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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

University Scholar Projects

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

Honors Scholar Theses

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff May 2018

Modeling And Analyzing An Optogenetic System For Photoactivatable Protein Dissociation, Anvin Thomas, James Schaff

Honors Scholar Theses

Computational modeling of cell-cell interactions can grant clues and can answer questions about an experiment, especially for observations about binding interactions and kinetics. This approach was used to investigate an interaction between a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain and an engineered protein called Zdark (Zdk). The LOV domain is membrane-bound while Zdk is cytosolic. The LOV domain and Zdk bind strongly in dark (Kd 26.2 nM), and weakly upon exposure to blue light (Kd > 4 μM). Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) images are acquired of Zdk, the fluorescent species bound to a mCherry tag, and the loss of fluorescence ...


Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch May 2018

Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch

Honors Scholar Theses

Recent advances in the field of biomaterials have suggested that cells cultured on substrates resembling the native tissue mechanical properties, matrix and growth factor composition, and topography can adopt phenotypes that more closely resemble the in vivo tissue compared to cells cultured on non-mimetic constructs. Understanding the effect of culture substrate on in vitro tissue formation is important for bioengineering applications that include mechanistic studies of healthy tissue function and development of disease models. In this work, Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells were seeded on flat and crypt-like topographies of 3D-printed cytocompatible hydrogels derived from silk fibroin protein. Silk hydrogels were selected ...


Effects Of Piggybac Transposable Element Derived 5 (Pgbd5) In Cortical Tissue, Benjamin Shao May 2018

Effects Of Piggybac Transposable Element Derived 5 (Pgbd5) In Cortical Tissue, Benjamin Shao

Honors Scholar Theses

Many cancers are known to have genetic rearrangements, as these rearrangements develop abnormalities that can lead to certain types of cancer. Many of these genetic rearrangements can be caused by transposons, which are DNA sequences that can change its position and move to other positions within the genome. Transposons move to and integrate into a new location by the action of transposase enzymes, and recently genes that code for proteins similar to transposases and with transposase activity have been identified in the human and other vertebrate genomes. In this study, one of these genes, human piggyBac transposable element derived 5 ...


Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch May 2018

Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch

University Scholar Projects

Recent advances in the field of biomaterials have suggested that cells cultured on substrates resembling the native tissue mechanical properties, matrix and growth factor composition, and topography can adopt phenotypes that more closely resemble the in vivo tissue compared to cells cultured on non-mimetic constructs. Understanding the effect of culture substrate on in vitro tissue formation is important for bioengineering applications that include mechanistic studies of healthy tissue function and development of disease models. In this work, Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells were seeded on flat and crypt-like topographies of 3D-printed cytocompatible hydrogels derived from silk fibroin protein. Silk hydrogels were selected ...


Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, Karthik Kanamalla Apr 2018

Reconstitution Of Gabaergic Postsynapses In Host Cells, Karthik Kanamalla

Honors Scholar Theses

Type A GABA receptors (GABAARs) can be found embedded in postsynaptic membranes or in a variety of extrasynaptic locations. Receptors with synaptic function are recruited to the postsynapse by submembranous scaffolds composed of gephyrin and collybistin (CB). This study was aimed at assessing whether the ability to interact with the scaffold differentiates synaptic from non-synaptic receptors. Using HEK293 cells as an expression system, and indirect immunofluorescence (IF), co-localization of extrasynaptic receptors α1β3δ and α4β3δ with the CB-gephyrin scaffold was assessed and compared with that of the synaptic receptor α1β3γ2. Results indicated that both extrasynaptic receptors were able to colocalize with ...


Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte May 2017

Lymphoid Hematopoiesis And The Role Of B-Cells In Transgenic Mouse Model Of Sickle Cell Disease, Christina Cotte

University Scholar Projects

Sickle cell disease (SCD) has been shown to be associated with decreased baseline immunity and thus increased susceptibility to infection. I sought to discern possible causes of this by looking into the correlations between SCD and hematopoiesis, the immune system and the neuroendocrine system, and ultimately by conducting experiments surrounding the impaired immune system of SCD. These experiments focused on the potential causes and effects of the diminution of B-1a cells in the SCD spleen. Adoptive transfers, infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae, and histologic imaging were conducted to establish if the diminution of the B-1a cells in the SCD spleen is ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun May 2016

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Discovering The Sequence Specificity Of Human Dyrk2 And Dyrk4, Julie Klaric May 2015

Discovering The Sequence Specificity Of Human Dyrk2 And Dyrk4, Julie Klaric

University Scholar Projects

Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification (PTM) that is ubiquitous in regulating cellular processes. It is the most common PTM used in signal translation. Protein kinases are the class of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to a specific amino acid on a substrate protein. In eukaryotes, kinases generally add a phosphate to serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues. Short linear patterns in the amino acid sequence of the substrate protein help guide the protein kinase to the correct residue to be phosphorylated. However, these patterns, or “motifs,” as well as the complete list of substrates ...


The Development Of Skeletal Muscle In Young Horses: An Ultrasonography And Satellite Cell Approach, Emma K. Lavigne May 2015

The Development Of Skeletal Muscle In Young Horses: An Ultrasonography And Satellite Cell Approach, Emma K. Lavigne

Honors Scholar Theses

Muscle growth in young horses is characterized by an increase in muscle cross-sectional area, which can be accomplished through the activation and differentiation of satellite cells. Satellite cells can be stimulated or inhibited in response to different cytokines and growth factors and are key mediators of muscle hypertrophy and regeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of the longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle in horses under 5 years of age and to obtain preliminary data on satellite cell behavior in foals. The area, width, height, and subcutaneous fat were measured using ultrasonography at 6-month increments over the ...


Post-Injury Calcium Chelation Rescues Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Mice, Matthew D. Magda Aug 2013

Post-Injury Calcium Chelation Rescues Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Mice, Matthew D. Magda

Honors Scholar Theses

During aging the ability of skeletal muscle to regenerate after injury wanes until muscle integrity cannot be maintained. In this study it is shown that calcium chelation can restore young-like regenerative ability in an aged mouse model of skeletal muscle regeneration.


Dikar-Induced Synthetic Lethality In A Drosophila Model Of Cag Repeat Diseases Does Not Result From An Expression Feedback Loop, Daniel Camacho May 2013

Dikar-Induced Synthetic Lethality In A Drosophila Model Of Cag Repeat Diseases Does Not Result From An Expression Feedback Loop, Daniel Camacho

Honors Scholar Theses

Human CAG repeat diseases manifest themselves through the common pathology of neurodeneration. This pathological link is attributed to the property shared by all nine of these diseases: an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. The most evident result of polyQ expansion is protein aggregation, and it is believed that this phenomenon is partly responsible for conferring cytotoxic properties on the mutated protein. Apart from sequestering the mutated protein, cellular aggregates are able to incorporate native proteins via polyQ-mediated aggregation, thus disrupting important cellular pathways. Using Drosophila melanogaster as a disease model, researchers have been able to compile collections of these so-called disease ...


Investigations In Enhancing The Reproducibility Of Implantable Amperometric Glucose Biosensors For Mass Production, Dipesh Manharbhai Patel May 2013

Investigations In Enhancing The Reproducibility Of Implantable Amperometric Glucose Biosensors For Mass Production, Dipesh Manharbhai Patel

Honors Scholar Theses

Implantable glucose sensors for Diabetes management should possess several attributes such as linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, long life time and should elicit no negative tissue response. Based on this, the UConn implantable glucose sensor team has developed a 5-layer sensor architecture that simultaneously affords the aforementioned requirements. However, the large scale production of these 5-layer sensors is inhibited by the lack of high sensor-to-sensor reproducibility. Herein, we investigate the origin of sensor-to-sensor irreproducibility and develop methodologies for large-scale fabrication of these devices.


