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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori Dec 2019

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Depending on the initiating stimulus, cancer cell death can be immunogenic or non-immunogenic. Inducers of immunogenic cell death (ICD) rely on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress for the trafficking of danger signals such as calreticulin (CRT) and ATP. We found that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), an emerging new modality for tumor ablation, cause the activation of the ER-resident stress sensor PERK in both CT-26 colon carcinoma and EL-4 lymphoma cells. PERK activation correlates with sustained CRT exposure on the cell plasma membrane and apoptosis induction in both nsPEF-treated cell lines. Our results show that, in CT-26 cells, the activity of ...


Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori Jan 2019

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Accumulating data indicates that some cancer treatments can restore anticancer immunosurveillance through the induction of tumor immunogenic cell death (ICD). Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been shown to efficiently ablate melanoma tumors. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and immunogenicity of nsPEF-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma tumors. Our data show that in vitro nsPEF (20-200, 200-ns pulses, 7 kV/cm, 2 Hz) caused a rapid dose-dependent cell death which was not accompanied by caspase activation or PARP cleavage. The lack of nsPEF-induced apoptosis was confirmed in vivo in B16F10 tumors. NsPEF also failed to trigger ICD-linked responses ...


Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller Dec 2018

Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a relatively low survival rate. Immune-based therapies have shown promise in the treatment of melanoma, but overall complete response rates are still low. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of plasmid IL-12 (pIL-12) delivered by gene electrotransfer (GET) to be an effective immunotherapy for melanoma. However, events occurring in the tumor microenvironment following delivery have not been delineated. Therefore, utilizing a B16F10 mouse melanoma model, we evaluated changes in the tumor microenvironment following delivery of pIL-12 using different GET parameters or injection of plasmid alone. The results revealed a unique immune cell ...


Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley Nov 2018

Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley

Bioelectrics Publications

Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Transcriptome sequencing is increasingly revealing that equally rich compliments of ion channels exist in both excitable and non-excitable tissue. In this review, we discuss a range of critical ...


Excitation And Injury Of Adult Ventricular Cardiomyocytes By Nano- To Millisecond Electric Shocks, Iurii Semenov, Sergey Grigoryev, Johanna U. Neuber, Christian W. Zemlin, Olga N. Pakhomova, Maura Casciola, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2018

Excitation And Injury Of Adult Ventricular Cardiomyocytes By Nano- To Millisecond Electric Shocks, Iurii Semenov, Sergey Grigoryev, Johanna U. Neuber, Christian W. Zemlin, Olga N. Pakhomova, Maura Casciola, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Intense electric shocks of nanosecond (ns) duration can become a new modality for more efficient but safer defibrillation. We extended strength-duration curves for excitation of cardiomyocytes down to 200 ns, and compared electroporative damage by proportionally more intense shocks of different duration. Enzymatically isolated murine, rabbit, and swine adult ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCM) were loaded with a Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4 or Fluo-5N and subjected to shocks of increasing amplitude until a Ca2+ transient was optically detected. Then, the voltage was increased 5-fold, and the electric cell injury was quantified by the uptake of a membrane permeability marker dye, propidium ...


Upregulation Of Dna Sensors In B16.F10 Melanoma Spheroid Cells After Electrotransfer Of Pdna, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Tanja Jesenko, Loree C. Heller, Maja Cemazar Jan 2018

Upregulation Of Dna Sensors In B16.F10 Melanoma Spheroid Cells After Electrotransfer Of Pdna, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Tanja Jesenko, Loree C. Heller, Maja Cemazar

Bioelectrics Publications

Increased expression of cytosolic DNA sensors, a category of pattern recognition receptor, after control plasmid DNA electrotransfer was observed in our previous studies on B16.F10 murine melanoma cells. This expression was correlated with the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and was associated with cell death. Here, we expanded our research to include the influence of features of cells in a 3-dimensional environment, which better represents the tumors’ organization in vivo. Our results show that lower number of cells were transfected in spheroids compared to 2-dimensional cultures, that growth was delayed after electroporation alone or after electrotransfer of plasmid ...


