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Articles 31 - 60 of 130

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Hypothyroidism In Down Syndrome: Screening Guidelines And Testing Methodology, Olga Hardy, Gordon Worley, Mary Lee, Shu Chaing, Joanne Mackey, Blythe Crissman, Priya Kishnani Sep 2014

Hypothyroidism In Down Syndrome: Screening Guidelines And Testing Methodology, Olga Hardy, Gordon Worley, Mary Lee, Shu Chaing, Joanne Mackey, Blythe Crissman, Priya Kishnani

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance As A Marker For Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumor, Michael Gustafson, Mary Lee, Robert Scully, Ashby Moncure, Toshio Hirakawa, Annekathryn Goodman, Howard Muntz, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Arlan Fuller Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance As A Marker For Ovarian Sex-Cord Tumor, Michael Gustafson, Mary Lee, Robert Scully, Ashby Moncure, Toshio Hirakawa, Annekathryn Goodman, Howard Muntz, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Arlan Fuller

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration After Ethylene Dimethanesulphonate Ablation, Antonio Salva, Matthew Hardy, Xiufeng Wu, Chantal Sottas, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Rat Leydig Cell Regeneration After Ethylene Dimethanesulphonate Ablation, Antonio Salva, Matthew Hardy, Xiufeng Wu, Chantal Sottas, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

The postnatal development of Leydig cell precursors is postulated to be controlled by Sertoli cell secreted factors, which may have a determinative influence on Leydig cell number and function in sexually mature animals. One such hormone, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), has been shown to inhibit DNA synthesis and steroidogenesis in primary Leydig cells and Leydig cell tumor lines. To further delineate the effects of MIS on Leydig cell proliferation and steroidogenesis, we employed the established ethylene dimethanesulphonate (EDS) model of Leydig cell regeneration. Following EDS ablation of differentiated Leydig cells in young adult rats, recombinant MIS or vehicle was delivered ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Recruits Alk3 To Regulate Leydig Cell Differentiation, Xiufeng Wu, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Recruits Alk3 To Regulate Leydig Cell Differentiation, Xiufeng Wu, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) not only induces Mullerian duct regression during male sexual differentiation but also modulates Leydig cell steroidogenic capacity and differentiation. MIS actions are mediated through a complex of homologous receptors: a type II ligand-binding receptor [MIS type II receptor (MISRII)] and a tissue-specific type I receptor that initiates downstream signaling. The putative MIS type I receptors responsible for Mullerian duct regression are activin A type II receptor, type I [Acvr1/activin receptor-like kinase 2 (ALK2)], ALK3, and ALK6, but the one recruited by MIS in Leydig cells is unknown. To identify whether ALK3 is the specific type ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Is Present In Embryonic Testes Of Dogs With Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Vicki Meyers-Wallen, Mary Lee, T. Manganaro, T. Kuroda, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Is Present In Embryonic Testes Of Dogs With Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Vicki Meyers-Wallen, Mary Lee, T. Manganaro, T. Kuroda, David Maclaughlin, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) causes regression of the Mullerian ducts during a critical period in embryonic development in male mammals. In Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS), an autosomal recessive trait in humans and dogs, the Mullerian ducts fail to regress in otherwise normal males. Previously we reported that PMDS-affected dogs produce bioactive testicular MIS postnatally. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether PMDS-affected canine embryos appropriately express MIS mRNA and protein during the critical period for Mullerian duct regression. Homozygous (PMDS-affected) and normal canine embryos were removed from timed pregnancies. Gonadal sex and the degree of Mullerian ...


Mis/Amh In The Assessment Of Cryptorchidism And Intersex Conditions, Mary Lee, Madhusmita Misra, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin Sep 2014

Mis/Amh In The Assessment Of Cryptorchidism And Intersex Conditions, Mary Lee, Madhusmita Misra, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), also known as anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), causes Mullerian duct involution during male sexual differentiation and also has a postnatal regulatory role in the gonads. Serum MIS/AMH has a gonad specific pattern of expression and its concentrations are sexually dimorphic in children; hence measurement of serum MIS/AMH helps in the evaluation of children with gonadal disorders. In boys with cryptorchidism (non-palpable gonads), serum MIS/AMH correlates with testicular tissue. A measurable value is predictive of undescended testes while an undetectable value is highly suggestive of anorchia. In minimally virilized phenotypic females, MIS/AMH helps differentiate ...


