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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte Apr 2019

Hexavalent Chromium: Elucidating Its Carcinogenic Mechanism, And Testing Potential Preventative Treatments, Ryan Himes, Timothy Mayotte

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Cr(VI) (hexavalent chromium) has recently been found in the drinking water of over 250 million Americans. It is a powerful oxidizing agent, and is known to cause cancer, although the specific mechanism has yet to be elucidated. There is no known preventative treatment for Cr(VI) exposure, and the US EPA is currently determining what concentration of Cr(VI) in drinking water can be safely tolerated. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity can be prevented by various antioxidants. We tested this hypothesis by exposing human embryonic kidney and human intestinal epithelial cells to Cr ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost Apr 2019

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp Jan 2019

Exploring The Ipf Lung Through The Lens Of Single Cell Rna Sequencing, Taylor Adams, Jonas Schupp

Yale Day of Data

This poster illustrates the differences between the IPF disease-specific variety of lung macrophages and the two varieties of macrophages known to reside in the normal human lung.


Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson Dec 2018

Investigating The Impact Of Oxidative Stress On Tetrahymena Thermophila Sirtuin,Thd 18, Emmanuel Dubuisson

Publications and Research

Sirtuins are a family of enzymes that fulfill various important biological functions. Investigators have looked for the implication of Sirtuin genes in cell signaling mechanisms, in the formation and silencing of heterochromatin, in the regulation of ion channels, and in the modulation of the cellular redox reactions[2]. Different model organisms have been previously used to conduct these studies; among them, there are yeasts, nematodes, and fruit flies. Each one has made some valuable contribution into the vast body of knowledge related to this field.

However, gaps in the understanding of Sirtuins functions still remain to be filled. In this ...


Prenylation In The Moss Physcomitrella Patens, Noela Botaka, Susana Perez-Martinez, Liang Bao, Parul Singh, Mark Running Nov 2018

Prenylation In The Moss Physcomitrella Patens, Noela Botaka, Susana Perez-Martinez, Liang Bao, Parul Singh, Mark Running

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Protein prenylation is a post-translational modification that involves the addition of lipid groups to the end of a target protein and is necessary for protein activity. Prenylation has important roles in the cell: targeting and localizing proteins to subcellular compartments and promoting protein-protein interactions. Recently, we have found Protein Prenyltransferase Alpha Subunit-like (PPAL), which shares structural similarities to known prenylation enzymes. However, the biochemical function of PPAL is still unknown. PPAL is present in a single copy in other plants examined to date but is present in two copies in moss. Knockouts in our lab of either PpPAL1 or PpPAL2 ...


Changes In The Proliferation And Gene Expression Of Huvecs In Response To Treatment With Plant Secondary Metabolites, Caleigh Howard Mar 2018

Changes In The Proliferation And Gene Expression Of Huvecs In Response To Treatment With Plant Secondary Metabolites, Caleigh Howard

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Medicinal plants have historically been a valuable source of new drugs, and Southern California possesses a rich collection of native plants which have been used as medicines by native people groups for thousands of years. Angiogenesis is the biological process of new blood-vessel growth from endothelial cells. It is an essential part of the wound-healing process, and increased angiogenesis has also been implicated in the growth of some types of cancerous tumors. In this study, extracts of the Southern Californian native plants Red shanks (Adenostoma sparsifolium) and the alkaloid extract of Jimson weed (Datura wrightii) were tested for their angiogenic ...


Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing May 2017

Applied Drug Development And Combinatorial Strategies For Antimicrobial Treatment, Steven K. Lai Hing

Andrews Research Conference

Streptococcus mutans JH1140 is a strain of bacteria which produces a lantibiotic product, named mutacin 1140. Mutacin 1140 has been shown to be effective at inhibiting Gram-positive bacterial infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Mutacin 1140 is a ribosomally synthesized peptide antibiotic that undergoes extensive posttranslational modifications (PTM). We have found that Mutacin 1140 and an aminoglycoside, Kanamycin, when combined together, act synergistically against Staphylococcus aureus. This was determined by performing serial kill curve dilution overlays on solid media, followed up with kill curve by microdilution plate, and most recently confirmed with kill curve CFU count plates on ...


Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak May 2016

Epigenetic Regulation Of Gene Expression During Spermatogenesis, Karishma Nayak

Senior Honors Projects

In the US livestock production industry, improving reproductive efficiency will improve animal welfare and maintain reasonable costs of meat and milk for consumers. In recent research, abnormalities in epigenetic markers in sperm during spermatogenesis, has been linked to male subfertility in many species. Epigenetics is the study of changes in organisms caused by modifications of gene expression, including DNA methylation, rather than alteration of the genetic code itself. When this process is disturbed, it can negatively impact semen therefore decreasing its fertility. Through further research on how DNA methylation influences gene expression during spermatogenesis and its impact on sperm quality ...


