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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network Apr 2020

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


Regenerative Medicine Therapy: Adipose Derived Extracellular Vesicles In Viral Myocarditis, David Gorelov, Damian N. Di Florio, Gary R. Salomon, Angita Jain, Nick E. Saikaili, Danielle J. Beetler, Swikriti Shrestha, Ming Tian, Joy Wolfram Phd, Delisa Fairweather Phd Apr 2020

Regenerative Medicine Therapy: Adipose Derived Extracellular Vesicles In Viral Myocarditis, David Gorelov, Damian N. Di Florio, Gary R. Salomon, Angita Jain, Nick E. Saikaili, Danielle J. Beetler, Swikriti Shrestha, Ming Tian, Joy Wolfram Phd, Delisa Fairweather Phd

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Objective: Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle, is an autoimmune heart disease that can be caused by viruses, bacteria and toxins. Myocarditis can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and heart failure. Currently there are no disease-specific therapies for treating myocarditis or preventing progression to DCM. Adipose Extracellular Vesicles (AEVs) are lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are released into the outside environment of adipocytes and provide promising regenerative potential for inflammatory diseases like myocarditis.

Methods: Lipoaspirate was obtained from women and men and AEVs isolated from the lipoaspirate using tangential flow filtration. We injected wild type male BALB/c mice with 250uL ...


Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Inhibit Homology-Directed Dna Double Strand Break Repair In C9orf72 Als/Ftd, Nadja S. Andrade, Abbas Abdallah, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier Feb 2020

Dipeptide Repeat Proteins Inhibit Homology-Directed Dna Double Strand Break Repair In C9orf72 Als/Ftd, Nadja S. Andrade, Abbas Abdallah, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion is the most common known genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), two fatal age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The C9ORF72 expansion encodes five dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) that are produced through a non-canonical translation mechanism. Among the DPRs, proline-arginine (PR), glycine-arginine (GR), and glycine-alanine (GA) are the most neurotoxic and increase the frequency of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). While the accumulation of these genotoxic lesions is increasingly recognized as a feature of disease, the mechanism(s) of DPR-mediated DNA damage are ill-defined and the effect of DPRs on the efficiency ...


Targeting Epigenetic Mechanisms To Alleviate Alcoholic Steatosis, Pranoti Mandrekar Feb 2020

Targeting Epigenetic Mechanisms To Alleviate Alcoholic Steatosis, Pranoti Mandrekar

Open Access Articles

Alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is a major health concern and recent studies have reported nearly 1 million alcohol-related deaths from 1999 to 2017 in the United States.1 ALD is a spectrum of conditions that ranges from early steatosis or fatty liver to inflammation or alcoholic steatohepatitis progressing to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Approximately 8%–20% of alcoholic steatohepatitis patients develop cirrhosis and, in some, alcoholic steatohepatitis can present in the form of acute-on-chronic liver failure, termed alcoholic hepatitis, owing to excessive drinking episodes. Corticosteroids are the first line of therapy for ALD, however, only marginal short-term survival benefit in patients ...


Regulation Of Adipose Tissue Inflammation By Interleukin 6, Myoung Souk Han, Alexis White, Rachel J. Perry, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Juan Hidalgo, Gerald I. Shulman, Roger J. Davis Feb 2020

Regulation Of Adipose Tissue Inflammation By Interleukin 6, Myoung Souk Han, Alexis White, Rachel J. Perry, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Juan Hidalgo, Gerald I. Shulman, Roger J. Davis

Open Access Articles

Obesity is associated with a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and progressive tissue infiltration by immune cells and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. It is established that interleukin 6 (IL6) regulates multiple aspects of metabolism, including glucose disposal, lipolysis, oxidative metabolism, and energy expenditure. IL6 is secreted by many tissues, but the role of individual cell types is unclear. We tested the role of specific cells using a mouse model with conditional expression of the Il6 gene. We found that IL6 derived from adipocytes increased, while IL6 derived from myeloid cells and muscle suppressed, macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue. These ...


