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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

#2 - Comparison Of Ion Transport Expression In Lake Sturgeon Exposed To Differing Water Chemistries, Caitlin Forkin Nov 2019

#2 - Comparison Of Ion Transport Expression In Lake Sturgeon Exposed To Differing Water Chemistries, Caitlin Forkin

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

This project investigated ion uptake by fish endemic to Georgia, known as Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), which were acquired from a hatchery and naturally found in the Coosa River. For this investigation, identical recirculating tank systems provided separated environments for the two types of water treatments. Equal test groups were placed into the different water chemistries, one into the Coosa River and the other into the regular dechlorinated tap water. All subjects consumed the same type of food: Rangen, which is a commercial chow mix, and blood worm. The Coosa River water differs in ionic composition compared to the hatchery ...


Equine Hoof Stratum Internum K14+Cd105+ Progenitor Cells: Culture, Characterization, And Model Of Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Qingqiu Yang Oct 2019

Equine Hoof Stratum Internum K14+Cd105+ Progenitor Cells: Culture, Characterization, And Model Of Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Qingqiu Yang

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

For the potential benefit of progenitor cells to be realized in cell-based clinical therapies, it is vital to investigate the mechanism between progenitor cells and abnormal tissue formation. Laminitis is a fatal condition that is often presented by equine hoof inflammation and hoof tissue disarrangement. The persistence of abnormal tissue formation after the resolution of equine laminitis suggests there is progenitor cell compromise. So far, there is limited information about equine hoof progenitor cells and the effects of inflammation on hoof progenitor cells. To pursue a better understanding of both hoof progenitor cell and hoof growth as well as find ...


Dormant Pathogenic Cd4(+) T Cells Are Prevalent In The Peripheral Repertoire Of Healthy Mice, Anna Cebula, Michal Kuczma, Edyta Szurek, Maciej Pietrzak, Natasha Savage, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Grzegorz Rempala, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz Oct 2019

Dormant Pathogenic Cd4(+) T Cells Are Prevalent In The Peripheral Repertoire Of Healthy Mice, Anna Cebula, Michal Kuczma, Edyta Szurek, Maciej Pietrzak, Natasha Savage, Wessam R. Elhefnawy, Grzegorz Rempala, Piotr Kraj, Leszek Ignatowicz

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Thymic central tolerance eliminates most immature T cells with autoreactive T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize self MHC/peptide complexes. Regardless, an unknown number of autoreactive CD4+Foxp3 T cells escape negative selection and in the periphery require continuous suppression by CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory cells (Tregs). Here, we compare immune repertoires of Treg-deficient and Treg-sufficient mice to find Tregs continuously constraining one-third of mature CD4+Foxp3 cells from converting to pathogenic effectors in healthy mice. These dormant pathogenic clones frequently express TCRs activatable by ubiquitous autoantigens presented by class II MHCs on conventional dendritic cells, including selfpeptides that select them ...


Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera Sep 2019

Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Single-cell sequencing technologies have revealed an unexpectedly broad repertoire of cells required to mediate complex functions in multicellular organisms. Despite the multiple roles of adipose tissue in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis, adipocytes are thought to be largely homogenous with only 2 major subtypes recognized in humans so far. Here we report the existence and characteristics of 4 distinct human adipocyte subtypes, and of their respective mesenchymal progenitors. The phenotypes of these distinct adipocyte subtypes are differentially associated with key adipose tissue functions, including thermogenesis, lipid storage, and adipokine secretion. The transcriptomic signature of "brite/beige" thermogenic adipocytes reveals mechanisms for ...


The Functional Conservation Of Frazzled In Insects, Benjamin Wadsworth Aug 2019

The Functional Conservation Of Frazzled In Insects, Benjamin Wadsworth

Theses and Dissertations

Axons in the developing embryo receive and react to signals that direct their growth to reach target tissues at specified locations. The signal pathways that direct midline crossing of axons during embryonic development have been comprehensively examined in the past years using the Drosophila ventral nerve cord or the spinal cord as a model system. A number of these signaling mechanisms are conserved, however disparities have been found between species in general strategy or the molecular signals controlling the response of axons to guidance cues.

