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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali Aug 2019

Ipsc Based Gene Correction And Disease Model Of A New Class Of Lgmd Due To Poglut1 Mutation, Jose Ortiz-Vitali

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Recently, a novel class of muscular dystrophy has been discovered in a family due to autosomal recessive missense mutation in POGLUT1. Mutation of this enzyme leads to decreased O-glucosyltransferase activity and impaired Notch signaling, the pathways important for skeletal muscle stem cell (satellite cells) quiescence and activation. We hypothesize that reduced POGLUT1 activity and impaired Notch signaling is causative of this limb girdle muscular dystrophy through dysfunction of muscle stem cells and myogenic progenitors.

To test this, we have used iPSCs for disease modeling and rescue experiments. Using a CRISPR based gene targeting method, we aimed to correct the point ...


Platiscity Of C. Elegans Germline Stem Cells Under Nutritional And Metabolic Stress, Kenneth Trimmer May 2019

Platiscity Of C. Elegans Germline Stem Cells Under Nutritional And Metabolic Stress, Kenneth Trimmer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Stem cells are integral for tissue maintenance and fertility. Therefore, understanding how stem cells are regulated under stress is imperative. When confronted with acute starvation, stem cells must conserve energy and metabolites to cope with the lack of an external source. Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells (GSCs) are an excellent model for studying stem cell properties and regulation as they can divide throughout the life of the organism. While GSCs are an adult stem cell population, their cell cycle structure more closely mimics mouse and human embryonic stem cells with short G1 and long S phases. In this thesis, I ...


Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy May 2019

Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. All of these thiol-modifiers have been demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, endogenous targets of thiol stress toxicity responsible for these outcomes are largely unknown. Furthermore, I hypothesize proteins identified as redox-active are prone to misfolding and aggregation by thiol-specific stress ...


Investigating The Roles Of Tap63 And Tap73 In Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Lung Adenocarcinoma, Andrew J. Davis Aug 2018

Investigating The Roles Of Tap63 And Tap73 In Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Lung Adenocarcinoma, Andrew J. Davis

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

TP63 and TP73 (which encode p63 and p73, respectively) are highly conserved transcription factors with important roles in development and tissue homeostasis. Similar to their homolog, p53, both p63 and p73 have been shown to mediate tumor suppression in multiple tissue types. Interestingly, however, both genes are expressed as multiple isoforms, which appear to have different and, in many cases, antagonistic functions. Through the use of isoform-specific null alleles of p63 and p73 our lab and others have shown that the full-length N-terminal isoforms of p63 and p73 (referred to as TAp63 and TAp73, respectively) exhibit distinct functions in development ...


Sphingosine Kinase 1 Regulates Fascin Expression To Promote Metastasis In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Sunil Acharya May 2018

Sphingosine Kinase 1 Regulates Fascin Expression To Promote Metastasis In Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Sunil Acharya

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Distant metastasis is the primary cause of breast cancer–related mortality. To date, effective therapeutic drugs that target metastasis are still lacking. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in high frequency in young women and are more likely to recur and metastasize than are other breast cancer subtypes. Also, TNBC patients cannot benefit from currently available hormonal or targeted therapies, as they lack estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Thus, understanding the signaling pathways that promote TNBC metastasis and developing novel therapeutic approaches to target them are critical, in order to prolong the survival and ...


Functional Heterogeneity Of Fibroblasts In Dermal Wound Healing, Ehsan Ehsanipour May 2018

Functional Heterogeneity Of Fibroblasts In Dermal Wound Healing, Ehsan Ehsanipour

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Impaired wound healing can lead to excessive scarring, dehiscence, chronic ulcers, and infection, which have adverse impact on the quality of life and pose a significant economic burden on the health care system. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are critically important. Dermal fibroblasts are critical players in cutaneous wound healing, possibly lending their contractile properties and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling functions to promote effective tissue repair. Dermal fibroblasts are also postulated to orchestrate tissue repair by interacting with and controlling other cell types in the wound microenvironment. It has become increasingly clear that the generic term “fibroblast” encompasses a diverse cell ...


Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry Dec 2017

Characterization Of Notch1 And Pi3k-Pten-Akt/Mtor Pathway Interaction In Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Kyriante' Henry

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) affects various mucosal sites of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the nasal and oral cavities, the nasopharynx, and the oropharynx. More than five hundred thousand new cases of HNSCC occurred in 2011 alone, with 50,000 reported cases in the United States. This trend made HNSCC the seventh most common non-skin cancer worldwide (Ferlay et al., 2015). Although significant epidemiological and pathological advancements have been made, survival rates have not improved much over the last 40 years, leaving a mortality rate that remains at approximately 50%. An unbiased drug screen demonstrated that HNSCC ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon Dec 2017

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes Dec 2017

Endocytic Trafficking Of The Amyloid Precursor Protein In Rat Cortical Neurons, Sahily Reyes

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregation and deposition into extracellular plaques is a hallmark of the most common forms of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. The Aβ-containing plaques result from pathogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases resulting in intracellular production of Aβ peptides that are secreted and accumulate extracellularly. Despite considerable progress towards understanding APP processing and Aβ aggregation, the mechanisms underlying endosomal production of Aβ peptides and their secretion remain unclear. Using endosomes isolated from cultured primary neurons, we determined that the trafficking of APP from the endosomal membrane into internal vesicles of late endosome/multivesicular bodies (MVB) is ...


Study Of Regulated Cell Death In Two Systems: Pd-1 In Natural Killer Cells And Rip3 In Neurons, Yu Huang Sep 2017

Study Of Regulated Cell Death In Two Systems: Pd-1 In Natural Killer Cells And Rip3 In Neurons, Yu Huang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell death is not only an essential phenomenon in normal development and homeostasis, but also crucial in various pathologies. It is now clear that many types of cell death can be regulated by pharmacological or genetic interventions. These were largely achieved by identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulated cell death (RCD). While in the immune system, RCD needs to be facilitated to help the clearance of pathogens and tumors, in healthy cells, especially the terminally differentiated neurons in the nervous system, it is more desirable to protect cells from dying due to stress under pathological conditions. Thus, understating the ...


Mechanisms Underlying The Sensitivity And Resistance Of Gastric Cancer Cells To Met Inhibitors, Rebecca Schroeder Aug 2017

Mechanisms Underlying The Sensitivity And Resistance Of Gastric Cancer Cells To Met Inhibitors, Rebecca Schroeder

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

MET amplification has been clinically credentialed as a therapeutic target in gastric cancer, but the molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity and resistance to MET inhibitors are still not well understood. Using whole-genome mRNA expression profiling, we identified autophagy as a top molecular pathway that was activated by the MET inhibitor crizotinib in drug-sensitive human gastric cancer cells, and functional studies confirmed that crizotinib increased autophagy levels in the drug sensitive cells in a concentration-dependent manner. We then used chemical and molecular approaches to inhibit autophagy in order to define its role in cell death. The clinically available inhibitor of autophagy, chloroquine ...


Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang Aug 2017

Gcn5 Impacts Fgf Signaling At Multiple Levels And Activates C-Myc Target Genes During Early Differentiation Of Embryoid Bodies, Li Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Precise control of gene expression during development is orchestrated by transcription factors, signaling pathways and co-regulators, with complex cross-regulatory events often occurring. Growing evidence has identified chromatin modifiers as important regulators for development as well, yet how particular chromatin modifying enzymes affect specific developmental processes remains largely unclear. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are self-renewing, pluripotent, and have the abilities to generate almost all cell types in adult tissues. The dual capacity of ESCs to self-renew and differentiate offers unlimited potential for studying gene regulation events at specific developmental stages in vitro that parallel developmental events during embryogenesis in vivo.

In ...


Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno Aug 2017

Preclinical Development Of Therapeutic Strategies Against Triple-Negative And Inflammatory Breast Cancer, Angie M. Torres-Adorno

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Triple-negative (TNBC) and inflammatory (IBC) breast cancer are the most aggressive forms of breast cancer, accounting for 20% and 10% of cancer-related deaths, respectively. Among IBC cases, 30% are additionally classified with TNBC molecular pathology, a diagnosis that significantly worsens patient’s prognosis. The current lack of TNBC and IBC molecular understanding prevents the development of effective therapeutic strategies. To identify effective treatments, we explored aberrant apoptosis pathways and cell membrane fluidity as novel therapeutic targets.

We first identified an effective therapeutic strategy against TNBC and IBC by pro-apoptotic protein NOXA-mediated inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1 following inhibition of ...