Insulin Pump Therapy In Toddlers And Preschool Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Jean Litton, Alan Rice, Nancy Friedman, Jon Oden, Mary Lee, Michael Freemark Sep 2014

Insulin Pump Therapy In Toddlers And Preschool Children With Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Jean Litton, Alan Rice, Nancy Friedman, Jon Oden, Mary Lee, Michael Freemark

Mary M. Lee

OBJECTIVE: To test whether glycemic control in young children could be achieved more effectively and safely by using continuous insulin infusions administered by insulin pumps.

STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the effects of pump therapy in nine toddlers in whom type 1 diabetes developed between the ages of 10 and 40 months. After a mean of 13.7 months of therapy with multiple daily injections, patients were treated with insulin pumps for periods ranging from 7 to 19 months (mean, 12.7 months).

RESULTS: Before initiation of pump therapy, HbA1c levels averaged 9.5% +/- 0.4%, and patients had a mean ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Ontogeny And Its Modulation By Follicle-Stimulating Hormone In The Rat Testes, Tatsuo Kuroda, Mary Lee, Christopher Haqq, David Powell, Thomas Manganaro, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) production in rat testes from the late fetal to the adult period and its modulation by gonadotropins in neonatal testes were studied using immunohistochemistry, northern analysis, and a graded organ culture bioassay for MIS. The intense immunohistochemical staining for MIS seen in fetal and newborn testes began to decrease gradually after the third postnatal day, then decreased dramatically on the fifth postnatal day. MIS immunohistochemical activity was then present at a low level until about the 20th postnatal day, after which it was barely detectable. The testes from rats treated with FSH at birth showed a ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Testosterone Synthesis In Adult Rats, V. Sriraman, E. Niu, J. Matias, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Inhibits Testosterone Synthesis In Adult Rats, V. Sriraman, E. Niu, J. Matias, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a gonadal hormone that causes regression of the Mullerian ducts during male sexual differentiation. Postnatally, MIS inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of immature Leydig cells, and transgenic mice that overexpress MIS have decreased serum testosterone concentrations. To elucidate the effects of MIS on androgen regulation in the postnatal testis, we examined testosterone synthesis in adult Sprague-Dawley rats following intratesticular and intraperitoneal injections of MIS. Intratesticular MIS injection achieved high local concentrations of MIS (574.0 +/- 60.0 ng/mL) at 4 hours, with a corresponding decline in serum testosterone concentrations to 0.7 +/- 0.1 ...


Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Androgen Profiles During Pubertal Leydig Cell Development In Mice, Xiufeng Wu, Ramamani Arumugam, Ningning Zhang, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

Postnatal Leydig cell (LC) development in mice has been assumed empirically to resemble that of rats, which have characteristic hormonal profiles at well-defined maturational stages. To characterize the changes in LC function and gene expression in mice, we examined reproductive hormone expression from birth to 180 days, and quantified in vivo and in vitro production of androgens during sexual maturation. Although the overall plasma androgen and LH profiles from birth through puberty were comparable to that of rats, the timing of developmental changes in androgen production and steroidogenic capacity of isolated LCs differed. In mice, onset of androgen biosynthetic capacity ...


Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping Sep 2014

Developmental Changes In Mullerian Inhibiting Substance In The Cynomolgus Monkey, Macaca Fascicularis, Mary Lee, M. Gustafson, Etsuji Ukiyama, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Michael Wexler, Hugh Keeping

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) is a glycoprotein hormone produced in Sertoli cells of the fetal and postnatal testis, and granulosa cells of the pubertal ovary. We examined MIS expression in a nonhuman primate, the cynomolgus macaque monkey (Macaca fascicularis), to define an animal model for studying MIS gene regulation. Changes in testicular MIS mRNA with age were assessed by in situ hybridization of prepubertal to adult testes, Northern analysis of pubertal and adult specimens, and determination of serum MIS concentrations from infancy to adulthood. We found that MIS expression was highest in the youngest animals and decreased progressively with increasing ...