The Netrin-Frazzled pathway has been shown to aid in midline crossing of axons in the ...


The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker Jul 2019

The ‘Law Of Environmental Dependence’ - Biology And Ethics In The Work Of Ernest Everett Just: + Found – Some 251 Mostly Typed Pages, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Abstract-

“The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior” (circa October 1941) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig A. Schnetzler Just - is an unpublished book manuscript about the biological origins and evolution of ethical behavior, and about “the law of environmental dependence.” Missing since Just’s death in October 1941, it was found and identified in May 2018 among the collected papers of Ernest Everett Just preserved at the Howard University Moorland-Spingarn Research Center in Washington, DC. In addition to the 1996 US postage with the caption “Ernest E. Just, Biologist,” we now have reason to add two new postage stamps ...


Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew Jul 2019

Development Of A Prolyl Endopeptidase Expression System In Lactobacillus Reuteri To Reduce The Clinical Manifestation Of Celiac Disease, Kara Lynn Jew

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that emerges due to the ingestion of gluten, a protein found in a variety of common grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. Approximately 1 in 100 individuals in the US suffer from CD, making it the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder (Ciclitira et. al., 2005). These proline-rich gluten peptides are resistant to proteolysis and accumulate in the duodenum of the small intestine. Once in the duodenum, these peptides illicit an autoimmune response resulting in villous atrophy. Current treatment for CD requires a rigorous adherence to a gluten-free diet. Nevertheless, gluten-containing grains are ...


Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal May 2019

Differential Roles Of Mammalian Target Of Rapamycin Complexes 1 And 2 In Migration Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Smrruthi Vaidegi Venugopal

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

In this study, we investigated differential activation and the role of two mTOR complexes in cell migration of prostate cancer cells. Specific knock-down of endogenous RAPTOR and RICTOR by siRNA resulted in decreased cell migration in LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 cells indicating that both mTORC1 and mTORC2 are required for cell migration. EGF treatment induced the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 as determined by complex-specific phosphorylation of mTOR protein. Specific knock-down or inhibition of Rac1 activity in PC3 cells blocked EGF-induced activation of mTORC2, but had no effect on mTORC1 activation. Furthermore, the over-expression of constitutively active Rac1 (Rac1Q61L ...


Role Of High Mobility Group A2 (Hmga2) In Prostate Cancer, Ohuod Hawsawi May 2019

Role Of High Mobility Group A2 (Hmga2) In Prostate Cancer, Ohuod Hawsawi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

High mobility group A2 (HMGA2) is a non-histone protein highly expressed during the development but is low or absent in most adult tissues. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in prostate cancer progression and metastasis. HMGA2 has been shown to promote EMT in separate studies. Interestingly, wild-type HMGA2 and truncated (lacking the 3’UTR) HMGA2 isoforms are overexpressed in many cancers. However, there are no studies on the role of each isoform in prostate cancer progression. We hypothesized that wild-type and truncated HMGA2 promotes prostate cancer progression by different mechanisms. We analyzed the expression of HMGA2 in the prostate ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


Exploring The Effects Of Protein Kinase C-Alpha Gene Knockout On The Proliferation Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Emma J. Kuntz May 2019

Exploring The Effects Of Protein Kinase C-Alpha Gene Knockout On The Proliferation Of Human Embryonic Kidney Cells, Emma J. Kuntz

Honors Program Projects

Signaling molecules have important roles in many cellular functions, but because these pathways are incredibly complex, the exact mechanisms often remain unknown. One signaling molecule, protein kinase C alpha (PKCa), is involved in cell proliferation and is expressed at high levels in many cancers. Interestingly, its activity as a tumor promoter or tumor suppressor varies depending on the cell type for reasons not yet fully understood. This study aimed to investigate the role of PKCa in cell proliferation in order to better understand its function as a signaling molecule. To asses this, a knockout line was generated using CRISPR-Cas9 and ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud May 2019

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin May 2019

The 5-Ht1a-R Knockout Mouse As A Model Of Later Life Anxiety Disorders: Implications For Sex Differences, Tatyana Budylin

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Anxiety affects nearly twice as many women as it affects men across all cultures and economic groups. Importantly, girls have a higher chance of inheriting anxiety disorders than boys, and many anxiety disorders appear at a very young age. However, little is known about sex differences in brain and behavioral development and how they relate to anxiety in adulthood. Serotonin 1A receptor (5-HT1A-R) mediated signaling has been implicated in depression and anxiety, however most studies that focus on the involvement of the 5-HT1A-R have been conducted in adults. Little is known about how the 5-HT1A ...


Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy May 2019

Thiol-Based Misfolding: Linking Redox Balance To Cytosolic Proteostasis, Ford Amy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The eukaryotic cytosolic proteome is vulnerable to changes in proteostatic and redox balance caused by temperature, pH, oxidants and xenobiotics. Cysteine-containing proteins are especially at risk as the thiol side chain is subject to oxidation, adduction and chelation by thiol-reactive compounds. All of these thiol-modifiers have been demonstrated to induce the heat shock response and recruit protein chaperones to sites of presumed protein aggregation in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, endogenous targets of thiol stress toxicity responsible for these outcomes are largely unknown. Furthermore, I hypothesize proteins identified as redox-active are prone to misfolding and aggregation by thiol-specific stress ...


Effects Of Fatty Acids From Coconut And Olive Oil On Expression Of The Hmg1 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Amelia Konen, Taryn Stewart Apr 2019

Effects Of Fatty Acids From Coconut And Olive Oil On Expression Of The Hmg1 Gene And Feeding Behavior In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Amelia Konen, Taryn Stewart

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

HMG-CoA reductase is an enzyme involved in the biosynthetic pathways of sterols in many different organisms. The gene in Tetrahymena thermophila which codes for this protein is HMG1, and has many homologs across many other organisms, from fungi to humans. For this project, we wanted to look at the effect of external fatty acids from coconut and olive oil on the expression of HMG1 in T. thermophila. Previous research has shown that exposure to unsaturated oils result in decreased cholesterol levels. We hypothesized that if T. thermophila are introduced to saturated fats and unsaturated fats, they would exhibit a respectively ...


Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey Apr 2019

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston Apr 2019

X-Inactivation And Epigenetics, Serena Weston

Thinking Matters Symposium

To prevent abnormal development caused by expressing both X chromosomes, female mammals inactivate one of their X chromosomes using an epigenetic process called dosage compensation. This literature review examines how X chromosome inactivation (XCI) occurs during the formation and development of an embryo. This condensation of DNA is marked by histone tail modifications, DNA methylation, and the arrival of structural proteins resulting in extraordinarily stable heterochromatin. X-inactivation is regulated in cis by the X-inactivation center (Xic) that contains the Xist gene and its antisense gene, Tsix. On one X chromosome, Xist RNA is expressed and coats the center of the ...


Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott Apr 2019

Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

Herbal medicines are a melee of complex organic chemicals, making it difficult to ascertain their direct mechanism of action. In contrast to mainstream pharmaceuticals, it is argued that herbal medicines are effective because of multiple constituents working synergistically. The complexity of herbal medicines may give them advantages over simpler pharmaceuticals in combating antibiotic resistant microbes, but these advantages can be difficult to quantitate. Popular literature frequently espouses the healing properties of herbal medicines, but many of these claims are not scientifically supported. Many gains could be realized in public health and medicine if more research was aimed at validating / disproving ...


Endosome To Golgi Retrieval Of The Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor, Vps10p, Requires The Function Of The Vps29, Vps30, And Vps35 Gene Products, Matthew N. J. Seaman, Eric G. Marcusson, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Scott D. Emr Mar 2019

Endosome To Golgi Retrieval Of The Vacuolar Protein Sorting Receptor, Vps10p, Requires The Function Of The Vps29, Vps30, And Vps35 Gene Products, Matthew N. J. Seaman, Eric G. Marcusson, Joan Lin-Cereghino, Scott D. Emr

Joan Lin-Cereghino

Mutations in the S. cerevisiae VPS29 and VPS30 genes lead to a selective protein sorting defect in which the vacuolar protein carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) is missorted and secreted from the cell, while other soluble vacuolar hydrolases like proteinase A (PrA) are delivered to the vacuole. This phenotype is similar to that seen in cells with mutations in the previously characterized VPS10 and VPS35 genes. Vps10p is a late Golgi transmembrane protein that acts as the sorting receptor for soluble vacuolar hydrolases like CPY and PrA, while Vps35p is a peripheral membrane protein which cofractionates with membranes enriched in Vps10p. The ...