Regulation Of The Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway By Steroid Hormones In Danio Rerio Ovarian Tissue, Macaulie Casey Jan 2015

Regulation Of The Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway By Steroid Hormones In Danio Rerio Ovarian Tissue, Macaulie Casey

Summer Research

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway regulates genes involved in proliferation (cell growth) and apoptosis (cell death). It has been implicated in ovarian cancer, where higher levels of β-catenin may be involved in the development of tumors. Steroid hormones play a significant role in female reproductive tissue, and studies have shown that estrogens and progestins may regulate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. My past research suggested testosterone may also affect the pathway. Few studies have investigated how steroid hormone mimics, such as Bisphenol A (BPA), affect these regulatory patterns. This study investigated the affect of estrogen and BPA on the Wnt/β-catenin ...


Requirements Of Rab5 Activity In Highly Invasive Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri Dec 2013

Requirements Of Rab5 Activity In Highly Invasive Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri

Nicole Porther

Rab5 expression in cancer has been associated with the disease progression and prognosis. We have previously shown that growth factor-directed cell invasion and migration was dependent on Rab5 activation in non-invasive breast cancer cells. However, hardly any data is available regarding the role of Rab5 in invasive cells in the presence of growth factor.  In our present study, we report that the invasive and migratory properties of the highly invasive breast cancer cell line, MDAMB-231, were abrogated in cells expressing the inactive (GDP-bound) form of Rab5 irrespective of growth factor stimulation; while the invasive potential of breast cancer cell lines ...


Rab5 Function In Breast Cancer Cells, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri Dec 2012

Rab5 Function In Breast Cancer Cells, Nicole Porther, M Alejandro Barbieri

Nicole Porther

Metastasis is characterized pathologically by cell invasion, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis. Growth factors, which include epithelial growth factor (EGF), insulin growth factors I and II (IGFI and IGFII); have been associated with most if not all of the features of metastasis.  Our study has highlighted the possible role growth factors may have in mediating cancer metastasis via Rab GTPses.  We determined that the invasive and migratory properties of breast cancer cells were abrogated in cell lines that only expressed the inactive (GDP-bound) form of Rab 5 irrespective of growth factor stimulation. Breast cancer cell lines expressing the wild type and ...


Libraries At The University Of Massachusetts Amherst: Seeking An International Perspective, Maxine G. Schmidt Oct 2012

Libraries At The University Of Massachusetts Amherst: Seeking An International Perspective, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

Presentation delivered to librarians in China, Japan and South Korea as part of my sabbatical research on the use of libraries by Asian students in their home countries.


Arcane Secrets Of The Umass Libraries, Maxine G. Schmidt Sep 2011

Arcane Secrets Of The Umass Libraries, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

No abstract provided.


Comparison Of Gene Ontology Term Annotations Between E.Coli K12 Databases, Reddysailaja Marpuri Mar 2009

Comparison Of Gene Ontology Term Annotations Between E.Coli K12 Databases, Reddysailaja Marpuri

Student Research Conference Select Presentations

The objective of this project was to get up-to-date functional information on all genes of E.coli K12 strains based on Genome Ontology terms. Gene Ontology is described by a defined library of terms related the biological process, cellular components and molecular functions of a gene in an organism. The genome sequence of an organism gains its value when it is annotated with gene ontology terms, which bridges the gap from the sequence to the biology of an organism. Since we use annotated gene database in the prediction of the function of newly sequenced genes, it is important to have ...


Umass Libraries 2009, Maxine G. Schmidt Jan 2009

Umass Libraries 2009, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

No abstract provided.


Important, But Odd And Obscure, Reasons To Use The Library, Maxine G. Schmidt Jan 2008

Important, But Odd And Obscure, Reasons To Use The Library, Maxine G. Schmidt

Maxine G Schmidt

No abstract provided.


Annotation Of The Bacteriophage 933w Genome: An In-Class Interactive Web-Based Exercise, Kai F. Hung Jan 2008

Annotation Of The Bacteriophage 933w Genome: An In-Class Interactive Web-Based Exercise, Kai F. Hung

Faculty Research & Creative Activity

No abstract provided.


Annotation Of The Bacteriophage 933w Genome: An In-Class Interactive Web-Based Exercise, Kai F. Hung Jan 2008

Annotation Of The Bacteriophage 933w Genome: An In-Class Interactive Web-Based Exercise, Kai F. Hung

Kai F. Hung

No abstract provided.