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Physiology

2012

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Articles 1 - 24 of 24

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Multiplying Madly: Deacetylases Take Charge Of Centrosome Duplication And Amplification, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen J. Doxsey Dec 2012

Multiplying Madly: Deacetylases Take Charge Of Centrosome Duplication And Amplification, Hui-Fang Hung, Heidi Hehnly, Stephen J. Doxsey

GSBS Student Publications

Comment on: Ling H, et al. Cell Cycle 2012; 11:3779–91; PMID:23022877; http://0-dx.doi.org.library.simmons.edu/10.4161/cc.21985


Halloween 2012 Jack O'Lanterns Trick Or Treat, George Mcnamara Oct 2012

Halloween 2012 Jack O'Lanterns Trick Or Treat, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Halloween 2012 makes trick or treating more visual and interactive than in past years.

the download is a ZIP file containing three files.

Print out the (unnumbered) image on as large and nice printer paper as possible - I used glossy 44" wide here in Miami (University of Miami, MillerSchool of Medicine, Calder Library, Biomedical Communications dept - I also made another print on "fabric", also 44" wide to take with me to an HHMI Janelia Farm conference on 'turning images into knowledge' that ends on Oct 31 - might stay up for a second conference, "GFP..." that start Nov 4).

The other ...


Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, And Aging, Hang Cui, Yahui Kong, Hong Zhang Oct 2012

Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, And Aging, Hang Cui, Yahui Kong, Hong Zhang

Open Access Articles

Aging is an intricate phenomenon characterized by progressive decline in physiological functions and increase in mortality that is often accompanied by many pathological diseases. Although aging is almost universally conserved among all organisms, the underlying molecular mechanisms of aging remain largely elusive. Many theories of aging have been proposed, including the free-radical and mitochondrial theories of aging. Both theories speculate that cumulative damage to mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the causes of aging. Oxidative damage affects replication and transcription of mtDNA and results in a decline in mitochondrial function which in ...


Mcnamara 20120831fri-20120904tue Cosmic Ray Particles By Ccd Imaging, George Mcnamara Sep 2012

Mcnamara 20120831fri-20120904tue Cosmic Ray Particles By Ccd Imaging, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 20120831Fri-20120904Tue Cosmic Ray Particles by CCD imaging.zip contains image files in support of a Microscopy Today article - please see

http://www.microscopy-today.com/


Endogenous Inhibitor Proteins That Connect Ser/Thr Kinases And Phosphatases In Cell Signaling., Masumi Eto, David L Brautigan Sep 2012

Endogenous Inhibitor Proteins That Connect Ser/Thr Kinases And Phosphatases In Cell Signaling., Masumi Eto, David L Brautigan

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics Faculty Papers

Protein phosphatase activity acts as a primary determinant of the extent and duration of phosphorylation of cellular proteins in response to physiological stimuli. Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) belongs to the PPP superfamily, and is associated with regulatory subunits that confer substrate specificity, allosteric regulation, and subcellular compartmentalization. In addition, all eukaryotic cells contain multiple heat-stable proteins that originally were thought to inhibit phosphatase catalytic subunits released from the regulatory subunits, as a fail-safe mechanism. However, discovery of C-kinase-activated PP1 inhibitor, Mr of 17 kDa (CPI-17) required fresh thinking about the endogenous inhibitors as specific regulators of particular phosphatase complexes ...


Cosmic Ray Particles Images With Orca-Ii Erg, George Mcnamara Aug 2012

Cosmic Ray Particles Images With Orca-Ii Erg, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Cosmic ray particles image series acquired using a Hamamatsu ORCA-II ERG scientific grade CCD camera, cooled to -60 C. Each image is a consecutive 600 second (10 minute) exposure time with no light to the camera.

While processing the data, I discoverd that the background changed around planes 25 and 227 (see Excel file and jpeg screenshots), so I also processed only planes 025-227 (203 planes total, 2030 minutes, 33.83 hours). the CCD industry "rule of thumb" for a "typical" CCD sensor (i.e. 1/3" CCD) is that one cosmic ray particle strikes a sensor approximately every 30 ...


Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Jul 2012

Systematic Dissection Of Roles For Chromatin Regulators In A Yeast Stress Response, Assaf Weiner, Hsiuyi V. Chen, Chih Long Liu, Ayelet Rahat, Avital Klien, Luis Soares, Mohanram Gudipati, Jenna Pfeffner, Aviv Regev, Stephen Buratowski, Jeffrey A. Pleiss, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

GSBS Student Publications

Packaging of eukaryotic genomes into chromatin has wide-ranging effects on gene transcription. Curiously, it is commonly observed that deletion of a global chromatin regulator affects expression of only a limited subset of genes bound to or modified by the regulator in question. However, in many single-gene studies it has become clear that chromatin regulators often do not affect steady-state transcription, but instead are required for normal transcriptional reprogramming by environmental cues. We therefore have systematically investigated the effects of 83 histone mutants, and 119 gene deletion mutants, on induction/repression dynamics of 170 transcripts in response to diamide stress in ...


Jnk And Pten Cooperatively Control The Development Of Invasive Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate, Anette Hubner, David J. Mulholland, Claire L. Standen, Maria Karasarides, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Hongbo Chi, Dale Greiner, Cathy Tournier, Charles L. Sawyers, Richard A. Flavell, Hong Wu, Roger J. Davis Jul 2012

Jnk And Pten Cooperatively Control The Development Of Invasive Adenocarcinoma Of The Prostate, Anette Hubner, David J. Mulholland, Claire L. Standen, Maria Karasarides, Julie Cavanagh-Kyros, Tamera Barrett, Hongbo Chi, Dale Greiner, Cathy Tournier, Charles L. Sawyers, Richard A. Flavell, Hong Wu, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in cancer, but the role of JNK in tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the JNK signaling pathway reduces the development of invasive adenocarcinoma in the phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) conditional deletion model of prostate cancer. Mice with JNK deficiency in the prostate epithelium (DeltaJnk DeltaPten mice) develop androgen-independent metastatic prostate cancer more rapidly than control (DeltaPten) mice. Similarly, prevention of JNK activation in the prostate epithelium (DeltaMkk4 DeltaMkk7 DeltaPten mice) causes rapid development of invasive adenocarcinoma. We found that JNK signaling defects cause an ...


Uncovering Dual Roles For Perk Signaling During Experimentally Induced Pancreatitis, Elena Fazio Jun 2012

Uncovering Dual Roles For Perk Signaling During Experimentally Induced Pancreatitis, Elena Fazio

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pancreatitis is characterized by inappropriate activation of digestive enzyme

precursors, or zymogens, local and systemic inflammation, dysregulation of

cellular calcium (Ca2+), and induction of the unfolded protein response (UPR).

The UPR consists of three distinct pathways all of which are activated during

pancreatitis. However, the molecular roles of each remain unclear. The

protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway reduces general

protein translation by phosphorylating eIF2!, and is activated within minutes

of initiating pancreatic damage. Microarray analysis carried out by our lab

revealed robust upregulation of the PERK pathways members Activating

Transcription Factor (ATF) 3 and stanniocalcin (STC ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian May 2012

Identification And Characterization Of The Arabidopsis Homolog Of The Yeast Trex-2 Complex, Gang Tian

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are vital to nuclear-cytoplasmic communication in eukaryotes. The yeast Thp1-Sac3-Cdc31-Sus1 complex, also known as the TREX-2 complex, is anchored to the NPC via the nucleoporin Nup1, and is essential for mRNA export. In this study, the Arabidopsis homolog of the yeast TREX-2 complex was discovered. Physical and functional evidence support the identification of the Arabidopsis orthologs of the yeast Thp1 and Nup1. Of three Sac3 Arabidopsis homologs, two are putative TREX-2 components. Surprisingly, none are required for mRNA export as is the yeast Sac3. Physical association with TREX-2 was observed for the two Cdc31 homologs, but ...


Target Recognition And Competitive Synaptogenesis In The Drosophila Giant Fiber System, Jason Joseph Hill May 2012

Target Recognition And Competitive Synaptogenesis In The Drosophila Giant Fiber System, Jason Joseph Hill

Open Access Dissertations

The development of complex neural networks relies on a careful balance of environmental cues to guide and shape both ends of the eventual connection. However, the correct wiring of circuits whose components share molecular profiles depends on a more elaborate phenomenon, competition. Despite being highly studied, there is still a lack of understanding as to the mechanism that allows molecularly identical cells to form exclusive connections with their targets. To address this complex question, we turned to a simple circuit within the genetically tractable fly. Responsible for the escape reflex, the Giant Fiber System is comprised of bilaterally symmetrical axons ...


