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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Double-Stranded Rna Binding Protein, Staufen, Is Required For The Initiation Of Rnai In Coleopteran Insects, June-Sun Yoon, Kanakachari Mogilicherla, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Xien Chen, Shankar C. R. R. Chereddy, Subba R. Palli Aug 2018

Double-Stranded Rna Binding Protein, Staufen, Is Required For The Initiation Of Rnai In Coleopteran Insects, June-Sun Yoon, Kanakachari Mogilicherla, Dhandapani Gurusamy, Xien Chen, Shankar C. R. R. Chereddy, Subba R. Palli

Entomology Faculty Publications

RNA interference (RNAi) is being used to develop methods to control pests and disease vectors. RNAi is robust and systemic in coleopteran insects but is quite variable in other insects. The determinants of efficient RNAi in coleopterans, as well as its potential mechanisms of resistance, are not known. RNAi screen identified a double-stranded RNA binding protein (StaufenC) as a major player in RNAi. StaufenC homologs have been identified in only coleopteran insects. Experiments in two coleopteran insects, Leptinotarsa decemlineata and Tribolium castaneum, showed the requirement of StaufenC for RNAi, especially for processing of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to small interfering RNA ...


Investigating The Roles Of Tap63 And Tap73 In Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Lung Adenocarcinoma, Andrew J. Davis Aug 2018

Investigating The Roles Of Tap63 And Tap73 In Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma And Lung Adenocarcinoma, Andrew J. Davis

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

TP63 and TP73 (which encode p63 and p73, respectively) are highly conserved transcription factors with important roles in development and tissue homeostasis. Similar to their homolog, p53, both p63 and p73 have been shown to mediate tumor suppression in multiple tissue types. Interestingly, however, both genes are expressed as multiple isoforms, which appear to have different and, in many cases, antagonistic functions. Through the use of isoform-specific null alleles of p63 and p73 our lab and others have shown that the full-length N-terminal isoforms of p63 and p73 (referred to as TAp63 and TAp73, respectively) exhibit distinct functions in development ...


Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura May 2018

Tarbp2 -Mediated Post-Transcriptional Regulation Of Gene Expression During Murine Embryonic Development And Spermatogenesis, Sri Ramulu N. Pullagura

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Micro RNAs (miRNAs), which are ~22 nucleotide (nt) long RNA molecules and several RNA binding proteins (RBPs) engage in an RNA dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing process known as RNA interference (RNAi). In the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway, an enzyme known as DICER cleaves the ~70nt pre-miRNA to a ~22nt long miRNA that is loaded into the RNAi effector mechanism, the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC).

Several in vitro studies provide suggestive evidence that mammalian double stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs), such as TARBP2, act as DICER cofactors in miRNA processing and RISC loading to promote RNAi activity. A screen attempting ...


Development Of Endogenous Tagging Plasmids For Characterization Of Protein Interactions, Localization, And Post-Translational Modifications Of Tetrahymena Thermophila Rad23, Evan Andrew Wilson May 2018

Development Of Endogenous Tagging Plasmids For Characterization Of Protein Interactions, Localization, And Post-Translational Modifications Of Tetrahymena Thermophila Rad23, Evan Andrew Wilson

MSU Graduate Theses

Rad23 is a protein involved in both nucleotide excision repair (NER) and proteasome-mediated degradation, and has been suggested to facilitate interactions between these two pathways. The model organism Tetrahymena thermophila, which has a transcriptionally silent micronucleus, provides a useful platform for studying the role of Rad23 in global genome NER (GG-NER). However, the ectopic expression systems used thus far in T. thermophila to study Rad23 are repressed by UV light and do not account for the background expression of endogenous RAD23; these phenomena prevent insightful gains to the true dynamics of Rad23. In this thesis, endogenous tagging cassettes have been ...


Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott May 2018

Functional Studies Of The E. Coli Proc And A Putative Ortholog Mrub_1345, Mourin Azar, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of Escherichia coli and Meiothermus ruber proC genes using the complementation assay. In this research project, mutants of varying severity to the functional state of the protein were developed. The results showed that two or more amino acid deletions reduced or eliminated ProC function. Amino acid substitutions, on the other hand, were not severe enough to impact ProC function. Double and triple mutants ...


Characterization Of A Morphogenetic Furrow Specific Gal4 Driver In The Developing Drosophila Eye, Ankita Sarkar, Neha Gogia, Kevin Farley, Lydia C. Payton, Amit Singh Apr 2018

Characterization Of A Morphogenetic Furrow Specific Gal4 Driver In The Developing Drosophila Eye, Ankita Sarkar, Neha Gogia, Kevin Farley, Lydia C. Payton, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

The ability to express a gene of interest in a spatio-temporal manner using Gal4-UAS system has allowed the use of Drosophila model to study various biological phenomenon. During Drosophila eye development, a synchronous wave of differentiation called Morphogenetic furrow (MF) initiates at the posterior margin resulting in differentiation of retinal neurons. This synchronous differentiation is also observed in the differentiating retina of vertebrates. Since MF is highly dynamic, it can serve as an excellent model to study patterning and differentiation. However, there are not any Gal4 drivers available to observe the gain- of- function or loss- of- function of a ...