Intestinal Neurod1 Expression Impairs Paneth Cell Differentiation And Promotes Enteroendocrine Lineage Specification, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Ning Pan, Jody Haigh, Bernd Fritzsch, Andrew B. Leiter Dec 2019

Intestinal Neurod1 Expression Impairs Paneth Cell Differentiation And Promotes Enteroendocrine Lineage Specification, Joyce H. Li, Subir Ray, Ning Pan, Jody Haigh, Bernd Fritzsch, Andrew B. Leiter

Open Access Articles

Transcription factor Neurod1 is required for enteroendocrine progenitor differentiation and maturation. Several earlier studies indicated that ectopic expression of Neurod1 converted non- neuronal cells into neurons. However, the functional consequence of ectopic Neurod1 expression has not been examined in the GI tract, and it is not known whether Neurod1 can similarly switch cell fates in the intestine. We generated a mouse line that would enable us to conditionally express Neurod1 in intestinal epithelial cells at different stages of differentiation. Forced expression of Neurod1 throughout intestinal epithelium increased the number of EECs as well as the expression of EE specific transcription ...


Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast Dec 2019

Alzheimer's And Amyloid Beta: Amyloidogenicity And Tauopathy Via Dyshomeostatic Interactions Of Amyloid Beta, Jordan Tillinghast

Senior Honors Theses

This paper reviews functions of Amyloid-β (Aβ) in healthy individuals compared to the consequences of aberrant Aβ in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As extraneuronal Aβ accumulation and plaque formation are characteristics of AD, it is reasonable to infer a pivotal role for Aβ in AD pathogenesis. Establishing progress of the disease as well as the mechanism of neurodegeneration from AD have proven difficult (Selkoe, 1994). This thesis provides evidence suggesting the pathogenesis of AD is due to dysfunctional neuronal processes involving Aβ’s synaptic malfunction, abnormal interaction with tau, and disruption of neuronal homeostasis. Significant evidence demonstrates that AD symptoms ...


Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori Dec 2019

Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Accompanied By Immunogenic Cell Death In Murine Models Of Lymphoma And Colorectal Cancer, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Peter A. Mollica, Maura Casciola, Uma Mangalanathan, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Depending on the initiating stimulus, cancer cell death can be immunogenic or non-immunogenic. Inducers of immunogenic cell death (ICD) rely on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress for the trafficking of danger signals such as calreticulin (CRT) and ATP. We found that nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF), an emerging new modality for tumor ablation, cause the activation of the ER-resident stress sensor PERK in both CT-26 colon carcinoma and EL-4 lymphoma cells. PERK activation correlates with sustained CRT exposure on the cell plasma membrane and apoptosis induction in both nsPEF-treated cell lines. Our results show that, in CT-26 cells, the activity of ...


Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes Dec 2019

Investigating The Effects Of Excitotoxic Stimuli On The Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Rachel A. Brandes

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Genome Editing Of Hbg1 And Hbg2 To Induce Fetal Hemoglobin, Jean-Yves Metais, Kevin Luk, Scot A. Wolfe, Shengdar Q. Tsai, Mitchell J. Weiss Nov 2019

Genome Editing Of Hbg1 And Hbg2 To Induce Fetal Hemoglobin, Jean-Yves Metais, Kevin Luk, Scot A. Wolfe, Shengdar Q. Tsai, Mitchell J. Weiss

Open Access Articles

Induction of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9-mediated disruption of DNA regulatory elements that repress gamma-globin gene (HBG1 and HBG2) expression is a promising therapeutic strategy for sickle cell disease (SCD) and beta-thalassemia, although the optimal technical approaches and limiting toxicities are not yet fully defined. We disrupted an HBG1/HBG2 gene promoter motif that is bound by the transcriptional repressor BCL11A. Electroporation of Cas9 single guide RNA ribonucleoprotein complex into normal and SCD donor CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells resulted in high frequencies of on-target mutations and the induction of HbF to potentially ...


