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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Changes In Threonyl-Trna Synthetase Expression And Secretion In Response To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Monensin In Ovarian Cancer Cells, Jared Louis Hammer Jan 2017

Changes In Threonyl-Trna Synthetase Expression And Secretion In Response To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress By Monensin In Ovarian Cancer Cells, Jared Louis Hammer

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARS) are a family of enzymes that catalyze the charging of amino acids to their cognate tRNA in an aminoacylation reaction. Many members of this family have been found to have secondary functions independent of their primary aminoacylation function. Threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS), the ARS responsible for charging tRNA with threonine, is secreted from endothelial cells in response to both vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and stimulates angiogenesis and cell migration. Here we show a novel experimental approach for studying TARS secretion, and for observing the role of intracellular TARS in the endoplasmic reticulum ...


Characterization Of A Non-Canonical Function For Threonyl-Trna Synthetase In Angiogenesis, Adam Christopher Mirando Jan 2015

Characterization Of A Non-Canonical Function For Threonyl-Trna Synthetase In Angiogenesis, Adam Christopher Mirando

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

In addition to its canonical role in aminoacylation, threonyl-tRNA synthetase (TARS) possesses pro-angiogenic activity that is susceptible to the TARS-specific antibiotic borrelidin. However, the therapeutic benefit of borrelidin is offset by its strong toxicity to living cells. The removal of a single methylene group from the parent borrelidin generates BC194, a modified compound with significantly reduced toxicity but comparable anti-angiogenic potential. Biochemical analyses revealed that the difference in toxicities was due to borrelidin's stimulation of amino acid starvation at ten-fold lower concentrations than BC194. However, both compounds were found to inhibit in vitro and in vivo models of angiogenesis ...