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


Filogeografía, Diversidad Genética Y Estructura Poblacional De La Raya Manta, Paratrygon Aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) En Las Cuencas De Las Amazonas Y Orinoco, Maira Alejandra Rizo Fuentes Jan 2019

Filogeografía, Diversidad Genética Y Estructura Poblacional De La Raya Manta, Paratrygon Aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) En Las Cuencas De Las Amazonas Y Orinoco, Maira Alejandra Rizo Fuentes

Biología

La raya Manta de agua dulce Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) es un pez de interés ornamental, tiene una amplia distribución en las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco. Es la única especie descrita en el género Paratrygon, aunque algunos autores mencionan que dentro y entre las cuencas mencionadas, P. aiereba revela variaciones morfométricas, osteológicas y de coloración que podrían indicar la existencia de más de una especie. Con el fin de estimar la filogeografía, la diversidad genética y la estructura poblacional de P. aiereba en las cuencas del Amazonas y Orinoco en Colombia, se amplificó una porción del gen Citocromo oxidasa subunidad I (COXI) como marcador molecular de ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt), en 50 muestras de las dos cuencas principales (Amazonas y Orinoco) y ocho subcuencas diferentes, incluidos los cauces principales de ambos ríos. Se realizaron análisis de filogenia bayesiana con calibración fósil, análisis filogeográfico y red de haplotipos, seguido de un análisis de la varianza molecular. El análisis de agrupamiento (K) de los datos de secuencias de ADN para revelar la estructura genética de la población, se implementó mediante el uso de inferencia bayesiana. Los resultados sugieren tres Filogrupos, dos en la cuenca del Orinoco (A-B) y uno en la cuenca del Amazonas (C). Se reconoce un evento vicariante de hace 43 millones de años, que marcó la divergencia de Paratrygon. Se encontró una alta estructura poblacional con un valor significativo de (ST = 0.692; p <0.005), que sugiere una conectividad genética baja y un K = 3, en el cual el valor de probabilidad marginal logarítmica fue más alto, aunque se encontraron algunos haplotipos compartidos entre las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco. Se determinaron 12 haplotipos y una diversidad genética relativamente alta (Filogrupo A) (h = 0.64; π = 2,48%), (Filogrupo B) (h = 0.552; π = 1,67%), y (Filogrupo C) (h = 0,49; π = 0,73%). Los resultados genéticos de este estudio deben ser considerados en los planes de manejo locales; programas de conservación y sugieren una reclasificación de esta especie por lo menos en estas dos cuencas (Amazonas y Orinoco). Se discute sobre la historia biogeográfica en América del Sur donde aparentemente, un evento vicariante después de la elevación de los Andes durante el Paleo Orinoco-Amazonas, fue crucial en la diversificación del género Paratrygon.


The Phytoremediative Effects Of Cilantro (Coriandrum Sativum) In Lead Contaminated Soil, Sierra D. Garrett, Timothy D. Trott Jan 2019

The Phytoremediative Effects Of Cilantro (Coriandrum Sativum) In Lead Contaminated Soil, Sierra D. Garrett, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

Environmental exposure to heavy metals such as lead pose a significant health threat. The goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of Coriandrum sativum (Cilantro) as a potential lead (II), Pb2+, phytoremediator. C. sativumplants were allowed to grow for 43 days while exposed to with different amounts of lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2. Lead exposure was accomplished by regular watering with a concentration series of lead nitrate solutions. The roots and shoots of these plants were separated and dried. Ground plant material was liquefied by nitric acid digestion. The amount of lead absorbed by each ...