Single Cell Transcriptomic Profiling Of Large Intestinal Enteroendocrine Cells In Mice - Identification Of Selective Stimuli For Insulin-Like Peptide-5 And Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Co-Expressing Cells, Lawrence J. Billing, Pierre Larraufie, Jo Lewis, Andrew B. Leiter, Joyce H. Li, Brian Lam, Giles Sh. Yeo, Deborah A. Goldspink, Richard G. Kay, Fiona M. Gribble, Frank Reimann Nov 2019

Single Cell Transcriptomic Profiling Of Large Intestinal Enteroendocrine Cells In Mice - Identification Of Selective Stimuli For Insulin-Like Peptide-5 And Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Co-Expressing Cells, Lawrence J. Billing, Pierre Larraufie, Jo Lewis, Andrew B. Leiter, Joyce H. Li, Brian Lam, Giles Sh. Yeo, Deborah A. Goldspink, Richard G. Kay, Fiona M. Gribble, Frank Reimann

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) of the large intestine, found scattered in the epithelial layer, are known to express different hormones, with at least partial co-expression of different hormones in the same cell. Here we aimed to categorize colonic EECs and to identify possible targets for selective recruitment of hormones.

METHODS: Single cell RNA-sequencing of sorted enteroendocrine cells, using NeuroD1-Cre x Rosa26-EYFP mice, was used to cluster EECs from the colon and rectum according to their transcriptome. G-protein coupled receptors differentially expressed across clusters were identified, and, as a proof of principle, agonists of Agtr1a and Avpr1b were tested as candidate ...


Ripk1 Mediates Tnf-Induced Intestinal Crypt Apoptosis During Chronic Nf-Kappab Activation, Jerry Wong, Matija Zelic, John Bertin, Michelle A. Kelliher, Monica Guma Oct 2019

Ripk1 Mediates Tnf-Induced Intestinal Crypt Apoptosis During Chronic Nf-Kappab Activation, Jerry Wong, Matija Zelic, John Bertin, Michelle A. Kelliher, Monica Guma

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major pathogenic effector and a therapeutic target in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), yet the basis for TNF-induced intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) death is unknown, because TNF does not kill normal IECs. Here, we investigated how chronic nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB activation, which occurs in human IBD, promotes TNF-dependent IEC death in mice.

METHODS: Human IBD specimens were stained for p65 and cleaved caspase-3. C57BL/6 mice with constitutively active IKKbeta in IEC (Ikkbeta(EE)(IEC)), Ripk1(D138N/D138N) knockin mice, and Ripk3(-/-) mice were injected with TNF or lipopolysaccharide. Enteroids were ...


Intratumoral Delivery Of Plasmid Interleukin-12 Via Electroporation Leads To Regression Of Injected And Non-Injected Tumors In Merkel Cell Carcinoma, Shailender Bhatia, Natalie V. Longino, Natalie J. Miller, Rima Kulikauskas, Jayasri G. Iyer, Dafina Ibrani, Astrid Blom, David R. Byrd, Upendra Parvathaneni, Christopher Twitty, Jean S. Campbell, Mai H. Le, Sharron Gargosky, Robert H. Pierce, Richard Heller, Adil Daud, Paul Nghiem Oct 2019

Intratumoral Delivery Of Plasmid Interleukin-12 Via Electroporation Leads To Regression Of Injected And Non-Injected Tumors In Merkel Cell Carcinoma, Shailender Bhatia, Natalie V. Longino, Natalie J. Miller, Rima Kulikauskas, Jayasri G. Iyer, Dafina Ibrani, Astrid Blom, David R. Byrd, Upendra Parvathaneni, Christopher Twitty, Jean S. Campbell, Mai H. Le, Sharron Gargosky, Robert H. Pierce, Richard Heller, Adil Daud, Paul Nghiem

Bioelectrics Publications

Purpose: Interleukin-12 (IL12) promotes adaptive type I immunity and has demonstrated antitumor efficacy, but systemic administration leads to severe adverse events (AE), including death. This pilot trial investigated safety, efficacy, and immunologic activity of intratumoral delivery of IL12 plasmid DNA (tavo) via in vivo electroporation (i.t.-tavo-EP) in patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), an aggressive virus-associated skin cancer.