Role Of Trp Channels In Mediating The Calcium Signaling Response Of Brain Endothelial Cells To Mechanical Stretch, Jonathan Berrout May 2012

Role Of Trp Channels In Mediating The Calcium Signaling Response Of Brain Endothelial Cells To Mechanical Stretch, Jonathan Berrout

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in disruption of the blood brain barrier (BBB), which is an integral component to maintaining the central nervous system homeostasis. Recently cytosolic calcium levels ([Ca2+]i), observed to elevate following TBI, have been shown to influence endothelial barrier integrity. However, the mechanism by which TBI-induced calcium signaling alters the endothelial barrier remains unknown. In the present study, an in vitro BBB model was utilized to address this issue. Exposure of cells to biaxial mechanical stretch, in the range expected for TBI, resulted in a rapid cytosolic calcium increase. Modulation of intracellular and extracellular ...


Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin May 2012

Regulation Of Protein Degradation In The Heart By Amp-Activated Protein Kinase, Kedryn K. Baskin, Kedryn K. Baskin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The degradation of proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome system is essential for cellular homeostasis in the heart. An important regulator of metabolic homeostasis is AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). During nutrient deprivation, AMPK is activated and intracellular proteolysis is enhanced through the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). Whether AMPK plays a role in protein degradation through the UPS in the heart is not known. Here I present data in support of the hypothesis that AMPK transcriptionally regulates key players in the UPS, which, under extreme conditions can be detrimental to the heart. The ubiquitin ligases MAFbx /Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, key regulators of ...


Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling In Adipocytes By Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines In Macrophages Through A C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- And Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent And Retinol-Independent Mechanism, Julie Norseen, Tetsuya Hosooka, Ann Hammarstedt, Mark M. Yore, Shashi Kant, Pratik Aryal, Urban A. Kiernan, David A. Phillips, Hiroshi Maruyama, Bettina J. Kraus, Anny Usheva, Roger J. Davis, Ulf Smith, Barbara B. Kahn May 2012

Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Inhibits Insulin Signaling In Adipocytes By Inducing Proinflammatory Cytokines In Macrophages Through A C-Jun N-Terminal Kinase- And Toll-Like Receptor 4-Dependent And Retinol-Independent Mechanism, Julie Norseen, Tetsuya Hosooka, Ann Hammarstedt, Mark M. Yore, Shashi Kant, Pratik Aryal, Urban A. Kiernan, David A. Phillips, Hiroshi Maruyama, Bettina J. Kraus, Anny Usheva, Roger J. Davis, Ulf Smith, Barbara B. Kahn

Davis Lab Publications

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), the sole retinol transporter in blood, is secreted from adipocytes and liver. Serum RBP4 levels correlate highly with insulin resistance, other metabolic syndrome factors, and cardiovascular disease. Elevated serum RBP4 causes insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that RBP4 induces expression of proinflammatory cytokines in mouse and human macrophages and thereby indirectly inhibits insulin signaling in cocultured adipocytes. This occurs through activation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways independent of the RBP4 receptor, STRA6. RBP4 effects are markedly attenuated in JNK1-/- JNK2-/- macrophages and TLR4- ...


Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones Apr 2012

Treatment Of Aortic Heart Valve Conduit With Glutamine And Heat Shock As A Means To Deter The Constituent Cellular Population From Becoming Apoptotic, Alyce Marie Linthurst Jones

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

Cryopreserved allograft heart valves represent the best solution for a patient with a failing heart valve. However, the constituent cells become apoptotic and within months of transplant the heart valve becomes acellular and the recipient's cells do not repopulate the allograft (3, 51). A strategy to prevent this situation would be to minimize or prevent apoptosis from occurring by strategically altering steps during heart valve processing. Recently it has been demonstrated that: 1) Heat shock protein 70 is a negative modulator of the apoptotic cascade; 2) Cells in culture exposed to hypothermic conditions produce heat shock protein 70 upon ...


Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara Mar 2012

Flatbed Scanner Report - Optical Density Dynamic Range, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

George McNamara (now at University of Miami) report for Hua Yu and Richard Jove, City of Hope National Medical Center, on optical density dynamic range of several flatbed scanners.


Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Introduction To Nanoscopy Nano-Talk, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

T7-1 is the designation for the LMRG Nanoscopy session at ABRF in Orlando, FL, on March 20, 2012. The PDF file here is a draft of my presentation.

May not be very helpful since (1) would probably help to know what is in my head and each slide will [hopefully] prompt me to say, and (2) 10 minute talk so I am going to push the "next slide" button after saying very little.

