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2015

Articles 1 - 8 of 8

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth Ryder, Tanja Dominko Dec 2015

Fgf2-Induced Effects On Transcriptome Associated With Regeneration Competence In Adult Human Fibroblasts, Olga Kashpur, David Lapointe, Sakthikumar Ambady, Elizabeth Ryder, Tanja Dominko

Sakthikumar Ambady

BACKGROUND: Adult human fibroblasts grown in low oxygen and with FGF2 supplementation have the capacity to tip the healing outcome of skeletal muscle injury - by favoring regeneration response in vivo over scar formation. Here, we compare the transcriptomes of control adult human dermal fibroblasts and induced regeneration-competent (iRC) fibroblasts to identify transcriptional changes that may be related to their regeneration competence. RESULTS: We identified a unique gene-expression profile that characterizes FGF2-induced iRC fibroblast phenotype. Significantly differentially expressed genes due to FGF2 treatment were identified and analyzed to determine overrepresented Gene Ontology terms. Genes belonging to extracellular matrix components, adhesion molecules ...


Mir-14 Regulates Autophagy During Developmental Cell Death By Targeting Ip3-Kinase 2, Charles Nelson, Victor Ambros, Eric Baehrecke Oct 2015

Mir-14 Regulates Autophagy During Developmental Cell Death By Targeting Ip3-Kinase 2, Charles Nelson, Victor Ambros, Eric Baehrecke

Victor R. Ambros

Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a lysosome-dependent degradation process that has been implicated in age-associated diseases. Autophagy is involved in both cell survival and cell death, but little is known about the mechanisms that distinguish its use during these distinct cell fates. Here, we identify the microRNA miR-14 as being both necessary and sufficient for autophagy during developmentally regulated cell death in Drosophila. Loss of miR-14 prevented induction of autophagy during salivary gland cell death, but had no effect on starvation-induced autophagy in the fat body. Moreover, misexpression of miR-14 was sufficient to prematurely induce autophagy in salivary glands, but not in ...


Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu Aug 2015

Three-Dimensional Confocal Microscopy Indentation Method For Hydrogel Elasticity Measurement, Donghee Lee, Md Mahmudur Rahman, You Zhou, Sangjin Ryu

Md Mahmudur Rahman

No abstract provided.


Dorsoventral Boundary For Organizing Growth And Planar Polarity In The Drosophila Eye, Amit Singh, Janghoo Lim, Kwang-Wook Choi Jul 2015

Dorsoventral Boundary For Organizing Growth And Planar Polarity In The Drosophila Eye, Amit Singh, Janghoo Lim, Kwang-Wook Choi

Amit Singh

A fundamental feature of developing tissues and organs is generation of planar polarity of cells in an epithelium with respect to the body axis.

The Drosophila compound eye shows two-tier dorsoventral (DV) planar polarity. At the individual ommatidium level, the eight photoreceptors in each unit eye form a dorsoventrally asymmetric cluster. At the level of eye field, hundreds of ommatidia in the upper and lower halves of an eye are uniformly polarized dorsally or ventrally, respectively. This results in DV mirror symmetries about the equator. The uniform orientations of photoreceptor clusters over long distance in the eye field provide an ...


Fbf Represses The Cip/Kip Cell-Cycle Inhibitor Cki-2 To Promote Self-Renewal Of Germline Stem Cells In C. Elegans, Irene Kalchhauser, Brian Farley, Sandra Pauli, Sean Ryder, Rafal Ciosk May 2015

Fbf Represses The Cip/Kip Cell-Cycle Inhibitor Cki-2 To Promote Self-Renewal Of Germline Stem Cells In C. Elegans, Irene Kalchhauser, Brian Farley, Sandra Pauli, Sean Ryder, Rafal Ciosk

Sean P. Ryder

Although the decision between stem cell self-renewal and differentiation has been linked to cell-cycle modifications, our understanding of cell-cycle regulation in stem cells is very limited. Here, we report that FBF/Pumilio, a conserved RNA-binding protein, promotes self-renewal of germline stem cells by repressing CKI-2(Cip/Kip), a Cyclin E/Cdk2 inhibitor. We have previously shown that repression of CYE-1 (Cyclin E) by another RNA-binding protein, GLD-1/Quaking, promotes germ cell differentiation. Together, these findings suggest that a post-transcriptional regulatory circuit involving FBF and GLD-1 controls the self-renewal versus differentiation decision in the germline by promoting high CYE-1/CDK-2 activity ...


