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Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Effects Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor On The Characteristics Of Pluripotent Dental Pulp Stem Cells, Cale Forgues May 2019

The Effects Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor On The Characteristics Of Pluripotent Dental Pulp Stem Cells, Cale Forgues

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Many believe that stem cells hold the key to regenerative medicine. Therefore, research with stem cells has become increasingly popular over the years. Three specific groups of study have become present in literature. The first group has focused much of their research on harvesting and cultivating stem cell lines to retain their pluripotent ability. Stem cells can be tricky to cultivate and preserve over time as they will often differentiate or die. Another group examines the specific characteristics that a pluripotent stem cell has and how to retain, or even create, a cell with pluripotent potential. Lastly, the third group ...


The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat May 2018

The Caspase Cascade During Hibernation In The Golden-Mantled Ground Squirrel, Spermophilus Lateralis, Michael David Treat

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In several human pathologies like heart attack, stroke, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmune disorders, widespread cell death, or apoptosis, is a major cause of organ dysfunction and death. Hibernating golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, experience numerous conditions during the winter that are known to be pro-apoptotic in other mammal systems (e.g. extreme hypothermia, ischemia and reperfusion, acidosis, increased reactive oxygen species, bone and muscle disuse). However, studies suggest that hibernators may invoke a protective phenotype to limit widespread cell damage and loss during the hibernation season. Could regulating apoptosis provide protection against the harmful conditions experienced during the hibernation season ...


Physiology And Genetics Of Starvation-Selected Drosophila Melanogaster, Christopher Michael Hardy May 2016

Physiology And Genetics Of Starvation-Selected Drosophila Melanogaster, Christopher Michael Hardy

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In nature, organisms have evolved to survive in stressful environments. This has driven organisms to adopt a wide range of unique adaptations. Investigating the mechanistic basis of these adaptations is an important tool for discovery that has led to major advances in science and medicine.

We study how organisms survive life without food, or starvational stress. Environmental stressors have shaped the quantity and quality of food sources across the globe. This has led to vast differences in the ability of some organisms to tolerate starvation over others. Many researchers have used Drosophila melanogaster as a model to study global patterns ...


Oxidative Stress For An Acute Bout Of Bikram Yoga In Healthy, Trained Adults, Kimberly Anne Trocio May 2013

Oxidative Stress For An Acute Bout Of Bikram Yoga In Healthy, Trained Adults, Kimberly Anne Trocio

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

BACKGROUND:Generation of free radicals resulting in oxidative damage has been linked to cellular damage, aging, and human disease. Many studies have reported that physical exercise can contribute to oxidative stress. Further, exercise in a hyperthermic environment can promote additional oxidative stress. It is important to consider that practices in yoga may be beneficial in reducing oxidative stress according to some studies. The compound effects of exercise and hyperthermic exposure are experienced in the practice of Bikram yoga, the original "hot" yoga. Because Bikram yoga and other hot exercise classes are an increasingly growing fitness trend, it is necessary to ...


The Human Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network: Evolution And Hotspots Of Hijacking In Cancer., Lei Li, Chabane Tibiche, Cong Fu, Tomonori Kaneko, Michael F. Moran, Martin Schiller, Shawn Shun-Cheng Li, Edwin Wang Jul 2012

The Human Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network: Evolution And Hotspots Of Hijacking In Cancer., Lei Li, Chabane Tibiche, Cong Fu, Tomonori Kaneko, Michael F. Moran, Martin Schiller, Shawn Shun-Cheng Li, Edwin Wang

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling, which plays a central role in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions, has been considered to be an evolutionary innovation in multicellular metazoans. However, neither the emergence nor the evolution of the human pTyr signaling system is currently understood. Tyrosine kinase (TK) circuits, each of which consists of a TK writer, a kinase substrate, and a related reader, such as Src homology (SH) 2 domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains, comprise the core machinery of the pTyr signaling network. In this study, we analyzed the evolutionary trajectories of 583 literature-derived and 50,000 computationally predicted human TK circuits in 19 ...


The Effects Of Climate Change On Basic Animal Cell Functions, Michelle Fulbright, Andrew Andres Apr 2011

The Effects Of Climate Change On Basic Animal Cell Functions, Michelle Fulbright, Andrew Andres

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Increasing global temperatures during the 21st century may have detrimental effects on basic cell functions within ectothermal animals. This project aims to systematically examine the effects of climate change on secretory cargo localization through the analysis of Rab Proteins found in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Rab Proteins play an essential role in vesicular transport within the cell and can be genetically manipulated to monitor the biological consequences of global warming.