Pharmacologic And Genetic Manipulations Of Angiotensin Signaling In Thoracic Aortic Disease Models, Andrew M. Peters Aug 2017

Pharmacologic And Genetic Manipulations Of Angiotensin Signaling In Thoracic Aortic Disease Models, Andrew M. Peters

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. Many different risk factors have been associated TAAD, but hypertension is the largest risk factor. Subsets of TAAD patients have identifiable syndromic genetic diseases, yet a number of genetic non-syndromic patients have been identified. Infusion of angiotensin II into mouse models causes aortic disease through inflammation and fibrosis. An angiotensin type I receptor (AT1R) blocker (ARB) or an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor (ACEi) can reverse aortic pathology in some mouse models. I set out to better understand the relationship between angiotensin and TAAD ...


Proteomic Identification Of Histone Post-Translational Modifications Induced By Dna Double-Strand Breaks And Novel Proteins Involved In The Dna Damage Response, Pingping Wang May 2017

Proteomic Identification Of Histone Post-Translational Modifications Induced By Dna Double-Strand Breaks And Novel Proteins Involved In The Dna Damage Response, Pingping Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Inaccurate repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) can lead to DNA mutation and chromosome rearrangements, causing human diseases such as cancer. Although we know the basic mechanisms of DSB repair, the added complexities in the chromatin context are unclear. This is partially due to the lack of unbiased systems for identifying proteins and post-translational modifications (PTMs) involved in DSB repair. In this work, we established a novel method, termed DSB-ChAP-MS (Double Strand Break-Chromatin Affinity Purification with Mass Spectrometry), for the affinity purification of a sequence-specific single copy endogenous chromosomal locus containing a DSB, followed by the proteomic identification of enriched ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Inward And Outward Budding From Multivesicular Endosomes, Monica Gireud Goss May 2017

Molecular Mechanisms Of Inward And Outward Budding From Multivesicular Endosomes, Monica Gireud Goss

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Regulating the residence time of membrane proteins (e.g. transporters, ion channels, receptors) on the cell surface can modify their response to extracellular cues and allow for cellular adaptation to environmental conditions. The fate of membrane proteins that are internalized from the plasma membrane and arrive at the limiting membrane of the late endosome/multivesicular body (MVB) is dictated by whether they remain on the limiting membrane, bud into internal MVB vesicles, or bud outwardly from the membrane. The molecular details underlying the disposition of membrane proteins that transit this pathway and the mechanisms regulating these trafficking events are unclear ...


The Role Of The Diras Family Members In Regulating Ras Function, Cancer Growth And Autophagy, Margie Nicole Sutton May 2017

The Role Of The Diras Family Members In Regulating Ras Function, Cancer Growth And Autophagy, Margie Nicole Sutton

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

DIRAS3 is a maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated by multiple mechanisms across several tumor types. When re-expressed, DIRAS3 decreases proliferation, inhibits motility, and induces autophagy and tumor dormancy. DIRAS3 encodes a 26 kDa small GTPase with 60% homology to Ras and Rap, differing from oncogenic Ras family members by a 34-amino acid N-terminal extension that is required for its tumor suppressive function in ovarian cancer. By assessing the structure-function relationship, I found that DIRAS3 inhibits Ras-induced transformation and is a natural antagonist of Ras/MAPK signaling. DIRAS3 binds directly to Ras and disrupts cluster formation inhibiting the ...


Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul May 2017

Phopsphorylation And Ubiquitin Modification At Dna Damage Sites In Response To Double-Strand Breaks, Atanu Paul

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Genomes of all organisms are continuously damaged by numerous exogenous and endogenous sources leading to different kinds of DNA lesions, which if not repaired efficiently may trigger wide-scale genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer development. To overcome this, cells have evolved a sophisticated sensory network called the DNA damage response (DDR) comprised of a large number of distinct protein complexes categorized as sensor, mediator, transducer and effector proteins that amplify the DNA damage signal and activate cell cycle checkpoint to initiate DNA repair or trigger apoptosis where the defect is beyond repair. This intricate signaling pathway is tightly regulated by ...


