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Toxicology

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Effects Of The Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley, Stefanie Otto-Hitt Jul 2018

Effects Of The Everyday Toxin, Titanium Dioxide, On Drosophila Melanogaster Nervous System Development, Maria Carparelli, Kelsey Ripley, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a widely used compound found in everything from food packaging to sunscreens. When ingested, TiO2 is readily transported across membranes and efficiently stored within cells. Previous studies showed that exposure to TiO2 results in underdeveloped nervous systems. For our study, we attempted to answer the following question: Will exposing Drosophila melanogaster larvae to TiO2 affect expression of the Neur gene and development of the central nervous system? The Neur gene is crucial during the celldetermination stage of development as its encoded protein helps specify neuroblast development and aids in nervous system and sensory organ development. It ...


Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Oxr1 Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Scott Khale, Brendan Mcmahon, Stefanie Otto-Hitt Jul 2018

Effect Of Potassium Bromate On Oxr1 Gene Expression And Cell Growth In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Scott Khale, Brendan Mcmahon, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The purpose of our experiment was to answer the question: Does oxidative damage, induced by potassium bromate (KBrO3), affect growth rate and expression of the OXR1 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila? Potassium Bromate was chosen as the environmental stressor because it is a strong oxidizing agent that is used as a leavening agent in baked goods. It was hypothesized that expression of OXR1 would increase in Tetrahymena cells that were exposed to potassium bromate and that their growth rate would decrease. The exact mechanism and function of the OXR1 gene is still unknown; however, the literature suggests that it is required ...


Effect Of Nitrate Pollution On Tetrahymena Thermophila, Reegan Debruycker, Hannah Sylvester, Stefanie Otto-Hitt Jul 2018

Effect Of Nitrate Pollution On Tetrahymena Thermophila, Reegan Debruycker, Hannah Sylvester, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

The question under investigation in this project was: Does an elevated concentration of nitrates have a negative eect on cell growth and expression of the CDC16 gene in the organism Tetrahymena thermophila? Exposure of Tetrahymena cultures to nitrates mimics the exposure of these organisms to nitrate pollution in the environment, which can occur due to septic tank leakage, nitrogen-rich fertilizer run o, and agricultural processes. The EPA standard for nitrate concentrations in drinking water is a maximum of 10ppm. In our experiment, Tetrahymena cultures were treated with media that contained 30ppm of nitrates for one week. The 30ppm nitrate concentration ...


The Effect Of Metal Pollutants On Cell Growth And Ttherm0058490expressionint Etrahymenathermophila, Inderbir Bains, William French, Stefanie Otto-Hitt Jul 2018

The Effect Of Metal Pollutants On Cell Growth And Ttherm0058490expressionint Etrahymenathermophila, Inderbir Bains, William French, Stefanie Otto-Hitt

Life and Environmental Sciences Course-based Research Projects

In this experiment, we sought to answer the following question: Do higher levels of metal exposure affect expression of the TTHERM 00584900 gene in Tetrahymena thermophila? The TTHERM 00584900 gene produces an ATP-binding cassette protein that is responsible for removing metals and metalloids from Tetrahymena thermophila. It is hypothesized that the expression of TTHERM 00584900 will increase with exposure to metals. In order to test this hypothesis, Tetrahymena thermophila were randomly assigned to either a control group, which was cultured in a normal growth medium, or a treatment group, whichin addition to the medium was exposed to water contaminated with ...


Δ-9-Thc Effect On The Dopamine Transporter, Brooke E. Nielsen Jun 2018

Δ-9-Thc Effect On The Dopamine Transporter, Brooke E. Nielsen

Student Theses

Understanding the mechanism behind drugs of abuse is one of the key elements to understanding why addiction is so prevalent in society. The goal of this research was to determine the effect that a popular cannabinoid, Δ -9-tetrahydrocannabinol has on the regulation of dopamine neurotransmitter in the synapses. It was hypothesized that the addictive high users experience from using Δ-9-THC had a direct effect on lowering the dopamine transporter protein on cell surface causing a buildup of dopamine in the synapse. The results of the study show that the higher concentration of Δ-9-THC that the cells were exposed to caused ...


Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar Jan 2017

Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings ...


Fipronil Promotes Adipogenesis Via Ampkα-Mediated Pathway In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Quancai Sun, Jeremy Yang, Kyong-Sup Yoon, John M. Clark, Yeonhwa Park Apr 2016

Fipronil Promotes Adipogenesis Via Ampkα-Mediated Pathway In 3t3-L1 Adipocytes, Quancai Sun, Jeremy Yang, Kyong-Sup Yoon, John M. Clark, Yeonhwa Park

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

Emerging evidence suggests that organochlorine, organophosphorus and neonicotinoid insecticide exposure may be linked to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, there is no knowledge of the potential influence of fipronil, which belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family, on obesity. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the role of fipronil in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Fipronil treatment, at 10 mM, increased fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as promoted key regulators of adipocyte differentiation (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-γ), and key regulators of lipogenesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase ...