The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos Apr 2011

The Release Of Calcium In Bacillus Anthracis Pathogenicity Methods, Natiera Magnuson, Manomita Patra Bhowmik, Maria Elena Reynaga, Ernesto Abel-Santos

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Anthrax infection starts with germination of Bacillus anthracis spores in macrophages. Some bacteria, including B. anthracis, can sporulate in response to environmental stress, such as starvation. During germination, large concentrations of calcium ions are released from the B. anthracis spore. Calcium ions are hydrophilic secondary messengers, and may therefore interfere with detection of the spore by confusing the cell signaling pathways. We investigated calcium release on infected macrophage viability by replacing the calcium stored in B. anthracis spores for other cations via demineralization/remineralization. It was discovered that calcium ions typically out-performed other cations in germination of B. anthracis.


Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilisis Independent Of Genome Replication, Mark Upchurch, Holly Martin, Eduardo Robleto Apr 2011

Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilisis Independent Of Genome Replication, Mark Upchurch, Holly Martin, Eduardo Robleto

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

Stationary phase mutagenesis is defined as cellular mechanisms that produce genetic diversity in cells experiencing conditions of stress. These processes are associated with many biological phenomena, including those that produce the formation of cancers in animal cells and other degenerative diseases. Also, these mechanisms are associated with the accumulation of beneficial mutations in bacteria, but follow stochastic processes and are controlled by genetic factors. The current models explaining the generation of stress-induced mutations are predicated on the formation of DNA replication intermediates that are formed during the repair of damaged DNA or during DNA replication and transcription encounters. Here we ...


Production, Purification And Crystallization Of Membrane Integrated Multimeric Bax, Adelbert Mark Villoso Dec 2010

Production, Purification And Crystallization Of Membrane Integrated Multimeric Bax, Adelbert Mark Villoso

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a vital process intimately involved in the embryonic development and homeostatic maintenance of all multicellular organisms. The committing step to apoptosis is regulated by a key protein, Bax, and its ability to integrate and form a pore structure at the outer mitochondrial membrane.


Unfortunately, the molecular details of apoptosis remain largely unclear due to the lack of structural data of integral membrane (IM) Bax. Experimental limitations of membrane protein production have slowed the pursuit of an IM-Bax structure simply because standard protocols for producing recombinant IM-Bax are inefficient in producing adequate quantities of IM-Bax ...


Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis: The Interaction Between Transcription And Error-Prone Replication In Conditions Of Stress, Mary Girard, Eduardo Robleto Aug 2009

Stationary Phase Mutagenesis In Bacillus Subtilis: The Interaction Between Transcription And Error-Prone Replication In Conditions Of Stress, Mary Girard, Eduardo Robleto

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

While under conditions of stress, non-dividing cells may acquire beneficial mutations. This is referred to as stationary phase mutagenesis, or adaptive mutagenesis. Previous research has shown that actively transcribed genes and those under selective pressure are prone to mutations that confer escape from non-dividing conditions. Accordingly, strains lacking transcription factors have shown a drastically lower number of mutations that confer escape while under amino acid starvation than those observed in the wildtype background. Also, error-prone DNA polymerases are known to be active in cells under stress and it has been shown that strains lacking an error-prone DNA polymerase display reduced ...


Protection Of Macrophages J774a.1 By Purine Nucleoside Analogues From Bacillus Anthracis Mediated Necrosis, Zadkiel R. Alvarez Jan 2009

Protection Of Macrophages J774a.1 By Purine Nucleoside Analogues From Bacillus Anthracis Mediated Necrosis, Zadkiel R. Alvarez

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Eight years after the lamentable anthrax attacks, major scientific effort continues to be done, in order to stop imminent acts of bioterrorism. Innovative ways of therapy against the anthrax disease are being investigated. B. anthracis, the etiological agent of the infection, has a dormant stage in its life cycle known as the endospore. When conditions become favorable spores germinate, transforming into vegetative bacteria. In inhalational anthrax, the most fatal manifestation of the disease, spores enter the organism through the respiratory track, and are phagocytosized by alveolar macrophages of the lungs. Spores are able to sense nutrient availability, activating their germination ...


An Algorithm For Identifying Novel Targets Of Transcription Factor Families: Application To Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Targets, Yue Jiang, Bojan Cukic, Donald A. Adjeroh, Heath D. Skinner, Jie Lin, Qingxi J. Shen, Bing-Hua Jiang Jan 2009

An Algorithm For Identifying Novel Targets Of Transcription Factor Families: Application To Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Targets, Yue Jiang, Bojan Cukic, Donald A. Adjeroh, Heath D. Skinner, Jie Lin, Qingxi J. Shen, Bing-Hua Jiang

Electrical and Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Efficient and effective analysis of the growing genomic databases requires the development of adequate computational tools. We introduce a fast method based on the suffix tree data structure for predicting novel targets of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) from huge genome databases. The suffix tree data structure has two powerful applications here: one is to extract unknown patterns from multiple strings/sequences in linear time; the other is to search multiple strings/sequences using multiple patterns in linear time. Using 15 known HIF-1 target gene sequences as a training set, we extracted 105 common patterns that all occur in the 15 ...