Adventures With Rna Fish For Diagnosing Viral Infections And Exploring Single-Cell Heterogeneity In Cancer, Sydney Shaffe Shaffer Jan 2016

Adventures With Rna Fish For Diagnosing Viral Infections And Exploring Single-Cell Heterogeneity In Cancer, Sydney Shaffe Shaffer

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Single-molecule RNA FISH is a robust method for visualizing individual molecules of RNA within intact cells that has been used extensively for describing single-cell hetero- geneity in gene expression. In this thesis, we leverage RNA FISH-based technologies for two major problems in biology and medicine: rapid detection of viral infections and understanding mechanisms of resistance to targeted therapy in cancer. Until recently, RNA FISH was not a viable technology for rapid diagnostics, as the hybridization process required a minimum of 6 hours. We start by presenting a modification to the RNA FISH protocol developed by Raj et al. 2008, that ...


Bidirectional Interactions Between Mitochondrial Function And Cell Mechanics, Judith Kandel Jan 2016

Bidirectional Interactions Between Mitochondrial Function And Cell Mechanics, Judith Kandel

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Energetic and structural maintenance are both critical to cellular homeostasis, and clinical disease is often characterized by alterations in both of these realms. While the manifestation of pathology in each of these fields has been extensively studied, little research has been done to characterize basic, direct interactions between mitochondrial function and cell mechanics. The experiments described in this dissertation endeavored to address that gap, first by investigating the cytoskeletal and mechanical effects of mitochondrial dysfunction and then by considering the mitochondrial consequences of cytoarchitectural breakdown.

Mechanical integrity of the cell following mitochondrial dysfunction was investigated through multiple experimental platforms, including ...


Cell Signaling Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Carcinoma, Janine Marie Buonato Jan 2015

Cell Signaling Regulatory Mechanisms Controlling Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Carcinoma, Janine Marie Buonato

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a cellular program normally engaged during development and wound healing that is hijacked in many cancers to drive metastasis and resistance to therapy. The clinical implications of EMT in cancer progression have driven efforts to understand the cellular processes controlling EMT induction. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) and expression of related transcription factors potentiate EMT induction through complex and incompletely understood mechanisms. In this thesis, we investigated specific intracellular signaling pathways controlling maintenance of mesenchymal characteristics and EMT induction in response to growth factors in lung and pancreatic carcinoma cells. In lung carcinoma cells, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 ...


Design And Fabrication Of Engineered Platforms To Control Multiple Cue Directed Cell Migration, Laura M. Lara-Rodriguez Jan 2014

Design And Fabrication Of Engineered Platforms To Control Multiple Cue Directed Cell Migration, Laura M. Lara-Rodriguez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cell migration is essential during a variety of physiological events, and as such it has been extensively studied in an attempt to unravel the details of its mechanisms. Cells receive information from the environment and migrate accordingly. Within the last few decades, different studies have evaluated the effect of different types of signals and the way in which they regulate cell migration. However, cells do not respond to individual cues, but they are constantly receiving information from a variety of signals in vivo. One particular scenario in which the concerted action of multiple signals is thought to be relevant is ...


Introduction To Fourth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2014

Introduction To Fourth Special Issue On Electroporation-Based Technologies And Treatments, Damijan Miklavčič, Lluis M. Mir, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

This fourth special electroporation-based technologies and treatments issue of the Journal of Membrane Biology contains reports on recent developments in the field of electroporation by participants in the 7th International Workshop and Postgraduate Course on electroporation based technologies and treatments (EBTT 2013) held in Ljubljana, November 17–23, 2013. The 65 participants included faculty members, invited lecturers, special guests, and young scientists, and students from 16 countries. In addition to lectures on the fundamentals, this year’s sessions included talks on microbial inactivation by pulsed electric fields, modeling of intracellular electroporation, electroporation in food processing, and electrotransfer-facilitated DNA vaccination.