Experimental Design: Fifteen patients with MCC with superficial injectable tumor(s) received i.t.-tavo-EP on days 1, 5, and 8 of each cycle. Patients with locoregional MCC (cohort A, N = 3) received one cycle before definitive surgery in ...


A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander Sep 2019

A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease where apoptosis, microglia activation, and inflammation have been linked to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and axon degeneration. We demonstrated previously that FasL-Fas signaling was required for axon degeneration and death of RGCs in chronic and inducible mouse models of glaucoma and that Fas activation triggered RGC apoptosis, glial activation, and inflammation. Here, we investigated whether targeting the Fas receptor with a small peptide antagonist, ONL1204, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a microbead-induced mouse model of glaucoma.

METHODS: Intracameral injection of microbeads was used to elevate intraocular pressure (IOP) in ...


Expression Of Mitochondrial Membrane-Linked Sab Determines Severity Of Sex-Dependent Acute Liver Injury, Sanda Win, Robert W. M. Min, Christopher Q. Chen, Jun Zhang, Yibu Chen, Meng Li, Ayako Suzuki, Manal F. Abdelmalek, Ying Wang, Mariam Aghajan, Filbert W. M. Aung, Anna Mae Diehl, Roger J. Davis, Tin A. Than, Neil Kaplowitz Sep 2019

Expression Of Mitochondrial Membrane-Linked Sab Determines Severity Of Sex-Dependent Acute Liver Injury, Sanda Win, Robert W. M. Min, Christopher Q. Chen, Jun Zhang, Yibu Chen, Meng Li, Ayako Suzuki, Manal F. Abdelmalek, Ying Wang, Mariam Aghajan, Filbert W. M. Aung, Anna Mae Diehl, Roger J. Davis, Tin A. Than, Neil Kaplowitz

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

SAB is an outer membrane docking protein for JNK mediated impaired mitochondrial function. Deletion of Sab in hepatocytes inhibits sustained JNK activation and cell death. Current work demonstrated that increasing SAB enhanced the severity of APAP liver injury. Female mice were resistant to liver injury and exhibited markedly decreased hepatic SAB protein expression versus males. The mechanism of SAB repression involved a pathway from ERalpha to p53 expression which induced miR34a-5p. miR34a-5p targeted the Sab mRNA coding region, repressing SAB expression. Fulvestrant or p53 knockdown decreased miR34a-5p and increased SAB in females leading to increased injury from APAP and TNF ...


F-Box Protein Fbxo16 Functions As A Tumor Suppressor By Attenuating Nuclear Beta-Catenin Function, Debasish Paul, Sehbanul Islam, Rajesh Kumar. Manne, U. S. Dinesh, Sunil K. Malonia, Biswanath Maity, Ramanamurthy Boppana, Srikanth Rapole, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Manas Kumar Santra Jul 2019

F-Box Protein Fbxo16 Functions As A Tumor Suppressor By Attenuating Nuclear Beta-Catenin Function, Debasish Paul, Sehbanul Islam, Rajesh Kumar. Manne, U. S. Dinesh, Sunil K. Malonia, Biswanath Maity, Ramanamurthy Boppana, Srikanth Rapole, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Manas Kumar Santra

Open Access Articles

Aberrant activation of beta-catenin has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. In spite of significant progress, the regulation of active Wnt/beta-catenin-signaling pathways is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that F-box protein 16 (FBXO16) is a putative tumor suppressor. It is a component of the SCF (SKP1-Cullin1-F-box protein) complex, which targets the nuclear beta-catenin protein to facilitate proteasomal degradation through the 26S proteasome. FBXO16 interacts physically with the C-terminal domain of beta-catenin and promotes its lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination. In addition, it inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by attenuating the level of beta-catenin. Therefore, depletion ...