Characterizing The Role Of Cortactin In Actin Pedestal Assembly By Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Ehec), Sarah E. Grout May 2013

Characterizing The Role Of Cortactin In Actin Pedestal Assembly By Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli (Ehec), Sarah E. Grout

Honors Scholar Theses

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a major foodborne cause of bloody diarrhea and renal failure. During colonization of the intestine, EHEC injects the transmembrane receptor protein Tir and the cytoplasmic effector protein EspFU into host cells to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton into adhesion “pedestals.” EspFU has been shown to bind and activate the actin nucleation factor N-WASP to drive actin polymerization into pedestals. However, EspFU can still assemble pedestals in cells lacking N-WASP, suggesting that this effector protein is able to also trigger N-WASP-independent pathways of actin polymerization during infection. Cortactin is an atypical nucleation factor that localizes to pedestals ...


Dietary Analysis And Epigenetic Comparisons Of Drosphila Melanogaster Through Multiple Generations, Xu (Kevin) F. Zheng Jul 2012

Dietary Analysis And Epigenetic Comparisons Of Drosphila Melanogaster Through Multiple Generations, Xu (Kevin) F. Zheng

Holster Scholar Projects

Nutrition and the lack thereof has been a demanding issue in both the undeveloped and developed country. The unbalance diet between healthy and unhealthy diet has led to many of the problems presented in society such as obesity, heart disorders, and loss of longevity. It is now known that calorie may not provide the most accurate information in terms of the lifestyle and the well-being of humans. Rather the composition of the calorie is what becomes integral in people's understanding of the effect of food physiologically. With this knowledge, we seek to use a Drosophila melanogaster as a model ...


Metallothionein Gene Dose And The Immune Response, Meaghan Roy-O-Reilly May 2012

Metallothionein Gene Dose And The Immune Response, Meaghan Roy-O-Reilly

Honors Scholar Theses

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, cysteine-rich protein with significant immunomodulatory activity. It has been shown to play a critical role in important cellular mechanisms including heavy metal detoxification, essential metal management and the inflammatory response. MT production can be induced by a number of cellular stressors and acts to lessen the harmful effects of oxidizing agents and heavy metal exposure. Previous studies have shown that the dose of the metallothionein gene present in an individual may have significant effects on the adaptive immune response, yet the mechanism behind this phenomenon remains unknown. We hypothesize that the gene dose of metallothionein ...


Improvements To The Forensic Analysis Of Mitochondrial Dna Typing, Elizabeth Montano May 2012

Improvements To The Forensic Analysis Of Mitochondrial Dna Typing, Elizabeth Montano

Honors Scholar Theses

Sequence analysis of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an effective and reliable tool for the genetic characterization of forensic samples. The nature of the mitochondrial genome (mtgenome), its high copy number and small size (~17kb) makes it more resistant to degradation and more stable than nuclear DNA. For this reason mitochondrial DNA is often the only feasible option for the forensic analysis of environmentally compromised samples. Currently the forensic analysis of the mtgenome is restricted to the hypervariable regions, also known as the Displacement loop (d-loop). Previous studies, confirmed in the Strausbaugh lab, have demonstrated an increased variability in the ...


Identifying Progenitor Cells Of Heterotopic Ossification, Eileen E. Semancik May 2012

Identifying Progenitor Cells Of Heterotopic Ossification, Eileen E. Semancik

Honors Scholar Theses

Heterotopic Ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone within extraskeletal soft tissues. The condition can occur through both genetic and acquired means. Acquired cases of HO result from invasive surgery or traumatic injuries, with increasing prevalence of ectopic skeletogenesis as a result of combat-related blast injuries. HO has been characterized to some extent, including the histological features and the mutation underlying the genetic form, but the cells resident in skeletal muscle that represent the progenitors of heterotopic bone have yet to be determined. Only a few publications have attempted to definitively determine the progenitor cells in this disorder. Findings ...


Elucidating The Mechanism Of Antimigratory Activity Of Cardiac Glycosides, Joshua H. Johnson May 2012

Elucidating The Mechanism Of Antimigratory Activity Of Cardiac Glycosides, Joshua H. Johnson

Honors Scholar Theses

The focus of this research is on cell migration and how it can be better understood through the use of small molecules that modulate cell migratory activity. The results have particular relevance in the realm of cancer pharmacology. Cardiac glycosides, which are known inhibitors of the eukaryotic Na+/K+-ATPase, have been determined to have antimigratory activities through the screening of several small molecule libraries. Here we investigate the antimigratory activities of the cardiac glycoside digitoxin as well as its analogs that we synthesized. Antimigratory activity was determined by conducting a wound closure assay with MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells ...