__________________

Publisher statement:

The T7-1 Introduction to Nanoscopy Nano Talk is copyrighted (c) George McNamara, 2012. Except for (1) screenshots from research articles (which are copyrighted by ...


Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Pubspectra - Open Data Access Fluorescence Spectra, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

The Internet is enabling greater access to spectral imaging publications, spectral graphs, and data than that was available a generation ago. The spectral imaging systems discussed in this issue of Cytometry work because reagent and hardware spectra are reproducible, reusable, and provide input to spectral unmixing and spectral components recognition algorithms. These spectra need to be readily available in order to determine what to purchase, how to use it, and what the output means. We refer to several commercially sponsored and academic spectral web sites and discuss our spectral graphing and data sites. Sites include fluorescent dye graph servers from ...


Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Mcnamara 2011 Feature Extraction (Image Analysis), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Feature Extraction presentation and movies in a ZIP file from a presentation I gave at ISAC 2011 in Baltomore, Md.

Feature extraction is one phrase for image analysis.


Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara Feb 2012

Rogers Pmn Movie - Background Information, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Please see

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

for my series of MetaMorph MetaMatters articles in volume 2, numbers 3 through 6, on the Rogers PMN Panorama data set.

http://mdc.custhelp.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/18689/~/metamatters-newsletters

Brief summary (for more, see the Word doc)


Electric Field Exposure Triggers And Guides Formation Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs In U937 Monocytes, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2012

Electric Field Exposure Triggers And Guides Formation Of Pseudopod-Like Blebs In U937 Monocytes, Mikhail A. Rassokhin, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

We describe a new phenomenon of anodotropic pseudopod-like blebbing in U937 cells stimulated by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). In contrast to "regular," round-shaped blebs, which are often seen in response to cell damage, pseudopod-like blebs (PLBs) formed as longitudinal membrane protrusions toward anode. PLB length could exceed the cell diameter in 2 min of exposure to 60-ns, 10-kV/cm pulses delivered at 10-20 Hz. Both PLBs and round-shaped nsPEF-induced blebs could be efficiently inhibited by partial isosmotic replacement of bath NaCl for a larger solute (sucrose), thereby pointing to the colloid-osmotic water uptake as the principal driving force for ...


Synergy Between Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (Igf-I) E-Peptides And Igf-I Signaling Alters Growth In Skeletal Muscle, Becky Kathleen Brisson Jan 2012

Synergy Between Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (Igf-I) E-Peptides And Igf-I Signaling Alters Growth In Skeletal Muscle, Becky Kathleen Brisson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent growth factor that regulates and promotes growth in many types of cells and tissues, including skeletal muscle. The igf1 gene encodes mature IGF-I and a carboxy-terminal extension called the E-peptide. In rodents, alternative splicing and post-translational processing produce two E-peptides (EA and EB). The mature IGF-I produced by both isoforms is identical, while EA and EB share less than 50% homology. EB has been studied extensively and has been reported to promote cell proliferation and migration independently of IGF-I and its receptor (IGF-IR) in culture, but the mechanism by which EB causes these ...


The Effect Of Exercise On Endothelin And Endothelin Receptor Levels In Shr And Wky Male And Female Rats, Lacey Stiller Jan 2012

The Effect Of Exercise On Endothelin And Endothelin Receptor Levels In Shr And Wky Male And Female Rats, Lacey Stiller

All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects

The role of exercise as a means to modulate renal function in hypertension is unclear. However, prior studies in the laboratory of Dr. Penny Knoblich indicate that exercised female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats excrete significantly more sodium in response to a rise in blood pressure relative to exercised male and sedentary female SHR and WKY rats. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of exercise on endothelin and endothelin receptor levels in the urine and kidneys of male and female SHR and WKY rats, to elucidate potential mechanisms to explain an increase ...


A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel Jan 2012

A Proposal To Test The Effects Of Factor Ecat1 On Pluripotency, From Reprogramming To Differentiation Of Human Somatic Cells, Vritti R. Goel

CMC Senior Theses

The field of stem cell research has been growing more because of the interest in using stem cells to cure diseases and heal injuries. Human embryonic stem cells, because of the controversy surrounding them—and subsequently the difficulties in acquiring samples of the existing aging cell lines—can only be used in limited capacities. While the development of induced pluripotent stem cells in the last decade has allowed the field to progress closer to medical treatments, the low efficiency of reprogramming a somatic cell to a pluripotent state, and the vast molecular and genomic differences between human embryonic stem cells ...