Triploid Mosaicism In A 45,X/69,Xxy Infant, Denise Quigley, Marie Mcdonald, Vidya Krishnamuthy, Priya Kishnani, Mary Lee, Andrea Haqq, Barbara Goodman Sep 2014

Triploid Mosaicism In A 45,X/69,Xxy Infant, Denise Quigley, Marie Mcdonald, Vidya Krishnamuthy, Priya Kishnani, Mary Lee, Andrea Haqq, Barbara Goodman

Mary M. Lee

We report on an infant referred for chromosome analysis during the neonatal period due to ambiguous genitalia. The genitalia appeared male with bilaterally palpable testes, penoscrotal hypospadias, chordee, and a bifid scrotum. Chromosome analysis and interphase FISH analysis of lymphocytes showed a 45,X karyotype and no evidence for SRY in 200 nuclei examined, respectively. Subsequent chromosome analysis of fibroblasts revealed a 69,XXY karyotype. Molecular studies were carried out to determine the etiology of the chromosome findings. Results indicated that the two cell lines are mosaic rather than chimeric and that the triploidy resulted from delayed dispermy rather than ...


Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor Expression And Function In Purified Rat Leydig Cells, Mary Lee, C. Seah, P. Masiakos, Chantal Sottas, F. Preffer, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy Sep 2014

Mullerian-Inhibiting Substance Type Ii Receptor Expression And Function In Purified Rat Leydig Cells, Mary Lee, C. Seah, P. Masiakos, Chantal Sottas, F. Preffer, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin, Matthew Hardy

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian-inhibiting substance (MIS), a gonadal hormone in the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, induces Mullerian duct involution during male sexual differentiation. Mice with null mutations of the MIS ligand or receptor develop Leydig cell hyperplasia and neoplasia in addition to retained Mullerian ducts, whereas MIS-overexpressing transgenic mice have decreased testosterone concentrations and Leydig cell numbers. We hypothesized that MIS directly modulates Leydig cell proliferation and differentiated function in the maturing testis. Therefore, highly purified rat Leydig and Sertoli cells were isolated to examine cell-specific expression, binding, and function of the MIS type II receptor. These studies revealed that this receptor is ...


A Single Base Pair Mutation Encoding A Premature Stop Codon In The Mis Type Ii Receptor Is Responsible For Canine Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Wenfang Wu, Shengqin Wan, Pujar Shashikant, Mark Haskins, Donald Schlafer, Mary Lee, Vicki Meyers-Wallen Sep 2014

A Single Base Pair Mutation Encoding A Premature Stop Codon In The Mis Type Ii Receptor Is Responsible For Canine Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, Wenfang Wu, Shengqin Wan, Pujar Shashikant, Mark Haskins, Donald Schlafer, Mary Lee, Vicki Meyers-Wallen

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a secreted glycoprotein in the transforming growth factor-beta family of growth factors, mediates regression of the Mullerian ducts during embryonic sex differentiation in males. In persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS), rather than undergoing involution, the Mullerian ducts persist in males, giving rise to the uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina. Genetic defects in MIS or its receptor (MISRII) have been identified in patients with PMDS. The phenotype in the canine model of PMDS derived from the miniature schnauzer breed is strikingly similar to that of human patients. In this model, PMDS is inherited as a sex-limited ...