The Expression Of T-Box (Tbx3) In The Bovine Mammary Gland, Maria L. Procopio Ms. Aug 2011

The Expression Of T-Box (Tbx3) In The Bovine Mammary Gland, Maria L. Procopio Ms.

Master's Theses

Development of the bovine mammary gland is a complex process that is regulated by several hormones, growth factors and transcription factors including but not limited to growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and T-box (Tbx)2 and 3. Tbx2 and Tbx3 are transcription factors required for mammary gland development in humans and known to regulate cell cycle. In addition, there is recent evidence that GH increases expression of Tbx3 in osteoblasts independent of IGF-I. Based on these findings, we hypothesized GH and IGF-I will increase Tbx2 and Tbx3 expression in bovine mammary epithelial cells (MEC), the cell responsible ...


Biomarker Signature Classification Of Various Stress Forms, Chana L. Rich May 2011

Biomarker Signature Classification Of Various Stress Forms, Chana L. Rich

Honors Scholar Theses

Various types of stressful conditions can have unique and important effects on immunity and can lead to dramatic consequences to health. For my University Scholar project, the characteristic biomarker signatures produced from a set of diverse stressors (e.g. psychological, biological and chemical) are being investigated. A biomarker signature is a distinctive biological indicator of a specific condition. High-throughput tools for the measurement of different cellular products have the potential to further our understanding of human disease and facilitated the identification of new biomarkers in all areas of medicine. The hypothesis that each form of stress, psychological, chemical and physical ...


Characterization Of Arginine-82 Mutants With Non-Native Chromophores, Vivek Alaigh May 2011

Characterization Of Arginine-82 Mutants With Non-Native Chromophores, Vivek Alaigh

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteriorhodopsin, found in most halobacteria, is an integral protein that contains seven transmembrane alpha helices and an organic chromophore, all-trans retinal. Light energy is captured by the protein and results in a series of spectrally discrete intermediates that conclude with a proton being pumped across the membrane from the cytoplasmic side to the extracellular milieu. The most blue-shifted photo-intermediate, the M state, has been of interest for protein-based holographic memory storage devices. Bacteriorhodopsin mutants were prepared with either a 4-hydroxy retinal or 3,4-dihydro retinal analog: R82A, R82C, R82H, R82K, R82N and R82Q. The objective of this research was to ...


Design And Bio-Production Of A Nanoparticle Avian Influenza Vaccine, Kashif N. Ather May 2011

Design And Bio-Production Of A Nanoparticle Avian Influenza Vaccine, Kashif N. Ather

Honors Scholar Theses

Influenza is one of the most common diseases in the world and the cause for numerous deaths every year. The primary method of combating the disease is the influenza vaccine, which is produced by inoculating chicken eggs with inactivated virus. An emerging solution is to use Self-Assembling Polypeptide Nanoparticles (SAPN) to elicit an immune response in the body, rather than using inactivated viruses. This project focuses on the synthesis, purification, and refolding of two peptide constructs, BN5C and S43, which are specific protein sequences that under the right conditions will refold into the 3-dimensional structures necessary for producing an immune ...


Expression Of The Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Non-Structural Protein 3 (Nsp 3) In Escherichia Coli, Lidia Beka May 2011

Expression Of The Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus Non-Structural Protein 3 (Nsp 3) In Escherichia Coli, Lidia Beka

Honors Scholar Theses

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) is single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Arteriviridae, order Nidovirales. PRRSV is the most economically significant viral infection of swine herds in the United States. The single-stranded RNA genome is 15 kb in length and encodes 9 open reading frames (ORF1a, ORF1b, ORF2a, ORF2b and ORFs 3 through 7). ORFs 1a and 1b encode for 13 non-structural proteins (nsp) that are suggested to be involved in transcription and viral genome replication. The exact role of non-structural proteins in PRRSV cycle is still unknown. Moreover, there is a limited availability of reagents such ...


