Studies presented in this dissertation were based on the hypothesis that metastatic progression in bone is a result of a cooperative effort between bone marrow adipocytes, macrophages, osteoclasts, and PCa cells. We specifically focused on two adipocyte-supplied chemokines, CXCL1 and CXCL2, and bone marrow macrophage-secreted osteopontin as key drivers of pro-inflammatory environment in the bone marrow and important ...


Soy Isoflavones Mediate Radioprotection Of Normal Lung Tissue By Modulating The Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Response, Lisa Marie Abernathy Jan 2015

Soy Isoflavones Mediate Radioprotection Of Normal Lung Tissue By Modulating The Radiation-Induced Inflammatory Response, Lisa Marie Abernathy

Wayne State University Dissertations

Radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is caused by an early inflammatory process triggered by damage to lung parenchyma, epithelial cells, vascular endothelial cells and stroma. Initially, oxidative injuries after radiation induce altered expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Infiltrating inflammatory cells are stimulated and activated, producing additional mediators, resulting in a cytokine cascade. The expansion and perpetual activation of inflammatory cells, as well as lung parenchyma, lead to clinical pneumonitis. Activated cells produce molecular mediators and growth factors that affect the proliferation and gene expression of lung fibroblasts. This process leads to increased collagen synthesis and deposition, eventually leading to the development of ...


A Novel Function For 12-Lipoxygenase In C-Met And Integrin Β4 Axis Crosstalk, Elizabeth Tovar Jan 2014

A Novel Function For 12-Lipoxygenase In C-Met And Integrin Β4 Axis Crosstalk, Elizabeth Tovar

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cancer cell metastasis is the single most threatening occurrence of tumor progression and predicts patient prognosis as well as survival. Invasion can be regulated by the Met receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Met), integrin beta4, and the lipid enzyme, 12-Lipoxygenase (12-LOX). Therefore we sought to determine if beta4, c-MET and 12-LOX comprise a signaling axis. c-Met is implicated in cancer cell dissemination through regulation of invasion in EMT where cell-cell junctions are disturbed to allow motility. Furthermore, beta4 promotes cellular adhesion to the extracellular matrix through hemidesmosomes. However, the homeostatic signaling functions of beta4's cytoplasmic tail can be hijacked by growth ...


Regulation Of Nkcc2 Trafficking By Vesicle Fusion Proteins Vamp2 And Vamp3 In The Thick Ascending Limb, Paulo Sebastian Caceres Puzzella Jan 2014

Regulation Of Nkcc2 Trafficking By Vesicle Fusion Proteins Vamp2 And Vamp3 In The Thick Ascending Limb, Paulo Sebastian Caceres Puzzella

Wayne State University Dissertations

The thick ascending limb (TAL) in the kidney regulates extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. The Na/K/2Cl cotransporter NKCC2 plays a central role in NaCl absorption by the TAL and blood pressure. NKCC2 trafficking to the apical membrane is a major mechanism to control NKCC2 activity. However, little is known about the proteins that mediate NKCC2 trafficking. Inhibition of the vesicle fusion proteins VAMP2 and VAMP3 blunts the increase in surface NKCC2 expression and NaCl absorption in response to stimulation by cAMP. In other cells, VAMPs mediate fusion of exocytic vesicles with the plasma membrane. Whether VAMP2 and ...


Junctional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Protein Processing And Trafficking In Cardiac Tissue And Primary Cultured Cardiomyocytes, Naama Sleiman Jan 2014

Junctional Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Protein Processing And Trafficking In Cardiac Tissue And Primary Cultured Cardiomyocytes, Naama Sleiman

Wayne State University Dissertations

Junctional SR is an important and unique ER subdomain in the adult myocyte that releases Ca2+ through the actions of an exclusive set of resident proteins. Cardiac calsequestrin (CSQ2) undergoes two co-translational modifications: N-linked glycosylation on 316Asn, and phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 on a cluster of 3 serines in its tail. In the heart, CSQ2 molecules undergo extensive mannose trimming by ER mannosidase(s), a posttranslational process that often regulates protein breakdown. To investigate CSQ2 protein processing in cardiomyopathy models, studies were performed to test whether CSQ2 glycan structures would be altered in heart tissue from mongrel dogs induced ...


Cxcr2 Macromolecular Complex In Pancreatic Cancer: A Potential Therapeutic Target In Tumor Growth, Shuo Wang Jan 2014

Cxcr2 Macromolecular Complex In Pancreatic Cancer: A Potential Therapeutic Target In Tumor Growth, Shuo Wang

Wayne State University Dissertations

The signaling mediated by the chemokine receptor CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) plays an important role in promoting the progression of many cancers, including pancreatic cancer, one of the most lethal human malignancies. CXCR2 possesses a consensus PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1 (PDZ) motif at its carboxyl termini, which might interact with potential PDZ scaffold/adaptor proteins. We have previously reported that CXCR2 PDZ motif-mediated protein interaction is an important regulator for neutrophil functions. Here, using a series of biochemical assays, we demonstrate that CXCR2 is physically coupled to its downstream effector phospholipase C-β3 (PLC-β3) that is mediated by PDZ scaffold protein ...


