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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Effect Of Α-Synuclein Overexpression On Presynaptic Terminals Of C. Elegans, Christian Silvestri Nov 2014

Effect Of Α-Synuclein Overexpression On Presynaptic Terminals Of C. Elegans, Christian Silvestri

Senior Theses

Parkinson's disease is a non-treatable neurological disorder that can lead to an inability to control one’s own muscles, causing rigidness and lack of movement. α-Synuclein is a protein that has been found in aggregate forms in PD patients and seems to bind to synaptic vesicle membranes and aid in vesicle transporting. This research focuses on the effect that over-expressed forms of α-synuclein have on presynaptic terminals of C. elegans. To examine this relationship we constructed transgenic animals expressing α-synuclein throughout the nervous system of wild type C. elegans. The α-synuclein strain had disruption of the puncta along the ...


Calcium-Stimulated Regulatory Volume Decrease In Salmo Salar And Alligator Mississipiensis Erythrocytes, Chloe Wormser Feb 2007

Calcium-Stimulated Regulatory Volume Decrease In Salmo Salar And Alligator Mississipiensis Erythrocytes, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

The mechanisms by which cells compensate for volume fluctuations are not clearly understood and vary among species. Research efforts in our lab have focused on elucidating the pathways involved in regulatory volume decrease (RVD), the process activated in response to cell swelling that allows for volume recovery. Previously, fluorescence microscopy studies performed by Light et al. (2005) revealed that in salmon red blood cells, cell swelling elicits a rise in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (visualized using fluorescence microscopy and the Ca2+ indicator fluo-4-AM). This was most likely due Ca2+ influx from the extracellular environment, because it was not observed in cells ...


A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser Jan 2006

A Novel Steroid Receptor Elucidates Non-Classical Signal Pathways, Chloe Wormser

Eukaryon

Cell signaling is a vital mechanism that ensures homeostatic conditions within a biological system. Steroid hormones and their specific receptors play a crucial role in the signaling network. It now appears that a new class of receptor has been isolated, which may finally answer the question of whether a physiologically relevant membrane steroid receptor actually exists.


Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak Jan 2006

Pathways Of Skeletal Muscle Atrophy: Hiv As A Model System?, Chelsea Bueter, Michelle Mckinzey, Chloe Salzmann, Michael Zorniak

Eukaryon

Skeletal Muscle Atrophy (SMA) is a phenomenon found in many diseases and disorders. SMA is characterized by protein degradation induced by various pathways. Ten years ago, little was known about the mechanisms that lead from these disorders to protein degradation. Current research focuses on the mechanisms thought to induce SMA. It is now known that many of these pathways involve ubiquitin conjugate accumulation and increased proteasome activity resulting in rapid protein degradation and decreased synthesis. HIV associated proteins, such as Vpr, cause overexpression of atrogin-1 which promotes atrophy. Cachexia operates mainly through the IKK/NF¨ºB pathway and MuRF-1 Ub-ligase ...


Sleeping Beauty, Mice, & Dogs: Cell Death In Narcolepsy, D'Anne Duncan Jan 2005

Sleeping Beauty, Mice, & Dogs: Cell Death In Narcolepsy, D'Anne Duncan

Eukaryon

Sleep is important and required for the survival and normal homeostasis of vertebrates. Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle can lead to many sleep disorders, one of which is narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a disabling sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleep, cataplexy (sudden loss of muscle tone in response to strong emotion or laughter), hallucinations, and sleep paralysis. To date, the pathological and biological basis of narcolepsy is poorly understood. My lab first discovered, in canines and humans, dysfunctional neurons that affect the sleep-wake cycle in narcolepsy, as well as neurodegeneration of brainstem and hypothalamic neurons. Other labs have identified mutations ...