A Mutation In The Mouse Chd2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Results In A Complex Renal Phenotype, Concetta Marfella, Nils Henninger, Scott Leblanc, Namrata Krishnan, David Garlick, Lawrence Holzman, Anthony Imbalzano Apr 2015

A Mutation In The Mouse Chd2 Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Results In A Complex Renal Phenotype, Concetta Marfella, Nils Henninger, Scott Leblanc, Namrata Krishnan, David Garlick, Lawrence Holzman, Anthony Imbalzano

Nils Henninger

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glomerular diseases are the third leading cause of kidney failure worldwide, behind only diabetes and hypertension. The molecular mechanisms underlying the cause of glomerular diseases are still largely unknown. The identification and characterization of new molecules associated with glomerular function should provide new insights into understanding the diverse group of glomerular diseases. The Chd2 protein belongs to a family of enzymes involved in ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, suggesting that it likely functions as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression via the modification of chromatin structure. METHODS: In this study, we present a detailed histomorphologic characterization of mice containing ...


Supervillin Binds The Rac/Rho-Gef Trio And Increases Trio-Mediated Rac1 Activation, Kyonghee Son, Tara Smith, Elizabeth Luna Mar 2015

Supervillin Binds The Rac/Rho-Gef Trio And Increases Trio-Mediated Rac1 Activation, Kyonghee Son, Tara Smith, Elizabeth Luna

Elizabeth J. Luna

We investigated cross-talk between the membrane-associated, myosin II-regulatory protein supervillin and the actin-regulatory small GTPases Rac1, RhoA, and Cdc42. Supervillin knockdown reduced Rac1-GTP loading, but not the GTP loading of RhoA or Cdc42, in HeLa cells with normal levels of the Rac1-activating protein Trio. No reduction in Rac1-GTP loading was observed when supervillin levels were reduced in Trio-depleted cells. Conversely, overexpression of supervillin isoform 1 (SV1) or, especially, isoform 4 (SV4) increased Rac1 activation. Inhibition of the Trio-mediated Rac1 guanine nucleotide exchange (GEF) activity with ITX3 partially blocked the SV4-mediated increase in Rac1-GTP. Both SV4 and SV1 co-localized with Trio ...


Gamma-Sarcoglycan Is Required For The Response Of Archvillin To Mechanical Stimulation In Skeletal Muscle, Janelle Spinazzola, Tara Smith, Min Liu, Elizabeth Luna, Elisabeth Barton Mar 2015

Gamma-Sarcoglycan Is Required For The Response Of Archvillin To Mechanical Stimulation In Skeletal Muscle, Janelle Spinazzola, Tara Smith, Min Liu, Elizabeth Luna, Elisabeth Barton

Elizabeth J. Luna

Loss of gamma-sarcoglycan (gamma-SG) induces muscle degeneration and signaling defects in response to mechanical load, and its absence is common to both Duchenne and limb girdle muscular dystrophies. Growing evidence suggests that aberrant signaling contributes to the disease pathology; however, the mechanisms of gamma-SG-mediated mechanical signaling are poorly understood. To uncover gamma-SG signaling pathway components, we performed yeast two-hybrid screens and identified the muscle-specific protein archvillin as a gamma-SG and dystrophin interacting protein. Archvillin protein and message levels were significantly upregulated at the sarcolemma of murine gamma-SG-null (gsg-/-) muscle but delocalized in dystrophin-deficient mdx muscle. Similar elevation of archvillin protein ...