Infant Formula, Autoimmune Triggers, And Type 1 Diabetes, David Harlan, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Infant Formula, Autoimmune Triggers, And Type 1 Diabetes, David Harlan, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


Isolation Of The Rat Gene For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Christopher Haqq, Mary Lee, Richard Tizard, Mark Wysk, Janice Demarinis, Patricia Donahoe, Richard Cate Sep 2014

Isolation Of The Rat Gene For Mullerian Inhibiting Substance, Christopher Haqq, Mary Lee, Richard Tizard, Mark Wysk, Janice Demarinis, Patricia Donahoe, Richard Cate

Mary M. Lee

Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS), a testicular glycoprotein also known as anti-Mullerian hormone, plays a key role in male sexual development by causing regression of the Mullerian duct, the anlagen of the uterus, the Fallopian tubes, and part of the vagina. MIS is also expressed in the postnatal ovary, but its precise function is still not known. We report here the complete nucleotide sequence of the rat MIS gene. Rat MIS is encoded in five exons and is synthesized as a precursor of 553 amino acids, containing a 24-amino-acid leader. Based on homology with human MIS, we predict that the rat ...


Diagnostic Utility Of Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Determination In Patients With Primary And Recurrent Granulosa Cell Tumors, Andrew Lane, Mary Lee, Arlan Fuller, David Kehas, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin Sep 2014

Diagnostic Utility Of Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Determination In Patients With Primary And Recurrent Granulosa Cell Tumors, Andrew Lane, Mary Lee, Arlan Fuller, David Kehas, Patricia Donahoe, David Maclaughlin

Mary M. Lee

OBJECTIVES: In this study we evaluated changes in serum Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) concentration in a large number of patients with granulosa cell tumors (GCT) to determine whether MIS is elevated at the time of presentation and whether MIS is an index of successful surgical resection and management of recurrences. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed MIS levels from 17 subjects prior to tumor resection and studied serial MIS samples from 56 subjects following initial tumor resection. Clinical follow-up information was available for 36 of those with postoperative MIS values. Serum MIS was measured by an ELISA. MIS values were compared to ...


Blood Lead Levels And Delayed Onset Of Puberty In A Longitudinal Study Of Russian Boys, Paige Williams, Oleg Sergeyev, Mary Lee, Susan Korrick, Jane Burns, Olivier Humblet, Julie Del Prato, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser Sep 2014

Blood Lead Levels And Delayed Onset Of Puberty In A Longitudinal Study Of Russian Boys, Paige Williams, Oleg Sergeyev, Mary Lee, Susan Korrick, Jane Burns, Olivier Humblet, Julie Del Prato, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of blood lead levels (BLLs) with pubertal onset in a longitudinal cohort of Russian boys.

METHODS: A total of 489 Russian boys were enrolled in 2003-2005, at 8 to 9 years of age, and were monitored annually through May 2008. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to evaluate the association of BLLs at enrollment with time to pubertal onset during follow-up monitoring.

RESULTS: A total of 481 boys had BLLs, with a median of 3 microg/dL and 28% with values of > or =5 microg/dL. The proportion of pubertal boys increased with age, from 12 ...


Serum Adrenal Steroid Concentrations In Premature Infants, Mary Lee, Lakshmy Rajagopalan, Gregory Berg, Thomas Moshang Sep 2014

Serum Adrenal Steroid Concentrations In Premature Infants, Mary Lee, Lakshmy Rajagopalan, Gregory Berg, Thomas Moshang

Mary M. Lee

To evaluate serum adrenal steroid concentrations in preterm infants, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 11-deoxycortisol, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, androstenedione, 18-hydroxycorticosterone, and aldosterone values were determined in 9 sick and 13 healthy premature infants. Serum steroid concentrations were compared to previously reported data from healthy full-term infants. 17-OHP, 11-deoxycortisol, and aldosterone values were higher in sick preterm infants than in healthy preterm infants. Compared to healthy full-term infants, the premature infants-had significantly higher 17-hydroxypregnenolone, 17-OHP, and DHEA sulfate concentrations. Cortisol values were not different between the sick and healthy preterm infants and were similar to full-term values. Aldosterone values were also ...