Mechanochemical Control Of Stem Cell Biology In Development And Disease: Experimental And Theoretical Models, Polimyr Caesar Dave Pelisco Dingal Jan 2014

Mechanochemical Control Of Stem Cell Biology In Development And Disease: Experimental And Theoretical Models, Polimyr Caesar Dave Pelisco Dingal

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Whether a stem cell remains or egresses away from its physiological niche is a function of mechanical and soluble factors in a time-dependent manner, which implicates a `memory' of prior mechanochemical conditioning. Virtually every organ in the body contains resident stem or progenitor cells that contribute to organ homeostasis or repair. The wound healing process in higher vertebrate animals is spatiotemporally complex and usually leads to scarring. Limitations for the use of stem cells as regenerative therapy include the lack of expansion capabilities in vitro as well as materials issues that complicate traditional biochemical protocols. A minimal `scar in a ...


Engineered Materials To Measure And Regulate Cell Mechanotransduction, Brandon Lou Blakely Jan 2014

Engineered Materials To Measure And Regulate Cell Mechanotransduction, Brandon Lou Blakely

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The extracellular environment plays a key role in a wide array of cellular functions including migration, tissue formation, and differentiation. This thesis overviews the design of a molecular sensor to measure cellular forces and a hydrogel system to engineer angiogenic sprouting. We developed molecular force probes (FPs) that report traction forces of adherent cells with high spatial resolution, can be linked to virtually any surface, and do not require monitoring deformations of elastic substrates. FPs consist of DNA hairpins conjugated to fluorophore-quencher pairs that unfold and fluoresce when subjected to specific amounts of force. In chapter two we overview the ...


Regulation Of Cell Signaling By Mig6 And Sprouty2 In Cancers With Egfr Mutations, Alice Macdonald Walsh Jan 2014

Regulation Of Cell Signaling By Mig6 And Sprouty2 In Cancers With Egfr Mutations, Alice Macdonald Walsh

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and overexpression promote tumorigenesis in multiple cancers. Understanding the complex EGFR regulatory network is critical for developing effective therapeutic interventions. To this end, this work investigated the functions of two incompletely characterized regulators of EGFR trafficking and signaling, mitogen-inducible gene 6 (MIG6) and Sprouty2 (SPRY2), in two cancer settings where EGFR mutation is common, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In NSCLC cells, results indicate that MIG6, an endogenous inhibitor of EGFR activity and endocytic adaptor, is surprisingly responsible for at least half of EGFR endocytosis, suggesting that a substantial fraction ...


Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright Jan 2013

Modulation Of Cell-Matrix Interaction For Cryopreservation Of Engineered Tissue, Angela Christine Seawright

Open Access Theses

Long term preservation of functional engineered tissues can significantly advance tissue engineering industry and regenerative medicine. Several preservation techniques have been proposed and investigated for this purpose, and cryopreservation is a leading candidate. While tissues are cryopreserved, ice forms in both the extracellular and intracellular spaces and causes freezing-induced spatiotemporal deformation of the tissue. During this process the cells undergo dehydration by the freezing-induced osmotic pressure difference and mechanical deformation, transmitted through cell-extracellular matrix adhesions. However, the significance and interaction of these cellular level transport and mechanics processes are not well understood. Therefore, this study aims to establish mechanistic understanding ...


Measuring Transcription Directly From Our Chromosomes, Marshall Levesque Jan 2013

Measuring Transcription Directly From Our Chromosomes, Marshall Levesque

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Our genome is organized into DNA segments called chromosomes. Alterations to the typically invariant number and composition of chromosomes are hallmarks of serious disease like cancer. Understanding how rearranging chromosomes affects chromosomal behavior and ultimately leads to disease requires chromosome-specific gene expression measurements, but current tools are insufficient. This thesis describes tools for measuring transcription while discriminating which copy of a gene the RNA comes from. The ability to take these measurements in single cells enabled us to measure changes in transcription on translocated chromosomes or from the maternal vs. paternal chromosomes.

Firstly, we introduce intron chromosomal expression FISH (iceFISH ...


