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Articles 31 - 39 of 39

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Echinacea Species And Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Carlie A. Lalone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, Norma Leyva, Yi Liu, Avery K.S. Solco, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Ok-Kyung Kim, Kwon Ii Seo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Diane F. Birt Jan 2007

Echinacea Species And Alkamides Inhibit Prostaglandin E2 Production In Raw264.7 Mouse Macrophage Cells, Carlie A. Lalone, Kimberly D.P. Hammer, Lankun Wu, Jaehood Bae, Norma Leyva, Yi Liu, Avery K.S. Solco, George A. Kraus, Patricia A. Murphy, Eve S. Wurtele, Ok-Kyung Kim, Kwon Ii Seo, Mark P. Widrlechner, Diane F. Birt

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells was assessed with an enzyme immunoassay following treatments with Echinacea extracts or synthesized alkamides. Results indicated that ethanol extracts diluted in media to a concentration of 15 μg/mL from E. angustifolia, E. pallida, E. simulata, and E. sanguinea significantly inhibited PGE2 production. In further studies, PGE2 production was significantly reduced by all synthesized alkamides assayed at 50 μM, by Bauer alkamides 8, 12A analogue, and 14, Chen alkamide 2, and Chen alkamide 2 analogue at 25 μM and by Bauer alkamide 14 ...


Mitochondrial Remodeling In Adipose Tissue Associated With Obesity And Treatment With Rosiglitazone, Leanne Wilson-Fritch, Sarah M. Nicoloro, My T. Chouinard, Mitchell A. Lazar, Patricia C. Chui, John D. Leszyk, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Michael P. Czech, Silvia Corvera Nov 2004

Mitochondrial Remodeling In Adipose Tissue Associated With Obesity And Treatment With Rosiglitazone, Leanne Wilson-Fritch, Sarah M. Nicoloro, My T. Chouinard, Mitchell A. Lazar, Patricia C. Chui, John D. Leszyk, Juerg R. Straubhaar, Michael P. Czech, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Adipose tissue plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis through the storage and turnover of triglycerides and through the secretion of factors that affect satiety and fuel utilization. Agents that enhance insulin sensitivity, such as rosiglitazone, appear to exert their therapeutic effect through adipose tissue, but the precise mechanisms of their actions are unclear. Rosiglitazone changes the morphological features and protein profiles of mitochondria in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. To examine the relevance of these effects in vivo, we studied white adipocytes from ob/ob mice during the development of obesity and after treatment with rosiglitazone. The levels of ...


Mechanisms Of Somatostatin-Induced Paradoxical Increase In Insulin Secretion In The Presence Of Arginine Vasopressin In Clonal [Beta]-Cell Hit-T15 , Henrique Cheng Jan 2002

Mechanisms Of Somatostatin-Induced Paradoxical Increase In Insulin Secretion In The Presence Of Arginine Vasopressin In Clonal [Beta]-Cell Hit-T15 , Henrique Cheng

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

We investigated the mechanism underlying somatostatin-induced increase in [Ca2+]i leading to insulin release in the presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in clonal beta-cell HIT-T15. Somatostatin increased [Ca2+]i and insulin release in a biphasic pattern, characterized by a sharp and transient increase followed by a rapid decline to the sub-basal level. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin, which inactivates Gi/Go, abolished the effects of somatostatin. U-73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, antagonized somatostatin-induced increase in [Ca2+] i. In Ca2+-free environment, somatostatin still increased [Ca2+]i, whereas depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ stores with thapsigargin, a microsomal Ca2+ ATPase inhibitor ...


A Role For The Dnaj Homologue Scj1p In Protein Folding In The Yeast Endoplasmic Reticulum, Susana Silberstein, Gabriel Schlenstedt, Pam A. Silver, Reid Gilmore Nov 1998

A Role For The Dnaj Homologue Scj1p In Protein Folding In The Yeast Endoplasmic Reticulum, Susana Silberstein, Gabriel Schlenstedt, Pam A. Silver, Reid Gilmore

Open Access Articles

Members of the eukaryotic heat shock protein 70 family (Hsp70s) are regulated by protein cofactors that contain domains homologous to bacterial DnaJ. Of the three DnaJ homologues in the yeast rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER; Scj1p, Sec63p, and Jem1p), Scj1p is most closely related to DnaJ, hence it is a probable cofactor for Kar2p, the major Hsp70 in the yeast RER. However, the physiological role of Scj1p has remained obscure due to the lack of an obvious defect in Kar2p-mediated pathways in scj1 null mutants. Here, we show that the Deltascj1 mutant is hypersensitive to tunicamycin or mutations that reduce N-linked ...