Atypical Pkciota Contributes To Poor Prognosis Through Loss Of Apical-Basal Polarity And Cyclin E Overexpression In Ovarian Cancer, Astrid M. Eder, Xiaomei Sui, Daniel G. Rosen, Laura K. Nolden, Kwai Wa Cheng, John P. Lahad, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Karen H. Lu, Carla L. Warneke, Edward N. Atkinson, Isabelle Bedrosian, Khandan Keyomarsi, Wen-Lin Kuo, Joe W. Gray, Jerry C. P. Yin, Jinsong Liu, Georg Halder, Gordon B. Mills Feb 2018

Atypical Pkciota Contributes To Poor Prognosis Through Loss Of Apical-Basal Polarity And Cyclin E Overexpression In Ovarian Cancer, Astrid M. Eder, Xiaomei Sui, Daniel G. Rosen, Laura K. Nolden, Kwai Wa Cheng, John P. Lahad, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Karen H. Lu, Carla L. Warneke, Edward N. Atkinson, Isabelle Bedrosian, Khandan Keyomarsi, Wen-Lin Kuo, Joe W. Gray, Jerry C. P. Yin, Jinsong Liu, Georg Halder, Gordon B. Mills

Madhuri Kango-Singh

We show that atypical PKCι, which plays a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of epithelial cell polarity, is genomically amplified and overexpressed in serous epithelial ovarian cancers. Furthermore, PKCι protein is markedly increased or mislocalized in all serous ovarian cancers. An increased PKCι DNA copy number is associated with decreased progression-free survival in serous epithelial ovarian cancers. In a Drosophila in vivo epithelial tissue model, overexpression of persistently active atypical PKC results in defects in apical-basal polarity, increased Cyclin E protein expression, and increased proliferation. Similar to the Drosophila model, increased PKCι proteins levels are associated with ...


The Effects Of Increased Camp Levels On Neuronal Differentiation In Murine Embryonic Stem Cells, And The Creation Of A Crispr-Induced C.1252c>T Point Mutation In The Adcy5 Gene, Elizabeth Zepeda Jan 2018

The Effects Of Increased Camp Levels On Neuronal Differentiation In Murine Embryonic Stem Cells, And The Creation Of A Crispr-Induced C.1252c>T Point Mutation In The Adcy5 Gene, Elizabeth Zepeda

Theses and projects

ADCY5-related dyskinesia is a rare movement disorder with early onset in childhood and adolescence. Previous studies linked this disease to various point mutations in the ADCY5 gene. Recent studies show that two of the point mutations cause an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. However, it remains unknown how increased levels of cAMP result in the phenotypes associated with this disease. My study examines the effects of increased cAMP levels on neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). My experiments demonstrated successful differentiation of mESCs into the dopaminergic neuronal lineage, indicated by the presence of Tuj 1 (a ...


Investigating Phosphorylation Patterns And Their Effect On The Activity Of Transcription Factor Taabf1 In Imbibing Cereal Grains, Grace Uwase Jan 2018

Investigating Phosphorylation Patterns And Their Effect On The Activity Of Transcription Factor Taabf1 In Imbibing Cereal Grains, Grace Uwase

Honors Theses

The wheat transcription factor TaABF1 plays an important role in hormone-mediated regulation of seed dormancy and germination of cereal grains. Evidence shows that TaABF1 activity is regulated by phosphorylation, and previous work in our lab showed that when serine residues in its conserved regions; S36, S37, S113, S115 were altered to phosphomimetic aspartate, the 4xD TaABF1 mutant had increased activity as a transcription factor. However, when only S113 was altered, TaABF1’s activity was greatly reduced. The work presented here explored whether the S36D/S37D/S115D mutant would have stronger activity than the 4xD mutant. Using the particle bombardment technique ...


Multivariate Analysis To Identify Potential Biomarkers For Prognosis And Treatment Resistance In Head And Neck Cancer Patients, Christina Ann Wicker Jan 2018

Multivariate Analysis To Identify Potential Biomarkers For Prognosis And Treatment Resistance In Head And Neck Cancer Patients, Christina Ann Wicker

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

It is estimated that nearly 50,000 individuals in the United States will be diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 2017 (American Cancer Society www.cancer.org). Ninety percent of oral cancers are head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Major obstacles in the treatment of HNSCC are recurrence and treatment resistance, which contributes to increased mortality. Therefore, there is increased need to determine genetic alterations in HNSCC that may be ideal novel drug targets, and biomarkers to improve diagnostic and prognostic testing.

Abnormal localization and overexpression of base excision repair protein and transcriptional regulator Apurinic/Apyrimidic endonuclease (APE1 ...