Recruitment Of The Intracellular Ca2+ By Ultrashort Electric Stimuli: The Impact Of Pulse Duration, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2013

Recruitment Of The Intracellular Ca2+ By Ultrashort Electric Stimuli: The Impact Of Pulse Duration, Iurii Semenov, Shu Xiao, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond-duration electric stimuli are distinguished by the ability to permeabilize intracellular membranes and recruit Ca2+ from intracellular stores. We quantified this effect in non-excitable cells (CHO) using ratiometric Ca2+ imaging with Fura-2. In a Ca2+-free medium, 10-, 60-, and 300-ns stimuli evoked Ca2+ transients by mobilization of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum. With 2 mM external Ca2+, the transients included both extra- and intracellular components. The recruitment of intracellular Ca2+ increased as the stimulus duration decreased. At the threshold of 200–300 nM, the transients were amplified by calcium-induced calcium release. We conclude ...


Oxidative Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Exposure In Cells And Cell-Free Media, Olga N. Pakhomova, Vera A. Khorokhorina, Angela M. Bowman, Raminta Rodaitė-Riševičienė, Gintautas Saulis, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Oxidative Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field Exposure In Cells And Cell-Free Media, Olga N. Pakhomova, Vera A. Khorokhorina, Angela M. Bowman, Raminta Rodaitė-Riševičienė, Gintautas Saulis, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) is a novel modality for permeabilization of membranous structures and intracellular delivery of xenobiotics. We hypothesized that oxidative effects of nsPEF could be a separate primary mechanism responsible for bioeffects. ROS production in cultured cells and media exposed to 300-ns PEF (1–13 kV/cm) was assessed by oxidation of 2′, 7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein (H2DCF), dihidroethidium (DHE), or Amplex Red. When a suspension of H2DCF-loaded cells was subjected to nsPEF, the yield of fluorescent 2′,7′dichlorofluorescein (DCF) increased proportionally to the pulse number and cell density. DCF emission increased with time ...


Mechanical Destruction Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms By Ultrasound Exposure, Jin Xu, Timothy A. Bigelow, Larry J. Halverson, Jill Middendorf, Ben Rusk Jan 2012

Mechanical Destruction Of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Biofilms By Ultrasound Exposure, Jin Xu, Timothy A. Bigelow, Larry J. Halverson, Jill Middendorf, Ben Rusk

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Medical implants are prone to colonization by bacterial biofilms, which are highly resistant to antibiotics. Normally, surgery is required to replace the infected implant. One promising non-invasive treatment option is to destroy the biofilm with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) exposure. In our study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial biofilms were grown on graphite disks in a flow chamber for three days prior to exposing them to ultrasound pulses of varying duration or burst period. The pulses were 20 cycles in duration at a frequency of 1.1 MHz from a spherically focused transducer (f/1, 63 mm focal length), creating peak compressional ...


Development Of A High Throughput Assay To Optimize Hematopoietic Differentiation Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Joel Thomas Outten Jan 2012

Development Of A High Throughput Assay To Optimize Hematopoietic Differentiation Of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, Joel Thomas Outten

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) offer the potential to develop in vitro protocols for the generation of any human somatic cell. In order for protocols to allow for both comprehension of underlying developmental mechanics and future clinical application, they will need to rely upon efficient differentiation of cells without the reliance upon animal-derived components. This thesis presents the development of a 96-well plate culture system that allows 4-color, flow cytometry based high throughput screening of defined, serum-free hESC differentiation conditions. In the first portion, broad applicability is proven by demonstrating highly efficient differentiation toward the three primary germ layers. Using ...


An Apoptosis Targeted Stimulus With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs) In E4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Wei Ren, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2011

An Apoptosis Targeted Stimulus With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs) In E4 Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Wei Ren, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Stimuli directed towards activation of apoptosis mechanisms are an attractive approach to eliminate evasion of apoptosis, a ubiquitous cancer hallmark. In these in vitro studies, kinetics and electric field thresholds for several apoptosis characteristics are defined in E4 squamous carcinoma cells (SCC) exposed to ten 300 ns pulses with increasing electric fields. Cell death was [95% at the highest electric field and coincident with phosphatidylserine externalization, caspase and calpain activation in the presence and absence of cytochrome c release, decreases in Bid and mitochondria membrane potential (Δψm) without apparent changes reactive oxygen species levels or in Bcl2 and Bclxl levels ...