Clinical Management Of Intersex Abnormalities, Patricia Donahoe, David Powell, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Clinical Management Of Intersex Abnormalities, Patricia Donahoe, David Powell, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


Clinical Practice. Idiopathic Short Stature, Mary Lee Sep 2014

Clinical Practice. Idiopathic Short Stature, Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


The Increased Incidence Of Congenital Hypothyroidism: Fact Or Fancy, Marvin Mitchell, Ho-Wen Hsu, Inderneel Sahai, Stuart Brink, Rosalind Brown, Laurie Cohen, Roger Eaton, Mary Lee, Lynne Levitsky, Edward Reiter, Abdollah Sadeghi-Nejad, Leslie Soyka, Joseph Wolfsdorf, Bradford Therrell Sep 2014

The Increased Incidence Of Congenital Hypothyroidism: Fact Or Fancy, Marvin Mitchell, Ho-Wen Hsu, Inderneel Sahai, Stuart Brink, Rosalind Brown, Laurie Cohen, Roger Eaton, Mary Lee, Lynne Levitsky, Edward Reiter, Abdollah Sadeghi-Nejad, Leslie Soyka, Joseph Wolfsdorf, Bradford Therrell

Mary M. Lee

OBJECTIVE: The incidence of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by newborn screening in the US has increased significantly since the early 1990s. We defined the characteristics associated with the increased incidence. PATIENTS: A cohort of children with CH born during an earlier period of low incidence (1991-94) was compared with a cohort born during a later period when the incidence of CH had doubled (2001-04). MEASUREMENTS: Screening was performed with T4 as the primary marker and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on selected specimens. Follow-up on hypothyroid children determined whether they had permanent or transient hypothyroidism. Cases were classified based on laboratory ...


Effect Of E. Coli Endotoxin On Mammalian Cell Growth And Recombinant Protein Production, J. Epstein, Mary Lee, C. Kelly, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Effect Of E. Coli Endotoxin On Mammalian Cell Growth And Recombinant Protein Production, J. Epstein, Mary Lee, C. Kelly, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

No abstract provided.


Physical Growth And Sexual Maturation Of Boys In Chapaevsk, Russia, Mary Lee, Oleg Sergeyev, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Vladimir Zeilert, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser Sep 2014

Physical Growth And Sexual Maturation Of Boys In Chapaevsk, Russia, Mary Lee, Oleg Sergeyev, Paige Williams, Susan Korrick, Vladimir Zeilert, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

We characterized physical growth and sexual maturation in 2,579 boys, ages 10 through 16.99 years, residing in Chapaevsk, Russia in order to establish region-specific reference data. Age-specific norms were established for height, weight, and BMI, and compared to US reference data by z-score analysis, while mean heights and weights by age were compared to published national Russian data. Compared to US boys, height was slightly lower (overall z-score -0.18) at all ages except the oldest (16-16.99 yr), while weight and BMI were moderately lower (overall z-score -0.52 and -0.61, respectively). Chapaevsk boys were significantly ...


Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression In Granulosa And Sertoli Cells Coincides With Their Mitotic Activity, Seiichi Hirobe, Wei He, Mary Lee, Patricia Donahoe Sep 2014

Mullerian Inhibiting Substance Messenger Ribonucleic Acid Expression In Granulosa And Sertoli Cells Coincides With Their Mitotic Activity, Seiichi Hirobe, Wei He, Mary Lee, Patricia Donahoe

Mary M. Lee

In males, Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) mRNA was first detected on the medial aspect of the urogenital ridge early on the morning of day 13 of gestation before testicular differentiation was evident, and localized to the more obvious Sertoli cells later on embryonic day 13. MIS transcripts remained at maximal levels between 14.5 and 17.5 days gestation, while the Mullerian duct involutes, and remained high until birth. MIS gene expression decreased progressively after birth and, as germ cell meiosis increased, became barely detectable in the Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules. In female rats, MIS mRNA was first ...