The Establishment Of A Fibroblastic Cell Line From Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) And Its Potential Applications In Toxicology, Katelin W. Spiteri Jan 2014

The Establishment Of A Fibroblastic Cell Line From Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens) And Its Potential Applications In Toxicology, Katelin W. Spiteri

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

This thesis describes the establishment, characterization and potential toxicological applications of YPF5, a yellow perch cell line. YPF5 is a fibroblastic cell line derived from the caudal fin of yellow perch. This cell line has been maintained for over 2 years. Cultures have been passaged over 60 times, and successfully cryopreserved and thawed. YPF5 is grown at room temperature in Leibovitz-15 (L-15) media, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and 3% penicillin-streptomycin. The origin of YPF5 has been confirmed as Perca flavescens through “DNA Barcoding” and reaffirmed through Karyotyping (2n = 48) as per literature reported karyology for percidae including the ...


The Bio-Nano-Interface In Predicting Nanoparticle Fate And Behaviour In Living Organisms: Towards Grouping And Categorising Nanomaterials And Ensuring Nanosafety By Design, Hugh Byrne, Arti Ahluwalia, Diana Boraschi,, Bengt Fadeel, Peter Gehr, Arno C. Gutleb, Michaela Kendall, Manthos Papadopoulos, Iseult Lynch Jan 2013

The Bio-Nano-Interface In Predicting Nanoparticle Fate And Behaviour In Living Organisms: Towards Grouping And Categorising Nanomaterials And Ensuring Nanosafety By Design, Hugh Byrne, Arti Ahluwalia, Diana Boraschi,, Bengt Fadeel, Peter Gehr, Arno C. Gutleb, Michaela Kendall, Manthos Papadopoulos, Iseult Lynch

Articles

In biological media, nanoparticles acquire a coating of biomolecules (proteins, lipids, polysaccharides) from their surroundings, which reduces their surface energy and confers a biological identity to the particles. This adsorbed layer is the interface between the nanomaterial and living systems and therefore plays a significant role in determining the fate and behaviour of the nanoparticles. This review summarises the state of the art in terms of understanding the bio-nano interface and provides direction for potential future research directions and some recommendations for future priorities and strategies to support the safe implementation of nanotechnologies. The central premise is that nanomaterials must ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Dna Damage In Human Lung Alveolar Epithelial (A549) Cells From Exposure To Non-Cytotoxic Mfi-Type Zeolite Nanoparticles, Kunal Bhattacharya, Pratap Naha, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Hugh Byrne Dec 2012

Reactive Oxygen Species Mediated Dna Damage In Human Lung Alveolar Epithelial (A549) Cells From Exposure To Non-Cytotoxic Mfi-Type Zeolite Nanoparticles, Kunal Bhattacharya, Pratap Naha, Izabela Naydenova, Svetlana Mintova, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Increasing utilization of engineered nanoparticles in the field of electronics and biomedical applications demands an assessment of risk associated with deliberate or accidental exposure. Metal based nanoparticles are potentially most important of all the nanoparticles in terms of health risks. Microporousalumino-silicates and pure silicates named as zeolites and zeo-type materials with variety of structures, chemical compositions, particle sizes and morphologies have a significant number of industrial uses such as in catalysis, sorption and ion-exchange processes. In particular, the nanosized particles due to their unique properties are used in hybrid organic-inorganic materials for photography, photonics, electronics, labeling, imaging, and sensing. The ...


Investigating The Dual Roles Of Stra6 In Cell Signaling And Vitamin A Trafficking, Christina Elaine Schulte Jan 2012

Investigating The Dual Roles Of Stra6 In Cell Signaling And Vitamin A Trafficking, Christina Elaine Schulte

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The long-term goal of the present study is to understand how cancer incidence and progression can be reduced through the optimization of vitamin A trafficking and signaling in tissues prone to tumor development. However, little is known about vitamin A uptake, transport, or signaling in epithelial cells prone to tumorigenesis. Retinol, the major circulating retinoid, is delivered to peripheral tissues in complex with retinol binding protein (RBP). Recently, a retinoic acid responsive protein with no previous known biological function, STRA6, has been identified as an essential transmembrane receptor that mediates retinol uptake in retinal epithelial cells. More recently, STRA6 was ...