Self-Consistent Analyses For Potential Conduction Block In Nerves By An Ultrashort High-Intensity Electric Pulse, R. P. Joshi, A. Mishra, Q. Hu, K. H. Schoenbach, A. Pakhomov Jan 2007

Self-Consistent Analyses For Potential Conduction Block In Nerves By An Ultrashort High-Intensity Electric Pulse, R. P. Joshi, A. Mishra, Q. Hu, K. H. Schoenbach, A. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Simulation studies are presented that probe the possibility of using high-field (>100kV ∕ cm), short-duration (∼50ns) electrical pulses for nonthermal and reversible cessation of biological electrical signaling pathways. This would have obvious applications in neurophysiology, clinical research, neuromuscular stimulation therapies, and even nonlethal bioweapons development. The concept is based on the creation of a sufficiently high density of pores on the nerve membrane by an electric pulse. This modulates membrane conductance and presents an effective "electrical short" to an incident voltage wave traveling across a nerve. Net blocking of action potential propagation can then result. A continuum approach based on the ...


Diverse Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields On Mammalian Cells, Jody Anne White Jan 2006

Diverse Effects Of Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields On Mammalian Cells, Jody Anne White

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The continuing effort to manipulate cell-signaling pathways for therapeutic benefit has lead to the exploration of electric field effects on cells. Current electric field applications include electroporation of the plasma membrane for introduction of drugs, genes, or other macromolecules into cells. Modeling of how these pulsed electric fields affect cells depicts the cell as an excitable circuit. In this model, the electric fields, administered in short pulses to a cell, charge the plasma and internal membranes, which act as dielectric layers, and between these the cytoplasm acts as a conductive medium. The pulse lengths of this treatment are traditionally in ...


Selective Field Effects On Intracellular Vacuoles And Vesicle Membranes With Nanosecond Electric Pulses, Ephrem Tekle, Hammou Oubrahim, Sergey M. Dzekunov, Juergen F. Kolb, Karl H. Schoenbach Jan 2005

Selective Field Effects On Intracellular Vacuoles And Vesicle Membranes With Nanosecond Electric Pulses, Ephrem Tekle, Hammou Oubrahim, Sergey M. Dzekunov, Juergen F. Kolb, Karl H. Schoenbach

Bioelectrics Publications

Electric pulses across intact vesicles and cells can lead to transient increase in permeability of their membranes. We studied the integrity of these membranes in response to external electric pulses of high amplitude and submicrosecond duration with a primary aim of achieving selective permeabilization. These effects were examined in two separate model systems comprising of 1), a mixed population of 1,2-di-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine phospholipid vesicles and in 2), single COS-7 cells, in which large endosomal membrane vacuoles were induced by stimulated endocytosis. It has been shown that large and rapidly varying external electric fields, with pulses shorter than the charging time ...


Characterization Of The Biological Activities Of Recombinant Fusion Protein Green Fluorescent Protein/Human Zona Pellucida Protein 3 (Gfp/Hzp3), Zhiyong Lin Jan 2001

Characterization Of The Biological Activities Of Recombinant Fusion Protein Green Fluorescent Protein/Human Zona Pellucida Protein 3 (Gfp/Hzp3), Zhiyong Lin

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Despite numerous reports indicating the successful production of bioactive recombinant ZP3, no report has shown the rhZP3 having direct binding activity with human sperm. Recombinant ZP3 generated from our previous study displayed binding activity with human sperm through indirect evidence from hemizona assay (HZA).

This present study focused on the production of recombinant ZP3 with direct binding activity with human sperm. Through the application of a pEGFP expression vector, fusion protein GFP/ZP3 was successfully generated and expressed. The expression of GFP/ZP3 was evidenced by RT-PCR and western blot. The fusion protein was partially purified by Ni-NTA affinity column ...