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Nutrition

Theses/Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Platiscity Of C. Elegans Germline Stem Cells Under Nutritional And Metabolic Stress, Kenneth Trimmer May 2019

Platiscity Of C. Elegans Germline Stem Cells Under Nutritional And Metabolic Stress, Kenneth Trimmer

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Stem cells are integral for tissue maintenance and fertility. Therefore, understanding how stem cells are regulated under stress is imperative. When confronted with acute starvation, stem cells must conserve energy and metabolites to cope with the lack of an external source. Caenorhabditis elegans germline stem cells (GSCs) are an excellent model for studying stem cell properties and regulation as they can divide throughout the life of the organism. While GSCs are an adult stem cell population, their cell cycle structure more closely mimics mouse and human embryonic stem cells with short G1 and long S phases. In this thesis, I ...


The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback Jan 2019

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


Effect Of Increased Ratio Of Butyrate To Physiological Concentrations Of Acetate And Propionate On Intestinal Integrity And Il-8 Secretion In Caco-2 Cells, Nidhi Shah Jan 2018

Effect Of Increased Ratio Of Butyrate To Physiological Concentrations Of Acetate And Propionate On Intestinal Integrity And Il-8 Secretion In Caco-2 Cells, Nidhi Shah

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Background: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are a growing global health problem. Current pharmacological therapies are not effective in all IBD patients, tend to cause side effects and in some cases lose effectiveness when used for a prolonged period of time. Hence, there is a need to develop dietary interventions that are safe and be applicable to all. Chronic inflammation of the gut could be combated by increasing the consumption of dietary fiber which would lead to an increased butyrate production in the colon. Butyrate has been shown to improve intestinal integrity and suppress the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-8 – which ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen Sep 2017

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


Differential Activity And Content Of High-Affinity Glutamate Transporters, Content Of Their Regulatory Proteins, And Capacity For Glutamine And Glutathione Synthesis In Tissues Of Finished Versus Growing Steers, Jing Huang Jan 2017

Differential Activity And Content Of High-Affinity Glutamate Transporters, Content Of Their Regulatory Proteins, And Capacity For Glutamine And Glutathione Synthesis In Tissues Of Finished Versus Growing Steers, Jing Huang

Theses and Dissertations--Animal and Food Sciences

Improvement of feeding regimens for production animals has been hindered by a lack of fundamental knowledge about how the capacity to regulate nutrient absorption across cell membranes affects the function of nutrient metabolizing enzymes. The objective is to determine if the activities and protein content of system X-AG glutamate transporter, its regulatory protein (GTRAP3-18 and ARL6IP1), glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutathione (GSH) content, changes in liver (Experiment 1), longissimus dorsi (LM) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SF) (Experiment 2) as beef steers transitioned from predominantly-lean (growing) to -lipid (finished) tissue accretion phases. In liver (Experiment 1), system X-AG activity ...


Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan Aug 2016

Intestinal Adaptation To Repeated Exposure Of Flavonoid-Rich Foods: In Vitro And Clinical Data, Bejamin W. Redan

Open Access Dissertations

Interest in application of flavonoids for chronic disease prevention has grown significantly, but the low oral bioavailability of these compounds from acute doses is commonly highlighted as a limitation when considering their biological significance. Still, the impact of broad dietary patterns such as repeated exposure on flavonoid’s absorption, metabolism, and eventual efficacy is critical to consider since evidence suggests that their bioavailability may be enhanced with repeated exposure. To fill this gap in knowledge, this dissertation will focus on three major areas including characterization of flavonoid metabolites, in addition to use of in vitro models and clinical work to ...


Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila Aug 2016

Intestinal Cytoplasmic Lipid Droplets, Associated Proteins, And The Regulation Of Dietary Fat Absorption, Theresa M. D'Aquila

Open Access Dissertations

Dietary fat provides essential nutrients, contributes to energy balance, and regulates blood lipid concentrations. These functions are important to health, but can also become dysregulated and contribute to diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The small intestine absorbs dietary fat through an efficient multi step process of digestion, uptake, metabolism, and secretion or storage. When dietary fat is taken up by the absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, it can be secreted into circulation where it contributes to blood lipid levels or temporarily stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (CLDs). The objective of this dissertation is to investigate ...


Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa Jan 2016

Autophagy Regulation After Diet And Exercise In Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Megan Elizabeth Rosa

Theses and Dissertations

Along with the rise in obesity, rates of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have also increased. NAFLD may begin with fat accumulation in the liver, but can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis, and eventual cirrhosis. With no pharmacological treatment for NASH, lifestyle interventions appear vital to maintaining liver health. Previous work has shown aberrant mitochondrial content/quality and autophagy in models of NAFLD. Exercise is known to improve mitochondrial health and possibly autophagy, thus autophagy may be a key regulatory factor for treatment of obesity induced-NAFLD. PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine how weight loss from ...


Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae Dec 2015

Brown And Beige Adipocytes: Effects Of Inflammation And Nutritional Intervention, Jiyoung Bae

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent findings of brown adipocytes and brown-like or beige adipocytes, capable of dissipating energy as heat, in adult humans have promised new hope for obesity treatment and prevention. Understanding of the regulation of brown and beige adipocytes will provide novel strategies to reach the goal. Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) are responsible for inflammation in adipose tissue, which leads to adipose dysfunction and obesity associated chronic diseases. It has been shown that PRR activation induces inflammation, leading to insulin resistance in white adipocytes and white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the roles of PRR activation in brown adipocytes and brown adipose tissue ...


Effect Of Long Term Rapamycin Treatment On Mtor Signalling Network In Colon And Liver Of C57bl/6 Mice, John Sorge Jan 2014

Effect Of Long Term Rapamycin Treatment On Mtor Signalling Network In Colon And Liver Of C57bl/6 Mice, John Sorge

Wayne State University Theses

Many studies have investigated the effects of rapamycin on aging and cancer. However, the effects of long-term rapamycin supplementation on a cancer model have not been performed. This is the first study that investigates the effects of long-term supplementation of rapamycin in a cancer model. ACF analysis of colon tissues in mice showed no significant difference between controls and those supplemented with rapamycin. Factors such as energy balance, cellular environment, PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, and more have been assessed in this study. The duration of rapamycin supplementation seems to play an important role in the protection against cancer. Ultimately, this ...


Associations Between Alcohol Consumption And Fasting Blood Glucose In Young Adults, Julie Ann Lucca Jun 2013

Associations Between Alcohol Consumption And Fasting Blood Glucose In Young Adults, Julie Ann Lucca

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Current research shows moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of diabetes and excessive consumption or binge drinking can cause insulin resistance and diabetes. In 2010, diabetes was the seventh leading cause of death in the United Statesand was responsible for significant health complications: blindness, kidney failure, and limb amputations, and is a large national economic burden. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) is a tool used to help diagnose diabetes. Abnormally high FBG, ≥100 mg/dl, is indicative of diabetes and pre-diabetes. Few studies have observed diabetic prevalence among young adults or college students. Studying young adults can help provide ...


Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li May 2013

Role Of Retinoids In The Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose And Lipid Metabolism, Rui Li

Doctoral Dissertations

The liver plays an important role in controlling glucose and lipid homeostasis. Metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and type 2 diabetes are often associated with profound changes in the expression of genes involved in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Dietary nutrients provide us with macronutrients for energy and micronutrients for maintenance of general health. However, the effects of individual micronutrients on the development of metabolic diseases are unknown. Sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) is the master regulator of fatty acid synthesis, and glucokinase (GK) is the key enzyme in glucose metabolism. Based on the preliminary results from our laboratory ...


Desensitization Of Basal Cell Carcinoma To The Anti-Tumoral Effect Of Vitamin D, Rawia Khasawneh Jan 2013

Desensitization Of Basal Cell Carcinoma To The Anti-Tumoral Effect Of Vitamin D, Rawia Khasawneh

Wayne State University Dissertations

The relationship between Vitamin D and NMSC is not very clear. Most of human studies in literature in regards to vitamin D and NMSC are epidemiological which are inconsistent and inconclusive. Mechanistic studies about BCC are few, and mostly are animal models or cell cultures. The main goal for this study is to interpret the impact of vitamin D status on the onset and progression and possibly treatment of basal cell carcinoma. Three tissue samples were collected from BCC patients (Cancer, Proximal, and Distal), and from cancer-free individuals from southeast Michigan. This study design helps identifying alterations in the genetic ...


Investigating The Dual Roles Of Stra6 In Cell Signaling And Vitamin A Trafficking, Christina Elaine Schulte Jan 2012

Investigating The Dual Roles Of Stra6 In Cell Signaling And Vitamin A Trafficking, Christina Elaine Schulte

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The long-term goal of the present study is to understand how cancer incidence and progression can be reduced through the optimization of vitamin A trafficking and signaling in tissues prone to tumor development. However, little is known about vitamin A uptake, transport, or signaling in epithelial cells prone to tumorigenesis. Retinol, the major circulating retinoid, is delivered to peripheral tissues in complex with retinol binding protein (RBP). Recently, a retinoic acid responsive protein with no previous known biological function, STRA6, has been identified as an essential transmembrane receptor that mediates retinol uptake in retinal epithelial cells. More recently, STRA6 was ...


Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight Jan 1999

Fatty Acid Modification Of Cells In Culture By Overexpression Of Exogenous Desaturases , Travis Jay Knight

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

COS-1 cells were transfected transiently with expression vectors encoding stearoyl-acyl-carrier-protein desaturase (SACPD) from castor bean, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) from mice, and a control vector containing SACPD cDNA in reverse orientation. The hypothesis was that both exogenous desaturases would be active in COS-1 cells, thereby increasing the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids produced by the cells. Messenger RNA and anti-myc immunoreactive proteins were detected at 12 and 24 hours post-transfection respectively and increased through 48 hours post-transfection. When acetate was used as the fatty acid precursor in cultures for a 24-hour period starting 24 hours post-transfection, the ratio of monounsaturated to ...