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Molecular Genetics

2011

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Articles 1 - 15 of 15

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

The Utilization Of Mouse Models To Study Gene Functions: The Role Of Foxn3 And Chd2 In Murine Development And Cancer, George Azaz Samaan Dec 2011

The Utilization Of Mouse Models To Study Gene Functions: The Role Of Foxn3 And Chd2 In Murine Development And Cancer, George Azaz Samaan

Doctoral Dissertations

Murine model organisms are an essential tool in the scientific community quest to decipher the molecular etiology of human diseases. Currently, several methods are used to induce or reproduce human diseases in mouse models using advanced genetic engineering techniques to mutate the wild-type genes. We utilized the Baygenomics gene-trap method to study the effects of two mammalian genes: FOXN3 and CHD2. The Forkhead Box (FOX) family of transcription factors shares a common DNA-binding domain and has been associated with organ development, differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, and cancer. Meanwhile, the CHD (Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein) family of proteins is ...


Quantitative Comparison Of Cis-Regulatory Element (Cre) Activities In Transgenic Drosophila Melanogaster, William A. Rogers, Thomas M. Williams Dec 2011

Quantitative Comparison Of Cis-Regulatory Element (Cre) Activities In Transgenic Drosophila Melanogaster, William A. Rogers, Thomas M. Williams

Biology Faculty Publications

Gene expression patterns are specified by cis-regulatory element (CRE) sequences, which are also called enhancers or cis-regulatory modules. A typical CRE possesses an arrangement of binding sites for several transcription factor proteins that confer a regulatory logic specifying when, where, and at what level the regulated gene(s) is expressed. The full set of CREs within an animal genome encodes the organism′s program for development1, and empirical as well as theoretical studies indicate that mutations in CREs played a prominent role in morphological evolution2-4. Moreover, human genome wide association studies indicate that genetic variation in CREs ...


Protein Trap Lines Of Drosophila To Demonstrate Spatio-Temporal Localization Of Proteins In An Undergraduate Lab, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Amit Singh Dec 2011

Protein Trap Lines Of Drosophila To Demonstrate Spatio-Temporal Localization Of Proteins In An Undergraduate Lab, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

The objective of this teaching note is to generate a laboratory exercise, which allows students to get a hands-on experience of a cell biology technique. The short duration of the laboratory classes is the biggest challenge with the development of a cell biology lab for an undergraduate curriculum. Therefore, it is necessary to design a laboratory exercise that enables the students to carry out cell biological assays in the desired time. This laboratory exercise focuses on tracking protein expression levels along a spatial (space) and temporal (time) axis in developing Drosophila melanogaster organ primordium. Here we use the protein trap ...


Brassinosteroid-Mediated Stress Tolerance In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tawhidur Rahman Oct 2011

Brassinosteroid-Mediated Stress Tolerance In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Tawhidur Rahman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of steroidal plant hormones that are essential for proper plant development and also promote stress tolerance. Without BRs, plants are dwarfs and infertile. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying BR-mediated stress tolerance, global gene expression analysis of untreated and 24-epibrassinolide (EBR)-treated Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under non-stress and heat stress (HS) conditions was carried out. Microarray data analysis indicated that stress-related genes were predominant within the EBR up-regulated gene data set. Furthermore, several of these genes were abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) related. Measurements of endogenous hormones showed significant increases in the levels ...


A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones Oct 2011

A Brain-Derived Mecp2 Complex Supports A Role For Mecp2 In Rna Processing, Steven W. Long, Jenny Y. Y. Ooi, Peter M. Yau, Peter L. Jones

Peter Jones Lab Publications

Mutations in MECP2 (methyl-CpG-binding protein 2) are linked to the severe postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder RTT (Rett syndrome). MeCP2 was originally characterized as a transcriptional repressor that preferentially bound methylated DNA; however, recent results indicate MeCP2 is a multifunctional protein. MeCP2 binding is now associated with certain expressed genes and involved in nuclear organization as well, indicating that its gene regulatory function is context-dependent. In addition, MeCP2 is proposed to regulate mRNA splicing and a mouse model for RTT shows aberrant mRNA splicing. To further understand MeCP2 and potential roles in RTT pathogenesis, we have employed a biochemical approach to identify ...


Tnf-Stimulated Map Kinase Activation Mediated By A Rho Family Gtpase Signaling Pathway, Shashi Kant, Wojciech Swat, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Benjamin G. Neel, Richard A. Flavell, Roger J. Davis Oct 2011

Tnf-Stimulated Map Kinase Activation Mediated By A Rho Family Gtpase Signaling Pathway, Shashi Kant, Wojciech Swat, Sheng Zhang, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Benjamin G. Neel, Richard A. Flavell, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The biological response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) involves activation of MAP kinases. Here we report a mechanism of MAP kinase activation by TNF that is mediated by the Rho GTPase family members Rac/Cdc42. This signaling pathway requires Src-dependent activation of the guanosine nucleotide exchange factor Vav, activation of Rac/Cdc42, and the engagement of the Rac/Cdc42 interaction site (CRIB motif) on mixed-lineage protein kinases (MLKs). We show that this pathway is essential for full MAP kinase activation during the response to TNF. Moreover, this MLK pathway contributes to inflammation in vivo.