Investigation Of The Roles Of Asf1 And Caf-1-Mediated Chromatin Assembly In The Human Dna Damage Response, Ting-Hsiang Huang May 2017

Investigation Of The Roles Of Asf1 And Caf-1-Mediated Chromatin Assembly In The Human Dna Damage Response, Ting-Hsiang Huang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The access-repair-restore model for the role of chromatin in DNA repair infers that chromatin is a mere obstacle to DNA repair. However, here we show that blocking chromatin assembly of newly-synthesized histones, via knockdown of the histone chaperones ASF1A, CAF-1 or a mutation that specifically prevents ASF1 binding to histones, hinders loading of Rad51 onto ssDNA during homologous recombination, as a consequence of reduced recruitment of the Rad51 loader MMS22L/TONSL to ssDNA, resulting in persistent RPA foci, extensive DNA end-resection, and persistent activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway. By contrast, ASF1 and CAF-1 render the rapid inactivation of ATM Chk2 ...


Characterization Of The Ubiquitin Ligase, Ube4b, In Endocytic Trafficking, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin May 2017

Characterization Of The Ubiquitin Ligase, Ube4b, In Endocytic Trafficking, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin, Natalie Sirisaengtaksin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Endocytosis is a process by which cells internalize membrane proteins to remove them from the plasma membrane, allowing cells to regulate the cell surface expression of transmembrane proteins. In this manner, cellular responses to extracellular cues may be tuned by limiting the number of proteins available at the cell surface. One particular class of proteins, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK), is internalized upon binding to extracellular ligands during their residence at the cell surface. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an RTK whose trafficking through the endocytic pathway through the cell is well-documented. Stimulation of EGFR with its cognate ligand ...


Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal May 2017

Understanding The Mechanism Of Genomic Instability During Replicative Aging In Budding Yeast, Sangita Pal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aging brings a gradual decline in molecular fidelity and biological functionality, resulting in age related phenotypes and diseases. Despite continued efforts to uncover the conserved aging pathways among eukaryotes, exact molecular causes of aging are still poorly understood. One of the most important hallmarks of aging is increased genomic instability. However, there remains much ambiguity as to the cause. I am studying the replicative life span (RLS) of the genetically tractable model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or budding yeast using the innovative “mother enrichment program” as the method to isolate unparalleled numbers of aged yeast cells to investigate the molecular changes ...


The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu May 2017

The Role Of Adenosine Signaling In Mature Erythrocytes And Erythroid Progenitors, Hong Liu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Adenosine is a ubiquitous nucleoside in almost all the cells throughout our bodies. It is highly induced particularly under hypoxia or energy depletion conditions. Adenosine functions as a critical ligand, after binding to membrane-associated adenosine receptors, adenosine initiates a downstream signaling cascade and subsequently contributes to functions of nervous system, immune response, vascular function and even metabolism.

Hypoxia is a condition with limited O2 availability in the whole body or a region of the body. It is a major consequence of many respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, as well as for people living and working at high altitudes or other ...


Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang Dec 2016

Characterization Of Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 And Its Role In Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis Using Drosophila, Antonio Joel Tito Jr., Sheng Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder caused by the selective loss of the dopaminergic neurons in the Substantia nigra pars compacta region of the brain. PD is also the most common neurodegenerative disorder and the second most common movement disorder. PD patients exhibit the cardinal symptoms, including tremor of the extremities, rigidity, slowness of movement, and postural instability, after 70-80% of DA neurons degenerate. It is, therefore, imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the selective degeneration of DA neurons. Although increasing numbers of PD genes have been identified, why these largely widely expressed genes ...


Using Mouse Models To Define How The P53 R72p Polymorphism Impacts The Adverse Effects Of Doxorubicin And Ionizing Radiation, Emily Dominguez Dec 2016

Using Mouse Models To Define How The P53 R72p Polymorphism Impacts The Adverse Effects Of Doxorubicin And Ionizing Radiation, Emily Dominguez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 72 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 codes for either an arginine (R) or proline (P) (p53 R72P). This SNP may impact how cells respond to genotoxic insult. Studies in cell culture and in tissues from mouse models of the SNP indicate that, in response to gentoxic treatment, the two variants may differentially induce apoptosis and expression of p53 target genes. In epidemiological studies, the P variant is associated with decreased cancer survival and increased risk of side-effects from genotoxic cancer treatment. Genotoxic therapy is still the mainstay of cancer treatment, and doxorubicin ...


