Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cell Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

PDF

Cardiovascular System

Institution
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type

Articles 1 - 12 of 12

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Exogenous Ubiquitin On Processes Associated With Atherosclerosis, Chase W. Mussard May 2016

In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Exogenous Ubiquitin On Processes Associated With Atherosclerosis, Chase W. Mussard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Atherosclerosis, characterized by the build-up of cholesterol, immune cells and cellular debris within arterial walls, is accelerated following myocardial infarction by poorly understood mechanisms. Ubiquitin, a small, well-studied intracellular protein involved in protein turnover via the proteasome pathway, has recently been shown to exert extracellular effects on cardiac myocytes, in vitro, and in mice undergoing myocardial remodeling. This study investigates the potential role of extracellular ubiquitin in atherosclerosis by determining its effects on two critical atherosclerotic processes: the migration of vascular smooth muscles cells and the uptake of modified LDL by monocyte/macrophages in foam cell formation. In the presence ...


Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun May 2016

Programming Heart Disease: Does Poor Maternal Nutrition Alter Expression Of Cardiac Markers Of Proliferation, Hypertrophy, And Fibrosis In Offspring?, Cathy Chun

Honors Scholar Theses

Maternal malnutrition can affect fetal organogenesis, metabolic processes, and factors involved in developmental regulation. Of the many physiological effects poor maternal nutrition can induce in offspring, one of the most important organs affected is the heart. Cardiovascular disease has been associated with poor maternal diet. It also been suggested that hypertension can originate during impaired intrauterine growth and development. Hypertension can trigger hypertensive heart disease and is associated with numerous heart complications. We hypothesized that poor maternal nutrition would alter critical growth factors associated with normal heart development, specifically, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-2, transforming growth factor (TGF)β ...


Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing 5’-Inositol Phosphatase-2 (Ship2) Is An Effector Of Lymphatic Dysfunction, Germaine D. Agollah May 2015

Src Homology 2 Domain-Containing 5’-Inositol Phosphatase-2 (Ship2) Is An Effector Of Lymphatic Dysfunction, Germaine D. Agollah

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The lymphatic system is essential for the transport of excess fluid, protein, and foreign materials from interstitial tissues to lymph nodes; for immune surveillance, and to maintain fluid homeostasis. Dysregulated lymphatics can be attributed to pathological conditions including tumor metastasis, inflammation, chronic wounds, obesity, blood vascular disorders, and lymphedema. Of these, lymphedema is the most extreme of lymphatic disorders and is represented by a spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild, subtle presentation to severe, disfiguring, overt presentation. Lymphedema is more manageable in the early stages of disease but severely reduces quality of life with progression. Due to lack of molecular ...


Effects Of Cannabidiol On Contractions And Calcium Signaling In Rat Ventricular Myocytes, Ramez M. Ali, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Anwar Qureshi, Mohanraj Rajesh, Sehamuddin Galadari, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz Apr 2015

Effects Of Cannabidiol On Contractions And Calcium Signaling In Rat Ventricular Myocytes, Ramez M. Ali, Lina T. Al Kury, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Anwar Qureshi, Mohanraj Rajesh, Sehamuddin Galadari, Yaroslav M. Shuba, Frank Christopher Howarth, Murat Oz

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic cannabinoid found in Cannabis plant, has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions under various physiological and pathological conditions. In the present study, the effects of CBD on contractility and electrophysiological properties of rat ventricular myocytes were investigated. Video edge detection was used to measure myocyte shortening. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured in cells loaded with the Ca2+ sensitive fluorescent indicator fura-2 AM. Whole-cell patch clamp was used to measure action potential and Ca2+ currents. Radioligand binding was employed to study pharmacological characteristics of CBD binding. CBD (1 μM) caused a significant decrease in the amplitudes of ...


Myosin-Binding Protein C Corrects An Intrinsic Inhomogeneity In Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling, Michael J. Previs, Benjamin L. Prosser, Ji Young Mun, Samantha Beck Previs, James Gulick, Kyounghwan Lee, Jeffrey Robbins, Roger Craig, W J. Lederer, David M. Warshaw Feb 2015

Myosin-Binding Protein C Corrects An Intrinsic Inhomogeneity In Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling, Michael J. Previs, Benjamin L. Prosser, Ji Young Mun, Samantha Beck Previs, James Gulick, Kyounghwan Lee, Jeffrey Robbins, Roger Craig, W J. Lederer, David M. Warshaw

Cell and Developmental Biology Publications

The beating heart exhibits remarkable contractile fidelity over a lifetime, which reflects the tight coupling of electrical, chemical, and mechanical elements within the sarcomere, the elementary contractile unit. On a beat-to-beat basis, calcium is released from the ends of the sarcomere and must diffuse toward the sarcomere center to fully activate the myosin- and actin-based contractile proteins. The resultant spatial and temporal gradient in free calcium across the sarcomere should lead to nonuniform and inefficient activation of contraction. We show that myosin-binding protein C (MyBP-C), through its positioning on the myosin thick filaments, corrects this nonuniformity in calcium activation by ...


Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick Jan 2015

Mimicking The Arterial Microenvironment With Peg-Pc To Investigate The Roles Of Physicochemical Stimuli In Smc Phenotype And Behavior, William G. Herrick

Doctoral Dissertations

The goal of this dissertation was to parse the roles of physical, mechanical and chemical cues in the phenotype plasticity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in atherosclerosis. We first developed and characterized a novel synthetic hydrogel with desirable traits for studying mechanotransduction in vitro. This hydrogel, PEG-PC, is a co-polymer of poly(ethylene glycol) and phosphorylcholine with an incredible range of Young’s moduli (~1 kPa - 9 MPa) that enables reproduction of nearly any tissue stiffness, exceptional optical and anti-fouling properties, and support for covalent attachment of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. To our knowledge, this combination of mechanical range, low ...


Dopaminergic Signaling Within The Primary Cilia In The Renovascular System, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Samred H. Kathem, Xingjian Jin, Brian S. Muntean, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli Jan 2015

Dopaminergic Signaling Within The Primary Cilia In The Renovascular System, Kimberly F. Atkinson, Samred H. Kathem, Xingjian Jin, Brian S. Muntean, Wissam A. Aboualaiwi, Andromeda M. Nauli, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Activation of dopamine receptor type-5 (DR5) has been known to reduce systemic blood pressure, most likely by increasing renal vasodilation and enhancing natriuresis in the kidney. However, the mechanism of DR5 in natriuresis and vasodilation was not clearly known. We have previously shown that DR5 is localized to primary cilia of proximal renal epithelial and vascular endothelial cells. We here show that selective activation of DR5 specifically induces calcium influx only in the primary cilia, whereas non-selective activation of dopamine receptor induces calcium fluxes in both cilioplasm and cytoplasm. Cilia-independent signaling induced by thrombin only shows calcium signaling within cytoplasm ...


Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin May 2012

Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis in the heart. An important regulator of metabolic homeostasis is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). During nutrient deprivation, AMPK is activated and intracellular proteolysis is enhanced through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Whether AMPK plays a role in protein degradation through the UPS in the heart is not known. Here I present data in support of the hypothesis that AMPK transcriptionally regulates key players in the UPS, which, under extreme conditions can be detrimental to the heart. The ubiquitin ligases MAFbx /Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, key regulators of ...


Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin May 2012

Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis in the heart. An important regulator of metabolic homeostasis is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). During nutrient deprivation, AMPK is activated and intracellular proteolysis is enhanced through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Whether AMPK plays a role in protein degradation through the UPS in the heart is not known. Here I present data in support of the hypothesis that AMPK transcriptionally regulates key players in the UPS, which, under extreme conditions can be detrimental to the heart. The ubiquitin ligases MAFbx /Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, key regulators of ...


Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas Sep 2010

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas

Jennifer Kowalski

The underlying mechanisms that regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration through the vascular endothelium remain unclear. Cortactin is a substrate of Src tyrosine kinases and a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Previous studies demonstrated a role for Src phosphorylation of cortactin in clustering of E-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 around adherent leukocytes. In the current study, we used an in vitro flow model to investigate the role of Src-induced cortactin phosphorylation in endothelium during polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration through human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVEC) monolayers preactivated with tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Inhibition of Src in HUVEC using Src kinase inhibitors PP2 and ...


Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas Jan 2006

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

The underlying mechanisms that regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration through the vascular endothelium remain unclear. Cortactin is a substrate of Src tyrosine kinases and a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Previous studies demonstrated a role for Src phosphorylation of cortactin in clustering of E-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 around adherent leukocytes. In the current study, we used an in vitro flow model to investigate the role of Src-induced cortactin phosphorylation in endothelium during polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration through human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVEC) monolayers preactivated with tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Inhibition of Src in HUVEC using Src kinase inhibitors PP2 and ...


Pressure-Induced Intracellular Signaling In Isolated Arteries, Victor A. Miriel Apr 1998

Pressure-Induced Intracellular Signaling In Isolated Arteries, Victor A. Miriel

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The ability of cells to respond to mechanical stimuli has been studied through a variety of techniques in numerous cell types. The cells of the vascular wall have adapted to specific mechanical stresses through the activation of intracellular signaling pathways which result in cell-specific responses such as hypertrophy, hyperplasia, proliferation, and migration. Vascular smooth muscle of the arteries have been shown to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli such as stretch, and pressure.

This study attempts to add to the current knowledge of mechanotransduction by utilizing the isolated artery preparation. This preparation allows for the study of vascular smooth muscle signal ...