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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

#2 - Comparison Of Ion Transport Expression In Lake Sturgeon Exposed To Differing Water Chemistries, Caitlin Forkin Nov 2019

#2 - Comparison Of Ion Transport Expression In Lake Sturgeon Exposed To Differing Water Chemistries, Caitlin Forkin

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

This project investigated ion uptake by fish endemic to Georgia, known as Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens), which were acquired from a hatchery and naturally found in the Coosa River. For this investigation, identical recirculating tank systems provided separated environments for the two types of water treatments. Equal test groups were placed into the different water chemistries, one into the Coosa River and the other into the regular dechlorinated tap water. All subjects consumed the same type of food: Rangen, which is a commercial chow mix, and blood worm. The Coosa River water differs in ionic composition compared to the hatchery ...


Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera Sep 2019

Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Single-cell sequencing technologies have revealed an unexpectedly broad repertoire of cells required to mediate complex functions in multicellular organisms. Despite the multiple roles of adipose tissue in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis, adipocytes are thought to be largely homogenous with only 2 major subtypes recognized in humans so far. Here we report the existence and characteristics of 4 distinct human adipocyte subtypes, and of their respective mesenchymal progenitors. The phenotypes of these distinct adipocyte subtypes are differentially associated with key adipose tissue functions, including thermogenesis, lipid storage, and adipokine secretion. The transcriptomic signature of "brite/beige" thermogenic adipocytes reveals mechanisms for ...


The Functional Conservation Of Frazzled In Insects, Benjamin Wadsworth Aug 2019

The Functional Conservation Of Frazzled In Insects, Benjamin Wadsworth

Theses and Dissertations

Axons in the developing embryo receive and react to signals that direct their growth to reach target tissues at specified locations. The signal pathways that direct midline crossing of axons during embryonic development have been comprehensively examined in the past years using the Drosophila ventral nerve cord or the spinal cord as a model system. A number of these signaling mechanisms are conserved, however disparities have been found between species in general strategy or the molecular signals controlling the response of axons to guidance cues.

The Netrin-Frazzled pathway has been shown to aid in midline crossing of axons in the ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky May 2019

Human Anatomy And Physiology I: Course Map With Expected Learning Outcomes, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

This document contains a list with all the Anatomy and Physiology I expected learning outcomes organized by topics, and grouped into ten units: 1. Introduction to A&P: body plan & organization; 2. Introduction to A&P: homeostasis; 3. The chemical level of organization; 4. Levels of organization: the cellular level of organization; 5. Levels of organization: the tissue level of organization; 6. Support and movement: integumentary system; 7. Support and movement: skeletal system & articulations; 8. Support and movement: muscular system; 9. Regulation, integration, and control: nervous system; 10. Regulation, integration, and control: special senses

Each learning outcome is referred to a section in the textbook “Anatomy and ...


Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott Apr 2019

Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott

Research in Biology

Herbal medicines are a melee of complex organic chemicals, making it difficult to ascertain their direct mechanism of action. In contrast to mainstream pharmaceuticals, it is argued that herbal medicines are effective because of multiple constituents working synergistically. The complexity of herbal medicines may give them advantages over simpler pharmaceuticals in combating antibiotic resistant microbes, but these advantages can be difficult to quantitate. Popular literature frequently espouses the healing properties of herbal medicines, but many of these claims are not scientifically supported. Many gains could be realized in public health and medicine if more research was aimed at validating / disproving ...


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...


The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback Jan 2019

The Effects Of A Ketone Body On Synaptic Transmission, Alexandra Elizabeth Stanback

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

The ketogenic diet is commonly used to control epilepsy, especially in cases when medications cannot. The diet typically consists of high fat, low carb, and adequate protein and produces a metabolite called acetoacetate. Seizure activity is characterized by glutamate excitotoxicity and therefore glutamate regulation is a point of research for control of these disorders. Acetoacetate is heavily implicated as the primary molecule responsible for decreasing glutamate in the synapse; it is believed that acetoacetate interferes with the transport of glutamate into the synaptic vesicles. The effects on synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses was studied in relation to the ketogenic diet ...