Microenvironment-Induced Pten Loss By Exosomal Microrna Primes Brain Metastasis Outgrowth, Lin Zhang Dec 2016

Microenvironment-Induced Pten Loss By Exosomal Microrna Primes Brain Metastasis Outgrowth, Lin Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Development of life-threatening cancer metastases at distant organs requires disseminated tumor cells’ adaptation to and co-evolution with the drastically different microenvironments of metastatic sites. Cancer cells of common origin manifest distinct gene expression patterns after metastasizing to different organs. Clearly, the dynamic interplay between metastatic tumor cells and extrinsic signals at individual metastatic organ sites critically impacts the subsequent metastatic outgrowth. Yet, it is unclear when and how disseminated tumor cells acquire the essential traits from the microenvironment of metastatic organs that prime their subsequent outgrowth. Here we show that primary tumor cells with normal expression of PTEN, an important ...


¬¬Define The Epigenetic Profiles And Subtype-Specific Genes Of Breast Cancer, Wenqian Li Aug 2016

¬¬Define The Epigenetic Profiles And Subtype-Specific Genes Of Breast Cancer, Wenqian Li

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Molecular profiling has identified 5 distinct subtypes of breast cancer, luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like, and claudin-low breast cancer. These 5 subtypes correlate with hormone response, patient prognosis, and response to therapy. Although steady state gene expression patterns have been explored using expression microarrays, very little is known about the initial, disease-driving transcriptional changes in these cancers or epigenetic changes associated with the differential gene expression signatures. Defining these changes may provide new insights into the mechanisms by which these subtypes arise, as well as new avenues for breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation sequencing and ...


Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan Aug 2016

Defining The Functions Of Usp22 And Usp44 In Regulation Of H2bub1 Levels, Xianjiang Lan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Aberrant levels of histone ubiquitination are involved in various human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders and cancers. Particularly, Histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1) is highly associated with gene regulation in both normal cells and diseases. Many deubiquitinases (mainly USPs) are defined to regulate global H2Bub1 levels. However, how these USPs are regulated and how they contribute to diseases are not well understood.

USP22, part of the deubiquitination module (DUBm) in the SAGA complex, is a well-defined regulator of H2Bub1 levels. ATXN7, another crucial subunit of the SAGA DUBm, is involved in a neurodegenerative disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7), due to a ...


Novel Mechanisms Of Β-Adrenergic Signaling In Prostate Cancer Progression, Mohit Hulsurkar Aug 2016

Novel Mechanisms Of Β-Adrenergic Signaling In Prostate Cancer Progression, Mohit Hulsurkar

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among American men. The American Cancer Society estimates that 180,890 men will be will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2016 in the USA. (http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-key-statistics). Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment for early stage prostate cancer. But most patients relapse with aggressive variants of prostate cancer, with survival time between 1-3 years. In order to develop cure for such aggressive variants of prostate cancer, our present understanding of the mechanisms underlying its progression needs to be advanced.

Recently, it has ...


Regulation Of Breast Cancer Initiation And Progression By 14-3-3zeta, Chia-Chi Chang Aug 2016

Regulation Of Breast Cancer Initiation And Progression By 14-3-3zeta, Chia-Chi Chang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

14-3-3ζ is a ubiquitously expressed family member of proteins that have been implicated to have oncogenic potential through its interactions and involvement in cancer initiation and progression. 14-3-3ζ belongs to the highly conserved 14-3-3ζ protein family and modulates numerous pathways in cancer. Overexpression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event, occurs in more than 40% of human breast cancer cases, and is associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Cancer cells elevate aerobic glycolysis to produce metabolic intermediates and reducing equivalents, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation to the adverse environment and sustaining fast proliferation. Interestingly ...


Developing And Using Methyl-Specific Antibodies To Study The Biological Roles Of Arginine Methylation, Vidyasiri Vemulapalli May 2016

Developing And Using Methyl-Specific Antibodies To Study The Biological Roles Of Arginine Methylation, Vidyasiri Vemulapalli

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Arginine residues can be modified in three different ways to produce asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and monomethylarginine (MMA). These modifications are catalyzed by a family of nine protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMT1-9), which are of three types (I, II, and III). The majority of Type I enzymes asymmetrically dimethylate Glycine- and Arginine-rich (GAR) motifs, except for PRMT4, which methylates Proline-, Glycine-, and Methionine-rich (PGM) motifs. The same substrates (GAR or PGM motifs) can also be dimethylated by PRMT5 in a symmetric fashion. However, it is not clear whether there are dedicated residues within these motifs for ADMA and SDMA ...