Effects Of Altering The Peroxisomal Redox State In Models Of Degenerative Disease, Courtney Rose Giordano Jan 2014

Effects Of Altering The Peroxisomal Redox State In Models Of Degenerative Disease, Courtney Rose Giordano

Wayne State University Dissertations

Peroxisomes are important regulators of cellular redox balance and function as a signaling platform to regulate anti-aging metabolic and communication networks. In addition the organelle has emerged as a major player in maintaining cellular ROS at an optimal level. At such levels, these ROS are involved in initiation of signaling cascades and that produce an array of anti-aging and disease processes. However, as cells age over time, ROS amass within the peroxisome and elsewhere in the cell. This leads to an imbalance in oxidative homeostasis and results in compromised signaling networks. The goal of this dissertation was to treat disease ...


Characterization Of Adult Zebrafish Retinal Regeneration Following Two Different Damage Models, Jennifer Lee Thomas Jan 2014

Characterization Of Adult Zebrafish Retinal Regeneration Following Two Different Damage Models, Jennifer Lee Thomas

Wayne State University Dissertations

Unlike mammals, zebrafish can regenerate all of their retinal neurons through Müller glial cells, which respond to retinal damage by re-entering the cell cycle to create clusters of progenitor cells. The progenitors continue to proliferate as they migrate to the site of damage, where they ultimately differentiate into new retinal neurons. In contrast, Müller glia of the mammalian retina respond to injury with reactive gliosis, which if persistent, can lead to loss of Müller cell function and devastating vision loss. Despite this, multiple lines of evidence suggest that mammalian Müller glial cells possess a latent ability to regenerate retinal neurons ...


Mitochondrial Dynamics: Exploring A Novel Target Against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Yi Dong Jan 2014

Mitochondrial Dynamics: Exploring A Novel Target Against Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, Yi Dong

Wayne State University Dissertations

Mitochondrial fusion and fission, collectively termed mitochondrial dynamics, are among the core mechanisms responsible for maintaining mitochondrial health and functional integrity. Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission. Recent studies suggest that i) mitochondrial dynamics, particularly, mitochondrial fission, serves as a mediator of cell fate in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, and, ii) inhibition of DRP1 and mitochondrial fission provides cardioprotection against IR injury. However, the precise role of DRP1 translocation to mitochondria in the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been established.

Using an established model of hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR) in cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes ...


Combating Resistance To Epidermal Growth Factor Recpetor Inhibitors In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Julie Marie Madden Jan 2014

Combating Resistance To Epidermal Growth Factor Recpetor Inhibitors In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Julie Marie Madden

Wayne State University Dissertations

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients suffer from a highly malignant and aggressive cancer that lacks an effective targeted therapeutic. Although many TNBCs, both in vitro and in vivo, have increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), EGFR targeted inhibitors, such as gefitinib (GEF), have yet to demonstrate efficacy. Using mass spectrometry to identify pathways that remain activated in the presence of GEF, we found that components of the mTOR signaling pathway remain phosphorylated. While inhibiting mTOR with temsirolimus (TEM) decreased mTOR signaling, EGFR signaling pathways remained activated and the TNBC cell lines continued to proliferate. However, dual treatment ...


Regulation Of Inositol Biosynthesis And Cellular Consequences Of Inositol Depletion: Implications For The Mechanism Of Action Of Valproate, Rania M. Deranieh Jan 2014

Regulation Of Inositol Biosynthesis And Cellular Consequences Of Inositol Depletion: Implications For The Mechanism Of Action Of Valproate, Rania M. Deranieh

Wayne State University Dissertations

Inositol is a six-carbon cyclitol that is ubiquitous in biological systems. It is a precursor for the synthesis of numerous biologically important compounds, including inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides that are essential for cell function and viability. Inositol compounds play a role in membrane formation, gene regulation, signaling, regulation of ion channels, and membrane trafficking. Furthermore, inositol regulates hundreds of genes, including those involved in the biosynthesis of inositol and phospholipids. While transcriptional regulation of inositol biosynthesis has been extensively studied and well characterized, regulation of inositol biosynthesis at the enzymatic level has not been addressed. The current study shows that ...


Characterization Of High-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels In Retinal Bipolar Cells, Qi Lu Jan 2013

Characterization Of High-Voltage-Activated Calcium Channels In Retinal Bipolar Cells, Qi Lu

Wayne State University Dissertations

Retinal bipolar cells, conveying visual information from photoreceptors to ganglion cells, segregate visual information into multiple parallel pathways through their diversified cell types and physiological properties. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels could be particularly important underlying the diversified physiological properties of different BCs. In this dissertation, I investigated the high-voltage-activated (HVA) calcium current in retinal bipolar cells in mice. In the first part of my dissertation, I characterized multiple bipolar cell-expressing GFP and/or Cre transgenic mouse lines. In the second part of my dissertation, by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, I examined the electrophysiological properties of HVA calcium currents among CBCs ...