Comparison Of Beta-Adrenoceptor Coupled Camp Production In Cultured Human Mononuclear Leukocytes And Myometrial Cells, Yu-Li Liu Dec 1997

Comparison Of Beta-Adrenoceptor Coupled Camp Production In Cultured Human Mononuclear Leukocytes And Myometrial Cells, Yu-Li Liu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

$\beta\sb2$-Adrenoceptor ($\beta\sb2$-AR) agonists, such as terbutaline, are used as tocolytic agents in the treatment of preterm labor. $\beta$-Adrenoceptor stimulation relaxes myometrium through specific receptors coupled through Gs to adenylyl cyclase (AC) that catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The purpose of this study was to compare $\beta$-adrenoceptors and cAMP production in cultured human leukocytes and myometrial cells, and to determine the importance of $\beta$-adrenoceptors and cAMP production in isoproterenol-induced myometrial relaxation. $\sp{125}$I-iodopindolol was used to assess $\beta$-adrenoceptor affinity and number cAMP levels were analyzed before and after stimulation by ...


Utilization Of Fatigued And Non-Fatigued Isolated Guinea-Pig Papillary Muscles And Ventricular Myocytes On The Comparison Of Inotropic, Chronotropic And Intracellular Calcium Changes Induced By Monensin And Digoxin , Ismail Meral Jan 1996

Utilization Of Fatigued And Non-Fatigued Isolated Guinea-Pig Papillary Muscles And Ventricular Myocytes On The Comparison Of Inotropic, Chronotropic And Intracellular Calcium Changes Induced By Monensin And Digoxin , Ismail Meral

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Experiment 1. We investigated the effects of monensin and digoxin on contraction force (CF), initial contraction velocity (ICV), average contraction velocity (ACV), initial relaxation velocity (IRV) and stimulus to response time (ST) change in fatigued (defined as the level at which papillary muscle contraction had lost 30% of its original contraction force with the elapse of time) and non-fatigued guinea-pig papillary muscles. The five hours of measurement in Experiment 3 were divided into five periods (T0 was equilibration, T1, T2, T3, and T4 were respectively one, two, three, and four hours after drug administration). We found that both monensin and ...


In Situ Regulation Of Cytosolic Phospolipase A₂, Beverly A. Rzigalinski Oct 1994

In Situ Regulation Of Cytosolic Phospolipase A₂, Beverly A. Rzigalinski

Theses and Dissertations in Biomedical Sciences

The 85 kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) is an agonist-responsive effector for intracellular signal transduction through the arachidonate cascade. In vitro studies have demonstrated that this enzyme is regulated by sub-micromolar calcium and is specific for arachidonate as the sn-2 fatty acyl group of phospholipid substrates. However, very little data is available regarding in situ mechanisms which govern the activity of cPLA2. The primarily objective of these studies was to develop an in situ system for the study of cPLA2, and investigate mobilization of arachidonate during signal transduction events.

Dimethylsulfoxide differentiation of the human lymphoma cell ...


Protein Translocation Across The Er Requires A Functional Gtp Binding Site In The Alpha Subunit Of The Signal Recognition Particle Receptor, Peter J. Rapiejko, Reid Gilmore May 1992

Protein Translocation Across The Er Requires A Functional Gtp Binding Site In The Alpha Subunit Of The Signal Recognition Particle Receptor, Peter J. Rapiejko, Reid Gilmore

Open Access Articles

The signal recognition particle (SRP)-mediated translocation of proteins across the RER is a GTP dependent process. Analysis of the primary amino acid sequence of one protein subunit of SRP (SRP54), as well as the alpha subunit of the SRP receptor (SR alpha), has indicated that these proteins contain predicted GTP binding sites. Several point mutations confined to the GTP binding consensus elements of SR alpha were constructed by site specific mutagenesis to define a role for the GTP binding site in SR alpha during protein translocation. The SR alpha mutants were analyzed using an in vitro system wherein SR ...


A Study Of The Characteristics, Actions And Mechanisms Of Actinomycin D And Its Effects On Regeneration In The Ciliate Stentor, Patrick Cahill Apr 1972

A Study Of The Characteristics, Actions And Mechanisms Of Actinomycin D And Its Effects On Regeneration In The Ciliate Stentor, Patrick Cahill

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A chemical substance known as Actinomycin D has profound effects on living cells. Through extensive use of this chemical, biochemists have found a tool to explore the intricate secrets of the chemistry of living matter.

Actinomycin D (AMD) is a chemical substance called an antibiotic. Antibiotics are chemicals produced by living microorganisms that have the ability to inhibit growth or to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms. The actinomycins are a family of antibiotics with antitumor activity that are produced by Streptomyces antlbioticus (Abraham, 1959) and other species of Streptomyces.