Exosomes Mediate Zika Virus Transmission Through Smpd3 Neutral Sphingomyelinase In Cortical Neurons, Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana Jan 2019

Exosomes Mediate Zika Virus Transmission Through Smpd3 Neutral Sphingomyelinase In Cortical Neurons, Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Michael B. Sherman, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The harmful effects of ZIKA virus (ZIKV) infection are reflected by severe neurological manifestations such as microcephaly in neonates and other complications associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. The transmission dynamics of ZIKV in or between neurons, or within the developing brains of the foetuses are not fully understood. Using primary cultures of murine cortical neurons, we show that ZIKV uses exosomes as mediators of viral transmission between neurons. Cryo-electron microscopy showed heterogeneous population of neuronal exosomes with a size range of 30-200 nm. Increased production of exosomes from neuronal cells was noted upon ZIKV infection. Neuronal exosomes contained both ...


Investigating The Antiviral Effects Of Vig-3 From Rainbow Trout, Shanee Herrington-Krause Jan 2019

Investigating The Antiviral Effects Of Vig-3 From Rainbow Trout, Shanee Herrington-Krause

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Rainbow trout is the most farmed fish in Ontario, and thus is economically important to the province. Despite this, there is a lack of understanding regarding fish innate immunity, specifically with regards to interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and their antiviral effector functions. ISGs are the workhorses of the innate antiviral response, operating together to limit each step of virus replication. The Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) induced gene (Vig)-3 is a newly identified ISG within many fish species and is homologous to ISG-15 in mammals. It is a small ubiquitin-like protein inducible by type I interferon (IFN-I), and is suggested ...


The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback Jan 2019

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


Regulation Of Canonical And Non-Canonical Hippo Pathway Components In Mitosis And Cancer, Seth Stauffer Dec 2018

Regulation Of Canonical And Non-Canonical Hippo Pathway Components In Mitosis And Cancer, Seth Stauffer

Theses & Dissertations

The Hippo pathway is conserved regulator of organ size through control of proliferation, apoptosis, and stem-cell self-renewal. In addition to this important function, many of the canonical signaling members have also been shown to be regulated during mitosis. Importantly, Hippo pathway components are frequently dysregulated in cancers and have attracted attention as possible targets for improved cancer therapeutics. Further exploration of Hippo-YAP (yes-associated protein) signaling has revealed new regulators and effectors outside the canonical signaling network and has revealed a larger non-canonical network of signaling proteins in which canonical Hippo pathway components crosstalk with important cellular homeostasis and apoptosis signaling ...


Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley Nov 2018

Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley

Bioelectrics Publications

Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Transcriptome sequencing is increasingly revealing that equally rich compliments of ion channels exist in both excitable and non-excitable tissue. In this review, we discuss a range of critical ...


Basic Cell And Molecular Biology 3e: What We Know And How We Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom Sep 2018

Basic Cell And Molecular Biology 3e: What We Know And How We Found Out, Gerald Bergtrom

Cell and Molecular Biology 3e: What We Know and How We Found Out - All Versions

No abstract provided.


Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra Aug 2018

Targeting Pro-Inflammatory Function Of Microglia Using Small Molecules To Combat Neurodegeneration, Gabrielle C. Williams, Priya Prakash, Gaurav Chopra

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Microglia are the brain’s resident immune cells that are responsible for maintaining homeostasis in healthy conditions. During injury or infection, resting microglia get activated and produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1b, IL-1a, IL-6, etc. along with reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide (NO) to combat neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Inflammation is characterized by the activation of resident-immune cells in the brain called microglia that respond to the eat-me signals released by the toxic amyloid beta peptides as well as the dying neurons in the microenvironment. Recent studies have shown that activated microglia induce neuronal death ...


Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen Aug 2018

Characterization Of Theranostic Peptides For Glioblastoma Multiforme, Aaron Mellesmoen

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of primary CNS tumor in which viable treatment options do not exist. Standard of care including tumor resection, chemotherapy, and radiation does little to extend the 5-year survival expectancy past 5.1%. Herein, two small-peptide molecules with inherent antitumor activity, blood-brain barrier permeability, and capability for tumor-specific drug deliverance and intraoperative visualization (termed theranostic) were of focus. Confocal microscopy was employed to characterize in vitro specificity of chlorotoxin, a 4 kDa scorpion venom peptide, and rBSG, the recombinant 25 kDa non-glycosylated extracellular domain of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN; Basigin ...