Activation Of Jnk Signaling Mediates Amyloid-ß- Dependent Cell Death, Meghana Tare, Rohan Modi, Jaison Nainaparampil, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Shimpi Bedi, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh Sep 2011

Activation Of Jnk Signaling Mediates Amyloid-ß- Dependent Cell Death, Meghana Tare, Rohan Modi, Jaison Nainaparampil, Oorvashi Roy Puli, Shimpi Bedi, Pedro Fernandez-Funez, Madhuri Kango-Singh, Amit Singh

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age related progressive neurodegenerative disorder. One of the reasons for Alzheimer's neuropathology is the generation of large aggregates of Aß42 that are toxic in nature and induce oxidative stress, aberrant signaling and many other cellular alterations that trigger neuronal cell death. However, the exact mechanisms leading to cell death are not clearly understood.

Methodology/Principal Findings: We employed a Drosophila eye model of AD to study how Aß42 causes cell death. Misexpression of higher levels of Aß42 in the differentiating photoreceptors of fly retina rapidly induced aberrant cellular phenotypes and cell death ...


Temporal Uncoupling Of The Dna Methylome And Transcriptional Repression During Embryogenesis, Ozren Bogdanovic, Steven W. Long, Simon J. Van Heeringen, Arie B. Brinkman, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Peter L. Jones, Gert Jan C. Veenstra Aug 2011

Temporal Uncoupling Of The Dna Methylome And Transcriptional Repression During Embryogenesis, Ozren Bogdanovic, Steven W. Long, Simon J. Van Heeringen, Arie B. Brinkman, Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, Hendrik G. Stunnenberg, Peter L. Jones, Gert Jan C. Veenstra

Peter Jones Lab Publications

DNA methylation is a tightly regulated epigenetic mark associated with transcriptional repression. Next-generation sequencing of purified methylated DNA obtained from early Xenopus tropicalis embryos demonstrates that this genome is heavily methylated during blastula and gastrula stages. Although DNA methylation is largely absent from transcriptional start sites marked with histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3), we find both promoters and gene bodies of active genes robustly methylated. In contrast, DNA methylation is absent in large H3K27me3 domains, indicating that these two repression pathways have different roles. Comparison with chromatin state maps of human ES cells reveals strong conservation of epigenetic makeup ...


Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song Aug 2011

Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes regulating tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. PAX2 promotes cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell-lineage specification, migration, and survival. Unattenuated PAX2 has been found in several cancer types. We therefore sought to elucidate the role of PAX2 in ovarian carcinomas. We found that PAX2 was expressed in low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively chemoresistant compared to high grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Four ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUGL (mucinous), TOV21G (clear cell), MDAH-2774 (endometrioid) and IGROV1 (endometrioid), which express high-levels of PAX2, were used to study the ...


Mechanical Test Methods For Assessing Porcine Carotid And Uterine Artery Burst Pressure Following Ex Vivo Ultrasonic Ligature Seal And Transection, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell, Courtney Gardner, Mercedes Thompson, James Coleman, Robert Wilkens Jul 2011

Mechanical Test Methods For Assessing Porcine Carotid And Uterine Artery Burst Pressure Following Ex Vivo Ultrasonic Ligature Seal And Transection, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell, Courtney Gardner, Mercedes Thompson, James Coleman, Robert Wilkens

Biology Faculty Publications

A test method was developed to identify those variables important for assessing the performance of ultrasonic surgical devices in ex vivo ligature sealing of porcine carotid and uterine arteries. Ruggedness testing using a small sample size in pilot experiments was conducted using a newly developed test method in an effort to assess the usefulness of this methodology and to identify test variables that might warrant further testing. The development of this test method included the use of a custom-designed prototypic tension device for load-controlled ex vivo vessel stretching during saline perfusion and subsequent seal and transection of porcine arteries with ...


Design Of A Factorial Experiment With Randomization Restrictions To Assess Medical Device Performance On Vascular Tissue, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell May 2011

Design Of A Factorial Experiment With Randomization Restrictions To Assess Medical Device Performance On Vascular Tissue, Wiebke Diestelkamp, Carissa M. Krane, Margaret Pinnell

Biology Faculty Publications

Background: Energy-based surgical scalpels are designed to efficiently transect and seal blood vessels using thermal energy to promote protein denaturation and coagulation. Assessment and design improvement of ultrasonic scalpel performance relies on both in vivo and ex vivo testing. The objective of this work was to design and implement a robust, experimental test matrix with randomization restrictions and predictive statistical power, which allowed for identification of those experimental variables that may affect the quality of the seal obtained ex vivo.