Acidic Pericellular Ph: Effects On Proteolysis And Gene Expression As Determined In 3d Models Of Breast Carcinoma, Jennifer M. Rothberg Jan 2013

Acidic Pericellular Ph: Effects On Proteolysis And Gene Expression As Determined In 3d Models Of Breast Carcinoma, Jennifer M. Rothberg

Wayne State University Dissertations

Among the non-cellular microenvironmental factors that contribute to malignancy of solid tumors is an acidic peritumoral pH. The first objective was to determine if an acidic extracellular pH observed in vivo (i.e., pHe 6.8) affects the activity of proteases, such as cathepsin B, that contribute to degradation of collagen IV by tumor cells when grown in biologically relevant three-dimensional cultures. At pHe 6.8 there were increases in pericellular active cysteine cathepsins and in degradation of DQ-collagen IV, which was partially blocked by a cathepsin B inhibitor. Imaging probes for active cysteine cathepsins localized to tumors in vivo ...


The Transcriptional Regulation Of Flagellin-Induced Innate Protection Of The Cornea: Role Of Irf1 And Atf3, Gi Sang Yoon Jan 2013

The Transcriptional Regulation Of Flagellin-Induced Innate Protection Of The Cornea: Role Of Irf1 And Atf3, Gi Sang Yoon

Wayne State University Dissertations

Pre-exposure of the cornea to TLR5 ligand flagellin induces profound mucosal innate protection against infections by reprogramming gene expression. This study explored the flagellin-induced modifications of transcription factor expression and function, specifically of IRF1 and ATF3 in corneal epithelial cells to elucidate the transcriptional mechanisms underlying the protective function of flagellin on the cornea.

Initially we used Superarray to screen for transcription factors and identified Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) 1 and Activating Transcription Factor (ATF) 3 as the most drastically affected genes by flagellin pretreatment in P. aeruginosa challenged human corneal epithelial cells (CEC). However, flagellin pretreatment had opposite effects ...


Desensitization Of Basal Cell Carcinoma To The Anti-Tumoral Effect Of Vitamin D, Rawia Khasawneh Jan 2013

Desensitization Of Basal Cell Carcinoma To The Anti-Tumoral Effect Of Vitamin D, Rawia Khasawneh

Wayne State University Dissertations

The relationship between Vitamin D and NMSC is not very clear. Most of human studies in literature in regards to vitamin D and NMSC are epidemiological which are inconsistent and inconclusive. Mechanistic studies about BCC are few, and mostly are animal models or cell cultures. The main goal for this study is to interpret the impact of vitamin D status on the onset and progression and possibly treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Three tissue samples were collected from BCC patients (Cancer, Proximal, and Distal), and from cancer-free individuals from southeast Michigan. This study design helps identifying alterations in the genetic ...


Identification Of Cellular Functions Of Cardiolipin As Physiological Modifiers Of Barth Syndrome, Amit Shridhar Joshi Jan 2012

Identification Of Cellular Functions Of Cardiolipin As Physiological Modifiers Of Barth Syndrome, Amit Shridhar Joshi

Wayne State University Dissertations

Cardiolipin (CL) is an anionic phospholipid synthesized in the mitochondrial inner membrane. Perturbation of CL metabolism leads to Barth syndrome (BTHS), a life threatening genetic disorder. I utilized genetic, biochemical and cell biological approaches in yeast to elucidate the cellular functions of CL. Understanding the functions of CL is expected to shed light on the pathology and possible treatments for BTHS.

BTHS is caused by mutations in TAZ1, which encodes a CL remodeling enzyme called tafazzin. BTHS patients exhibit a wide range of clinical presentations, indicating that physiological modifiers influence the BTHS phenotype. A targeted synthetic lethality screen was performed ...


The Role Of Cad,Flash And Fam129b In Cancer Cell Survial And Apoptosis, Song Chen Jan 2012

The Role Of Cad,Flash And Fam129b In Cancer Cell Survial And Apoptosis, Song Chen

Wayne State University Dissertations

Apoptosis is a normal process in the human body. However, apoptosis is desregulated in cancer cells. Most cancer cells gain resistance to apoptosis, leading to uncontrolled proliferation. In this dissertation, we identified three proteins, associated with apoptosis pathway. 1) CAD, a large multifunctional complex that is invariably elevated in tumor cells, 2) FLASH, a large protein with multiple growth related functions and 3) FAM129B. We demonstrate that CAD could interact with FLASH by using yeast two hybrid, co-immunopreciptation and fluorescence microscopy. In addition, functional analysis using siRNA technology further indicated that CAD could co-operate with FLASH and play roles in ...