Somatic Molecular Analysis Augments Cytologic Evaluation Of Pancreatic Cyst Fluids As A Diagnostic Tool, Ali Sakhdari, Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Chi Young Ok, Otto Walter, Keith Tomaszewicz, Mandi-Lee Caporelli, Xiuling Meng, Jennifer Lafemina, Giles F. Whalen, Edward Belkin, Jaroslav Zivny, Wahid Y. Wassef, Bruce A. Woda, Lloyd Hutchinson, Ediz F. Cosar Jun 2019

Somatic Molecular Analysis Augments Cytologic Evaluation Of Pancreatic Cyst Fluids As A Diagnostic Tool, Ali Sakhdari, Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Chi Young Ok, Otto Walter, Keith Tomaszewicz, Mandi-Lee Caporelli, Xiuling Meng, Jennifer Lafemina, Giles F. Whalen, Edward Belkin, Jaroslav Zivny, Wahid Y. Wassef, Bruce A. Woda, Lloyd Hutchinson, Ediz F. Cosar

Open Access Articles

Objective: Better tools are needed for early diagnosis and classification of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) to trigger intervention before neoplastic precursor lesions progress to adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the capacity of molecular analysis to improve the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis for PCL with an emphasis on non-diagnostic/negative specimens.

Design: In a span of 7 years, at a tertiary care hospital, 318 PCL endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) were evaluated by cytologic examination and molecular analysis. Mucinous PCL were identified based on a clinical algorithm and 46 surgical resections were used to verify this approach. The mutation allele frequency (MAF ...


Dissemination Of The Apicomplexan Parasite, Toxoplasma Gondii, Lisa L. Drewry May 2019

Dissemination Of The Apicomplexan Parasite, Toxoplasma Gondii, Lisa L. Drewry

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii is a common pathogen of rodents and felines that also infects humans. The most severe clinical manifestations of toxoplasmosis in humans derive from the systemic dissemination of T. gondii, during which the parasite penetrates biological barriers and accesses protected host compartments such as the central nervous system. T. gondii dissemination is enabled by the intrinsic gliding motility of extracellular parasites, which allows for travel to new host cells and tissues, and also powers the invasion of diverse host cells including migratory leukocytes. Dissemination is further advanced when migrating infected leukocytes shuttle intracellular parasites to new ...


Inhibition Of Triggering Receptor Expressed On Myeloid Cells 1 Ameliorates Inflammation And Macrophage And Neutrophil Activation In Alcoholic Liver Disease In Mice, David Tornai, Istvan Furi, Zu T. Shen, Alexander B. Sigalov, Sahin Coban, Gyongyi Szabo Mar 2019

Inhibition Of Triggering Receptor Expressed On Myeloid Cells 1 Ameliorates Inflammation And Macrophage And Neutrophil Activation In Alcoholic Liver Disease In Mice, David Tornai, Istvan Furi, Zu T. Shen, Alexander B. Sigalov, Sahin Coban, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is characterized by macrophage and neutrophil leukocyte recruitment and activation in the liver. Damage- and pathogen-associated molecular patterns contribute to a self-perpetuating proinflammatory state in ALD. Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (TREM-1) is a surface receptor that amplifies inflammation induced by toll-like receptors (TLRs) and is expressed on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. We hypothesized that TREM-1 signaling contributes to proinflammatory pathway activation in ALD. Using an in vivo ALD model in mice, we tested the effects of ligand-independent TREM-1 inhibitory peptides that were formulated into human high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-mimicking complexes GF9-HDL and GA ...


Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers Mar 2019

Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Purpose

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal and aggressive subtype of breast cancer. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy regulator that suppresses tumor growth, and 1-(3-chloro-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (FND-4b) is a novel AMPK activator that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer. The purpose of this project was to test the effects of FND-4b on AMPK activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on TNBC.

Materials and methods

(i) Estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (ER+BC; MCF-7, and T-47D), TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1806), and ...


The Role Of Calcineurin/Nfat Signaling In Fibroblast Homeostasis And Activation, Allyson Elizabeth Lieberman Jan 2019

The Role Of Calcineurin/Nfat Signaling In Fibroblast Homeostasis And Activation, Allyson Elizabeth Lieberman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Fibroblast activation is a crucial step in tumor growth and metastatic progression; activated fibroblasts remodel extracellular matrix (ECM) in primary tumor and metastatic microenvironments, exerting both pro- and anti-tumorigenic effects. However, the intrinsic mechanisms that regulate the activation of fibroblasts are not well defined. The signaling axis comprising the calcium-activated Ser/Thr phosphatase calcineurin (CN), and its downstream target nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), has been shown to play important roles in in endothelial and immune cell activation, but its role in fibroblasts is not known. We have shown that deletion of CN in fibroblasts in vitro results ...


Investigating The Role Of The Human Naip/Nlrc4 Inflammasome In Host Defense Against Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection, Valeria M. Reyes Ruiz Jan 2019

Investigating The Role Of The Human Naip/Nlrc4 Inflammasome In Host Defense Against Gram-Negative Bacterial Infection, Valeria M. Reyes Ruiz

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Inflammasomes are key multiprotein intracellular complexes that mediate host defense against pathogenic microorganisms by activating caspase-1-dependent cytokine secretion and cell death. In mice, specific nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) sense components of the type III secretion system (T3SS) and flagellar apparatus. Upon sensing of bacterial components, NAIPs recruit the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing family, CARD domain-containing protein 4 (NLRC4). The resulting NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome then recruits and activates caspase-1. Active caspase-1 mediates processing and secretion of IL-1 family cytokines and a proinflammatory cell death termed pyroptosis. In mice, bacterial ligands for four of seven distinct NAIPs ...


From Bench To Bedside And Back Again: Car T Cell Signaling And Survival, Benjamin Philipson Jan 2019

From Bench To Bedside And Back Again: Car T Cell Signaling And Survival, Benjamin Philipson

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cell therapies for hematologic malignancies have been astonishingly successful in driving cancer remissions. However, early loss of CAR T cells and return of normal B cells is a predictor of relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia; the duration of remission is associated with the persistence of CAR T cells for more than three months. These CAR T cells are the product of over 30 years of research and innovation in T cell biology and engineering, which began with the desire to understand how the T cell receptor (TCR) activates T cells in response to antigen ...


Harnessing The Pro-Apoptotic Function Of Myc To Improve Therapeutic Responses In Chemoresistant B-Cell Lymphoma, Colleen Harrington Jan 2019

Harnessing The Pro-Apoptotic Function Of Myc To Improve Therapeutic Responses In Chemoresistant B-Cell Lymphoma, Colleen Harrington

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Therapeutic targeting of initiating oncogenes is the mainstay of precision medicine. Considerable efforts have been expended toward silencing MYC, which drives many human cancers including Burkitt lymphomas (BL). Yet, the effects of MYC silencing on standard-of-care therapies are poorly understood. Here we found that inhibition of MYC transcription renders B-lymphoblastoid cells refractory to chemotherapeutic agents. This suggested that in the context of chemotherapy, stabilization of Myc protein could be more beneficial than its inactivation. We tested this hypothesis by pharmacologically inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), which normally targets Myc for proteasomal degradation. We discovered that chemorefractory BL cell lines ...