Methods: The design of the experiment included three factors: temperature (two levels); the type of solution used to perfuse the ...


Endo-Porter–Mediated Delivery Of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligos (Pmos) In Erythrocyte Suspension Cultures From Cope's Gray Treefrog Hyla Chrysoscelis, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Matthew V. Puccetti, James Frisbie, David L. Goldstein, Carissa M. Krane May 2011

Endo-Porter–Mediated Delivery Of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligos (Pmos) In Erythrocyte Suspension Cultures From Cope's Gray Treefrog Hyla Chrysoscelis, Venkateshwar Mutyam, Matthew V. Puccetti, James Frisbie, David L. Goldstein, Carissa M. Krane

Biology Faculty Publications

Cope's gray treefrog, Hyla chrysoscelis, is a freeze-tolerant anuran that accumulates cryoprotective glycerol during cold acclimation. H. chrysoscelis erythrocytes express the aquaglyceroporin HC-3, which facilitates transmembrane glycerol and water movement. Aquaglyceroporins have no pharmacological inhibitors, and no genetic knockout tools currently exist for H. chrysoscelis. A phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligo (PMO)–mediated expression knockdown approach was therefore pursued to provide a model for testing the role of HC-3. We describe a novel procedure optimized for specific, efficient knockdown of HC-3 expression in amphibian erythrocyte suspensions cultured at nonmammalian physiological temperatures using Endo-Porter. Our protocol includes three critical components: pre-incubation at ...


The Role And Mechanism Of The Homeobox Gene Dlx4 In Transforming Growth Factor-B Resistance In Cancer, Bon Q. Trinh May 2011

The Role And Mechanism Of The Homeobox Gene Dlx4 In Transforming Growth Factor-B Resistance In Cancer, Bon Q. Trinh

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Transforming growth factor-b (TGF-b) is a cytokine that plays essential roles in regulating embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. In normal cells, TGF-b exerts an anti-proliferative effect. TGF-b inhibits cell growth by controlling a cytostatic program that includes activation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15Ink4B and p21WAF1/Cip1 and repression of c-myc. In contrast to normal cells, many tumors are resistant to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-b. In several types of tumors, particularly those of gastrointestinal origin, resistance to the anti-proliferative effect of TGF-b has been attributed to TGF-b receptor or Smad mutations. However, these mutations are absent from ...


Establishment Of Clonal Myogenic Cell Lines From Severely Affected Dystrophic Muscles - Cdk4 Maintains The Myogenic Population, Guido Stadler, Jennifer Cj Chen, Kathryn Wagner, Jerome D. Robin, Jerry W. Shay, Charles P. Emerson, Jr., Woodring E. Wright Mar 2011

Establishment Of Clonal Myogenic Cell Lines From Severely Affected Dystrophic Muscles - Cdk4 Maintains The Myogenic Population, Guido Stadler, Jennifer Cj Chen, Kathryn Wagner, Jerome D. Robin, Jerry W. Shay, Charles P. Emerson, Jr., Woodring E. Wright

Wellstone Center for FSHD Publications

BACKGROUND: A hallmark of muscular dystrophies is the replacement of muscle by connective tissue. Muscle biopsies from patients severely affected with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) may contain few myogenic cells. Because the chromosomal contraction at 4q35 linked to FSHD is thought to cause a defect within myogenic cells, it is important to study this particular cell type, rather than the fibroblasts and adipocytes of the endomysial fibrosis, to understand the mechanism leading to myopathy.

RESULTS: We present a protocol to establish clonal myogenic cell lines from even severely dystrophic muscle that has been replaced mostly by fat, using overexpression of ...


Jnk Regulates Foxo-Dependent Autophagy In Neurons, Ping Xu, Madhumita Das, Judith Reilly, Roger J. Davis Feb 2011

Jnk Regulates Foxo-Dependent Autophagy In Neurons, Ping Xu, Madhumita Das, Judith Reilly, Roger J. Davis

Davis Lab Publications

The cJun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway is implicated in the regulation of neuronal function. JNK is encoded by three genes that play partially redundant roles. Here we report the creation of mice with targeted ablation of all three Jnk genes in neurons. Compound JNK-deficient neurons are dependent on autophagy for survival. This autophagic response is caused by FoxO-induced expression of Bnip3 that displaces the autophagic effector Beclin-1 from inactive Bcl-XL complexes. These data identify JNK as a potent negative regulator of FoxO-dependent autophagy in neurons.