Filogeografía, Diversidad Genética Y Estructura Poblacional De La Raya Manta, Paratrygon Aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) En Las Cuencas De Las Amazonas Y Orinoco, Maira Alejandra Rizo Fuentes Jan 2019

Filogeografía, Diversidad Genética Y Estructura Poblacional De La Raya Manta, Paratrygon Aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) (Myliobatiformes: Potamotrygonidae) En Las Cuencas De Las Amazonas Y Orinoco, Maira Alejandra Rizo Fuentes

Biología

La raya Manta de agua dulce Paratrygon aiereba (Müller & Henle,1841) es un pez de interés ornamental, tiene una amplia distribución en las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco. Es la única especie descrita en el género Paratrygon, aunque algunos autores mencionan que dentro y entre las cuencas mencionadas, P. aiereba revela variaciones morfométricas, osteológicas y de coloración que podrían indicar la existencia de más de una especie. Con el fin de estimar la filogeografía, la diversidad genética y la estructura poblacional de P. aiereba en las cuencas del Amazonas y Orinoco en Colombia, se amplificó una porción del gen Citocromo oxidasa subunidad I (COXI) como marcador molecular de ADN mitocondrial (ADNmt), en 50 muestras de las dos cuencas principales (Amazonas y Orinoco) y ocho subcuencas diferentes, incluidos los cauces principales de ambos ríos. Se realizaron análisis de filogenia bayesiana con calibración fósil, análisis filogeográfico y red de haplotipos, seguido de un análisis de la varianza molecular. El análisis de agrupamiento (K) de los datos de secuencias de ADN para revelar la estructura genética de la población, se implementó mediante el uso de inferencia bayesiana. Los resultados sugieren tres Filogrupos, dos en la cuenca del Orinoco (A-B) y uno en la cuenca del Amazonas (C). Se reconoce un evento vicariante de hace 43 millones de años, que marcó la divergencia de Paratrygon. Se encontró una alta estructura poblacional con un valor significativo de (ST = 0.692; p <0.005), que sugiere una conectividad genética baja y un K = 3, en el cual el valor de probabilidad marginal logarítmica fue más alto, aunque se encontraron algunos haplotipos compartidos entre las cuencas del Amazonas y el Orinoco. Se determinaron 12 haplotipos y una diversidad genética relativamente alta (Filogrupo A) (h = 0.64; π = 2,48%), (Filogrupo B) (h = 0.552; π = 1,67%), y (Filogrupo C) (h = 0,49; π = 0,73%). Los resultados genéticos de este estudio deben ser considerados en los planes de manejo locales; programas de conservación y sugieren una reclasificación de esta especie por lo menos en estas dos cuencas (Amazonas y Orinoco). Se discute sobre la historia biogeográfica en América del Sur donde aparentemente, un evento vicariante después de la elevación de los Andes durante el Paleo Orinoco-Amazonas, fue crucial en la diversificación del género Paratrygon.


Investigating The Antiviral Effects Of Vig-3 From Rainbow Trout, Shanee Herrington-Krause Jan 2019

Investigating The Antiviral Effects Of Vig-3 From Rainbow Trout, Shanee Herrington-Krause

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Rainbow trout is the most farmed fish in Ontario, and thus is economically important to the province. Despite this, there is a lack of understanding regarding fish innate immunity, specifically with regards to interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and their antiviral effector functions. ISGs are the workhorses of the innate antiviral response, operating together to limit each step of virus replication. The Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) induced gene (Vig)-3 is a newly identified ISG within many fish species and is homologous to ISG-15 in mammals. It is a small ubiquitin-like protein inducible by type I interferon (IFN-I), and is suggested ...


Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert Aug 2018

Unfolded Protein Response Pathways In Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis., Kyle R. Bohnert

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Skeletal muscle mass, contractile properties, and metabolic function are regulated through the coordinated activation of multiple intracellular signaling pathways and genetic reprogramming. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a pivotal role in protein folding and calcium homeostasis in many cell types, including skeletal muscle. Disruption of calcium levels or accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER lumen leads to stress, which results in the activation of a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Further, recent studies have suggested that in certain conditions, UPR pathways can be activated independent of ER stress. However, the role of ER stress and the ...


Charecterization Of The Innate Immune Response In The Rat Intervertebral Disc At The Tissue And Cellular Level, Matthew Guerreiro Jan 2018

Charecterization Of The Innate Immune Response In The Rat Intervertebral Disc At The Tissue And Cellular Level, Matthew Guerreiro

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Low back pain (LBP) affects up to 80% of the global population at some point during their life. The costs associated with LBP are estimated at $100 billion per year, putting significant strains on our healthcare system. As intervertebral disc (IVD) herniation is one of the major causes of LBP we decided to focus on herniation facilitated inflammatory responses, where damage caused by herniation triggers an innate immune response which likely results in pain, inflammation, and recruitment of specialized innate immune cells like macrophages to the affected area. Since the role of the inflammatory response is relatively uncharacterized in the ...