Exosomes And Their Role In Asbestos Exposure And Mesothelioma, Phillip Blake Munson Jan 2019

Exosomes And Their Role In Asbestos Exposure And Mesothelioma, Phillip Blake Munson

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a locally invasive and highly aggressive cancer arising on the mesothelial surface of organ cavities (mainly pleural) as a direct result of asbestos exposure. The latency period of MM is long (20-50yrs) after initial asbestos exposure, and the prognostic outcomes are dismal with median life expectancy of 6-12 months post-diagnosis. There are no useful biomarkers for early MM diagnosis, no successful therapeutic interventions. These vast voids of knowledge led to our hypotheses that secreted vesicles, termed exosomes, play an important role in MM development and tumorigenic properties. Exosomes are nano-sized particles secreted from all cell types ...


Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D. Jan 2019

Regulation Of The Long Non-Coding Rna Fam83h-As1 By Human Papillomavirus In Cervical Cancer, Jamie Ann Barr Ph.D.

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Non-coding RNAs (NcRNAs), such as long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), have been found to be involved in a variety of critical biological processes, and dysregulation of ncRNAs have been involved with several human diseases including cancer.

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the first events in the process of carcinogenesis in cervical and a subset of head and neck cancers. The expression of the viral oncoproteins E6 and E7 is essential in this process by inactivating the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and Rb, respectively, in addition to their interactions with other host proteins and regulation of ...


Monocytes And Monocyte-Derived Antigen-Presenting Cells Have Distinct Gene Signatures In Experimental Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Kelly L. Monaghan, Wen Zheng, Gangqing Hu, Edwin C. K. Wan Jan 2019

Monocytes And Monocyte-Derived Antigen-Presenting Cells Have Distinct Gene Signatures In Experimental Model Of Multiple Sclerosis, Kelly L. Monaghan, Wen Zheng, Gangqing Hu, Edwin C. K. Wan

Faculty & Staff Scholarship

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by a complex interaction between the autoreactive lymphocytes and the effector myeloid cells within the central nervous system (CNS). In a murine model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), Ly6Chi monocytes migrate into the CNS and further differentiate into antigen-presenting cells (APCs) during disease progression. Currently, there is no information about gene signatures that can distinguish between monocytes and the monocyte-derived APCs. We developed a surface marker-based strategy to distinguish between these two cell types during the stage of EAE when the clinical symptoms were most severe, and performed transcriptome analysis ...


Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Function In Contact With Various Surfaces, Raheleh Miralami Dec 2018

Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Towards An In Vitro Model Of Testing Osteoblast Cellular Function In Contact With Various Surfaces, Raheleh Miralami

Theses & Dissertations

Past studies have shown that the success of total joint replacements depends on the biocompatibility of orthopaedic materials, which can be improved by modifying the implant surface. However, the exact roles of these modifications and their effective mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a model system to investigate the impact of nano-structured surfaces, produced by the ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) technique, on biomarkers of osteointegration using an in vitro model. The IBAD technique was employed to deposit zirconium oxide (ZrO2), Titanium oxide (TiO2), and Titanium (Ti) nano-films on glass or ...


Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence Dec 2018

Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to DS myeloproliferative disorder and leukemia. A contrasting increase in neural stem and iPS cells shows cell-type specificity, supporting this approach successfully rebalances the hematopoietic developmental program. Given this, we next used ...


Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller Dec 2018

Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a relatively low survival rate. Immune-based therapies have shown promise in the treatment of melanoma, but overall complete response rates are still low. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of plasmid IL-12 (pIL-12) delivered by gene electrotransfer (GET) to be an effective immunotherapy for melanoma. However, events occurring in the tumor microenvironment following delivery have not been delineated. Therefore, utilizing a B16F10 mouse melanoma model, we evaluated changes in the tumor microenvironment following delivery of pIL-12 using different GET parameters or injection of plasmid alone. The results revealed a unique immune cell ...