Compensatory Mechanisms Of Neuroprotection By Pkd Signaling Against Oxidative Damage In Experimental Models Of Parkinson's Disease (Pd): Relevance To Pd Drug Discovery Strategies, Arunkumar Asaithambi Jan 2011

Compensatory Mechanisms Of Neuroprotection By Pkd Signaling Against Oxidative Damage In Experimental Models Of Parkinson's Disease (Pd): Relevance To Pd Drug Discovery Strategies, Arunkumar Asaithambi

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oxidative stress is a key pathophysiological mechanism contributing to the selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying various stages of oxidative neuronal damage is critical to better understanding the diseases and developing new treatment modalities. In this study, we identified that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) functions as a key anti-apoptotic kinase to protect neuronal cells against early stages of oxidative stress. Blockade of PKCδ cleavage, PKCδ knockdown or overexpression of a cleavage-resistant PKCδ mutant effectively attenuated PKD1 activation, indicating that PKCδ proteolytic activation regulates PKD1 phosphorylation. We also identified that phosphorylation of S916 ...


Embryo And Gamete Development Upon Exposure To Cca Components: Cro3, Cuo, And As2o5, Nerbana Talaat-Elsebaei Mahmoud Jan 2003

Embryo And Gamete Development Upon Exposure To Cca Components: Cro3, Cuo, And As2o5, Nerbana Talaat-Elsebaei Mahmoud

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Production of functional gametes and healthy embryos is essential for proliferation of all vertebrates, especially humans. Many compounds have toxic effects on developing gametes and embryos among which are chromium trioxide (CrO3), cupric oxide (CuO) and arsenic pentaoxide (As2O5) as a mixture (CCA) or individually. Controversy surrounding the safety of CCA-treated wood centers primarily on the toxicity of its components and the potential for these metals to be released from the wood.

The aim of this research is to test the hypothesis that CCA components have deleterious effects on embryo development, oocyte maturation and integrity and ...


Alterations In Human B Cell Calcium Homeostasis By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Possible Associations With Cytochrome P450 Metabolism And Increased Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Barbara J. Mounho Apr 1997

Alterations In Human B Cell Calcium Homeostasis By Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Possible Associations With Cytochrome P450 Metabolism And Increased Tyrosine Phosphorylation, Barbara J. Mounho

Pharmaceutical Sciences ETDs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are known immunotoxicants in animals, and are suspect toxins to the human immune system. The mechanism(s), however, by which PAHs exert immunosuppression have not been fully elucidated. Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that PAHs, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)- anthracene (DMB A) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) may exert their immunotoxic effects by altering intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis in lymphocytes. Intracellular Ca2+ is an important second messenger in the immune response, and the mobilization of Ca2+ is critical in the transduction of intracellular signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. The ...


Preliminary Characterization Of The P3 Human Epithelial Cell Line For Radiobiological Reseach, John Holland Apr 1984

Preliminary Characterization Of The P3 Human Epithelial Cell Line For Radiobiological Reseach, John Holland

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Preliminary experimentation was performed to characterize the P3 human epithelial cell line for radiobiological research. Specifically, work was done to determine if the cell line should be used to evaluate mechanisms of radiation damage and repair as revealed by survival response experimentation and via the 6-thioguanine mutation assay. Growth analysis was performed as well as a 6-thioguanine toxicity study and a 6-thioguanine mutation expression time curve. Preliminary results were obtained from survival experiments following P3 cell irradiation with 50 KvP X-rays, 6^co gamma rays, and Janus Reactor fission spectrum neutrons with a mean energy of 0.86 MeV. These ...


The Cytotoxic And Kinetic Effects Of Asynchronous Cells Following The Administration Of Vincristine, Meri Firpo Apr 1984

The Cytotoxic And Kinetic Effects Of Asynchronous Cells Following The Administration Of Vincristine, Meri Firpo

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A growth curve was constructed for SCCVII-SF, a mouse squamous cell carcinoma cell line, in a culture of modified q-crle's medium. A toxicity curve was constructed for vincristine ,nd SCCVII-SF cells in the exponential phase of growth. Cells in mid-exponential phase were treated with a subtoxic level of vincristine for four hours. A count of mitotic cells was taken at intervals to determine whether vincristine caused a buildup of cells in mitosis after its removal. Results showed that cells continued to collect in mitosis for four hours after the removal of vincristine.


Studies On The Effect Of Azaserine On Dna, Charles Zucker Apr 1981

Studies On The Effect Of Azaserine On Dna, Charles Zucker

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Azaserine (O-diazoacetyl-L-serine) is known to be a non-competitive inhibitor of two enzymes necessary for de novo purine biosynthesis. Work done in this laboratory and others, however, indicates that much of azaserine’s effect in cytotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis can be attributed to its action on DNA. DNA repair-deficient strains of Escherichia coli are found to be more sensitive to azaserine cytotoxicity and, in cases, to azaserine mutagenesis than the wild type E. coli. Attempts at showing an in vitro effect of azaserine on DNA have not been conclusive as of yet. An interesting aspect of azaserine cytotoxicity is that it ...