Characterizing The Role Of The Bacterial Metallothionein, Smta, In Mammalian Infection, Stephanie R. Davis May 2011

Characterizing The Role Of The Bacterial Metallothionein, Smta, In Mammalian Infection, Stephanie R. Davis

Honors Scholar Theses

Mammalian metallothioneins (MT) are induced by various immunomodulatory molecules and are involved in a spectrum of immune processes such as essential metal homeostasis, detoxification of certain heavy metals, inflammation, and immune cell trafficking [1-3]. A bacterial metallothionein, SmtA, shares some sequence homology with mammalian MT as well as its metal-binding capabilities [4]. In addition to its ability to sequester heavy metals, eukaryotic MT has also been shown to scavenge free radicals such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), interfering with their toxic effects on cells and potentially influencing their regulatory roles in cell proliferation and differentiation [5, 6 ...


Modeling Human Immune Response To The Lyme Disease-Causing Bacteria, Yevhen Rutovytskyy May 2011

Modeling Human Immune Response To The Lyme Disease-Causing Bacteria, Yevhen Rutovytskyy

Honors Scholar Theses

The purpose of this project is to develop and analyze a mathematical model for the pathogen-host interaction that occurs during early Lyme disease.

Based on the known biophysics of motility of Borrelia burgdorferi and a simple model for the immune response, a PDE model was created which tracks the time evolution of the concentrations of bacteria and activated immune cells in the dermis. We assume that a tick bite inoculates a highly localized population of bacteria into the dermis. These bacteria can multiply and migrate. The diffusive nature of the migration is assumed and modeled using the heat equation. Bacteria ...


Quorum Sensing In Archaea, Charles Mackin May 2011

Quorum Sensing In Archaea, Charles Mackin

Honors Scholar Theses

Bacteria coordinate cell density dependent behaviors by communicating through chemical intermediaries in a process called quorum sensing. In a bacterial culture, individual cells will constitutively produce signal molecules, termed autoinducers, and export them into the environment. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a threshold, the cells sense that they are in a specific situation, which requires the upregulation of certain genes. This upregulation causes the bacteria to produce proteins that allow them to take part in a coordinated population-wide behavior.

In bacteria that are naturally competent, or capable of importing DNA from the environment, the expression of competence genes is ...


Mechanistic Study Of The Small Molecule Inhibitor Dx-52-1, Junru Cui May 2011

Mechanistic Study Of The Small Molecule Inhibitor Dx-52-1, Junru Cui

Master's Theses

Cell migration is a basic biological process that is fundamental to several normal and disease processes such as embryonic development, tissue repair, immune function, angiogenesis and cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Small organic molecules inhibiting cell migration can be used as both research probes and therapeutic agents. DX-52-1, a semisynthetic derivative of the natural product quinocarmycin (also known as quinocarcin), inhibits the migration of Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells with nanomolar concentration. We have identified galectin-3, a multifunctional protein whose best-known function is its sugar binding ability, as a secondary target of DX-52-1 with functions in cell motility. In addition ...


Characterization Of The Putative Xyloglucan Glycosyltransferase Gt14 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Najam R. Syed May 2010

Characterization Of The Putative Xyloglucan Glycosyltransferase Gt14 In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Najam R. Syed

Honors Scholar Theses

Plant cell walls largely consist of matrix polysaccharides that are linked to cellulose microfibrils. Xyloglucan, the primary hemicellulose of the cell wall matrix, consists of a repeating glucose tetramer structure with xylose residues attached to the first three units ('XXXG'). In Arabidopsis thaliana, the core XXXG structure is further modified by enzymatic addition of galactose and fucose residues to the xylose side chains to produce XLXG, XXLG, XLLG and XLFG structures. GT14 is a putative glycosyltransferase in the GT47 gene family. Initial predictions of GT14's hydrophobic regions, based on its translated amino acid sequence, are almost identical to its ...