Guidelines For The Use Of Growth Hormone In Children With Short Stature., Mary Lee Sep 2014

Guidelines For The Use Of Growth Hormone In Children With Short Stature., Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

On the basis of the information currently available, the only conditions in which GH therapy appears to be safe and effective in increasing adult height are GH deficiency and, likely, Turner syndrome. Therapy with GH also increases the growth velocity of children with CRI and may increase adult height, but no long-term data are available. Encouraging short-term results have been reported in patients with a few other conditions, such as patients with glucocorticoid-induced growth failure, renal transplantation, and Prader-Willi syndrome, but the data are limited and no long-term studies have been reported; in many other conditions the data are either ...


Correlation Of Cognitive Test Scores And Adequacy Of Treatment In Adolescents With Congenital Hypothyroidism., Mary Lee Sep 2014

Correlation Of Cognitive Test Scores And Adequacy Of Treatment In Adolescents With Congenital Hypothyroidism., Mary Lee

Mary M. Lee

PURPOSE: To measure the frequency of noncompliance and its possible effect on school achievement test and cognitive test scores in our older patients with congenital hypothyroidism. METHODS: Fifty patients born from 1976 through 1978 were studied at home when they were 14 years of age. Each patient was given a battery of psychometric and school achievement tests, and blood for hormonal assays was drawn without forewarning from 36 of the patients on the day of examination. Efforts were made to improve control after the second year. During the third summer the tests were repeated in 25 of the 29 patients ...


Deletion Of Aif1 But Not Of Yca1/Mca1 Protects Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Candida Albicans Cells From Caspofungin-Induced Programmed Cell Death, Nicanor Austriaco, Christopher Chin, Faith Donaghey, Kathrine Helming, Morgan Mccarthy, Stephen Rogers Jul 2014

Deletion Of Aif1 But Not Of Yca1/Mca1 Protects Saccharomyces Cerevisiae And Candida Albicans Cells From Caspofungin-Induced Programmed Cell Death, Nicanor Austriaco, Christopher Chin, Faith Donaghey, Kathrine Helming, Morgan Mccarthy, Stephen Rogers

Rev. Nicanor Austriaco, O.P.

Caspofungin was the first member of a new class of antifungals called echinocandins to be approved by a drug regulatory authority. Like the other echinocandins, caspofungin blocks the synthesis of β(1,3)-D-glucan of the fungal cell wall by inhibiting the enzyme, β(1,3)-D-glucan synthase. Loss of β(1,3)-D-glucan leads to osmotic instability and cell death. However, the precise mechanism of cell death associated with the cytotoxicity of caspofungin was unclear. We now provide evidence that Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells cultured in media containing caspofungin manifest the classical hallmarks of programmed cell death (PCD) in yeast ...


Chronic Induction Of Breast Cell Carcinogenesis By Multiple Environmental And Dietary Carcinogens, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Apr 2014

Chronic Induction Of Breast Cell Carcinogenesis By Multiple Environmental And Dietary Carcinogens, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among North American and European women, is mostly sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to small quantities of multiple carcinogens. To understand how multiple carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, we investigated the activity of the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), the environmental carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), and the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Non-cancerous human breast epithelial MCF10A cells were exposed to NNK, B[a]P, and PhIP sequentially or in combination and then analyzed for the acquisition of cancerous ...


Combining Fk228 And Cisplatin Synergistically Induces Cancer Cell Death And Reduces Clonogenic Survival, Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang Apr 2014

Combining Fk228 And Cisplatin Synergistically Induces Cancer Cell Death And Reduces Clonogenic Survival, Shambhunath Choudhary, Shilpa Sood, Lenora Pluchino, Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Lenora A. Pluchino, Ph.D.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of FK228 (romidepsin) to increase cisplatin’s ability to induce cell death and reduce clonogenic survival of human urinary bladder cancer cells. Human urinary bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, but long-term, disease-free survival in patients is still suboptimal. Therefore, it is crucial to develop effective chemotherapeutic regimens to decrease the morbidity and mortality of this cancer. FK228, a depsipeptide and histone deacetylase inhibitor, is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of T cell lymphoma. However, its therapeutic value ...