Evaluation And Adaptation Of Live-Cell Interferometry For Applications In Basic, Translational, And Clinical Research, Kevin A. Leslie Jan 2018

Evaluation And Adaptation Of Live-Cell Interferometry For Applications In Basic, Translational, And Clinical Research, Kevin A. Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

Cell mass is an important indicator of cell health and status. A diverse set of techniques have been developed to precisely measure the masses of single cells, with varying degrees of technical complexity and throughput. Here, the development of a non-invasive, label-free optical technique, termed Live-Cell Interferometry (LCI), is described. Several applications are presented, including an evaluation of LCI’s utility for assessing drug response heterogeneity in patient-derived melanoma lines and the measurement of CD3+ T cell kinetics during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The characterization of mast cells during degranulation, the measurement of viral reactivation kinetics in Kaposi’s Sarcoma ...


Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon Dec 2017

Insights Into The Therapeutic Potential Of Salt Inducible Kinase 1: A Novel Mechanism Of Metabolic Control, Randi Fitzgibbon

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Salt inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) has been considered a stress-inducible kinase since it was first cloned in 1999. Continued efforts since this time have been dedicated to characterizing the structure and function of SIK1. Such research has laid the ground work for our understanding of SIK1 action and regulation in tissue and stimuli dependent manners. The fundamental findings of this dissertation continue in this tradition and include investigations of SIK1 regulatory mechanisms in skeletal muscle cells, the cellular and physiological effects of SIK1 loss of function in vitro and in vivo, and intracellular metabolic and mitochondrial regulation by this kinase ...


Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley Dec 2017

Superresolution Imaging Identifies That Conventional Trafficking Pathways Are Not Essential For Endoplasmic Reticulum To Outer Mitochondrial Membrane Protein Transport., Kyle Salka, Shivaprasad Bhuvanendran, Kassandra Wilson, Petros Bozidis, Mansi Mehta, Kristin Rainey, Hiromi Sesaki, George H Patterson, Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Anamaris M. Colberg-Poley

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

Most nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins traffic from the cytosol to mitochondria. Some of these proteins localize at mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM), where mitochondria are closely apposed with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have previously shown that the human cytomegalovirus signal-anchored protein known as viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Here, we have examined the host pathways by which vMIA traffics from the ER to mitochondria and clusters at the OMM. By disruption of phosphofurin acidic cluster sorting protein 2 (PACS-2), mitofusins (Mfn1/2), and dynamin related protein 1 ...


The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen Sep 2017

The Effect Of Diet On Midgut And Resulting Changes In Infectiousness Of Acmnpv Baculovirus In Trichoplusia Ni, Elizabeth Chen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, a global generalist lepidopteran pest, has developed resistance to many synthetic and biological insecticides, requiring effective and environmentally acceptable alternatives. One possibility is the Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). This baculovirus is highly infectious for T. ni, with potential as a biocontrol agent, however, its effectiveness is strongly influenced by dietary context. In this study, microscopy and transcriptomics were used to examine how the efficacy of this virus was affected when T. ni larvae were raised on different diets. Larvae raised on potato host plants had lower chitinase and chitin deacetylase transcript levels and thickened ...


An Amphipathic Trans-Acting Phosphorothioate Rna Element Delivers An Uncharged Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Sequence In Mdx Mouse Myotube, H. Jain, J. Boehler, D. Verthelyi, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, S. Beaucage Jan 2017

An Amphipathic Trans-Acting Phosphorothioate Rna Element Delivers An Uncharged Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Sequence In Mdx Mouse Myotube, H. Jain, J. Boehler, D. Verthelyi, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, S. Beaucage

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

An efficient method for the delivery of uncharged polyA-tailed phosphorodiamidate morpholino sequences (PMO) in mammalian cells consists of employing a synthetic 8-mer amphipathic trans-acting poly-2′-O-methyluridylic thiophosphate triester element (2′-OMeUtaPS) as a transfection reagent. Unlike the dTtaPS DNA-based element, this RNA element is potent at delivering polyA-tailed PMO sequences to HeLa pLuc 705 cells or to myotube muscle cells. However, much like dTtaPS, the 2′-OMeUtaPS-mediated internalization of PMO sequences occurs through an energy-dependent mechanism; macropinocytosis appears to be the predominant endocytic pathway used for cellular uptake. The transfected PMO sequences induce alternate splicing of either the pre-mRNA encoding ...


Effect Of Oxygen-Limiting Tidal Conditions On Muscle Metabolism And Structure In The Giant Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Nubilus, Katie O. Grady Dec 2016

Effect Of Oxygen-Limiting Tidal Conditions On Muscle Metabolism And Structure In The Giant Acorn Barnacle, Balanus Nubilus, Katie O. Grady

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Crustacean muscle fibers are some of the largest cells in the animal kingdom, with fiber diameters in the giant acorn barnacle (Balanus nubilus) exceeding 3 mm. Sessile animals with extreme muscle sizes and that live in the hypoxia-inducing intertidal zone – like B. nubilus – represent ideal models for probing the effects of oxygen limitation on muscle cells. We investigated changes in metabolism and structure of B. nubilus muscle in response to: normoxic immersion, anoxic immersion, or air emersion, for acute (6h) or chronic (6h exposures twice daily for 2wks) time periods. Following exposure, we immediately measured hemolymph pO2, pCO2 ...


Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots Aug 2016

Optimization Of A Genomic Editing System Using Crispr/Cas9-Induced Site-Specific Gene Integration, Jillian L. Mccool Ms., Nick Hum, Gabriela G. Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system found in bacteria which helps protect against the invasion of other microorganisms. This system induces double stranded breaks at precise genomic loci (1) in which repairs are initiated and insertions of a target are completed in the process. This mechanism can be used in eukaryotic cells in combination with sgRNAs (1) as a tool for genome editing. By using this CRISPR-Cas system, in addition to the “safe harbor locus,” ROSAβ26, the incorporation of a target gene into a site that is not susceptible to gene silencing effects can be achieved through few ...


Using Synthetic Biology To Make Cells Tomorrow's Test Tubes, Hernan G. Garcia, Robert C. Brewster, Rob Phillips Mar 2016

Using Synthetic Biology To Make Cells Tomorrow's Test Tubes, Hernan G. Garcia, Robert C. Brewster, Rob Phillips

Program in Systems Biology Publications

The main tenet of physical biology is that biological phenomena can be subject to the same quantitative and predictive understanding that physics has afforded in the context of inanimate matter. However, the inherent complexity of many of these biological processes often leads to the derivation of complex theoretical descriptions containing a plethora of unknown parameters. Such complex descriptions pose a conceptual challenge to the establishment of a solid basis for predictive biology. In this article, we present various exciting examples of how synthetic biology can be used to simplify biological systems and distill these phenomena down to their essential features ...


Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan Jan 2016

Mir494 Reduces Renal Cancer Cell Survival Coinciding With Increased Lipid Droplets And Mitochondrial Changes, Punashi Dutta, Edward Haller, Arielle Sharp, Meera Nanjundan

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Background: miRNAs can regulate cellular survival in various cancer cell types. Recent evidence implicates the formation of lipid droplets as a hallmark event during apoptotic cell death response. It is presently unknown whether MIR494, located at 14q32 which is deleted in renal cancers, reduces cell survival in renal cancer cells and if this process is accompanied by changes in the number of lipid droplets.

Methods: 769-P renal carcinoma cells were utilized for this study. Control or MIR494 mimic was expressed in these cells following which cell viability (via crystal violet) and apoptotic cell numbers (via Annexin V/PI staining) were ...


Age-Associated Methylation Suppresses Spry1, Leading To A Failure Of Re-Quiescence And Loss Of The Reserve Stem Cell Pool In Elderly Muscle., Anne Bigot, William J Duddy, Zamalou G Ouandaogo, Elisa Negroni, Virginie Mariot, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Brennan Harmon, Aurore Wielgosik, Camille Loiseau, Joseph Devaney, Julie Dumonceaux, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Stéphanie Duguez Nov 2015

Age-Associated Methylation Suppresses Spry1, Leading To A Failure Of Re-Quiescence And Loss Of The Reserve Stem Cell Pool In Elderly Muscle., Anne Bigot, William J Duddy, Zamalou G Ouandaogo, Elisa Negroni, Virginie Mariot, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Brennan Harmon, Aurore Wielgosik, Camille Loiseau, Joseph Devaney, Julie Dumonceaux, Gillian Butler-Browne, Vincent Mouly, Stéphanie Duguez

Genomics and Precision Medicine Faculty Publications

The molecular mechanisms by which aging affects stem cell number and function are poorly understood. Murine data have implicated cellular senescence in the loss of muscle stem cells with aging. Here, using human cells and by carrying out experiments within a strictly pre-senescent division count, we demonstrate an impaired capacity for stem cell self-renewal in elderly muscle. We link aging to an increased methylation of the SPRY1 gene, a known regulator of muscle stem cell quiescence. Replenishment of the reserve cell pool was modulated experimentally by demethylation or siRNA knockdown of SPRY1. We propose that suppression of SPRY1 by age-associated ...


Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots Aug 2015

Characterization Of Putative Wnt3a-Inducible Enhancers, Katelynn C. Lee, Nicholas Hum, Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela Loots

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Wnt signaling pathway has been previously shown to play a major role in regulating bone metabolism and it is emerging as a target for the therapeutic intervention of bone thinning disorders such as osteoporosis. Several Wnt proteins have been shown to be expressed in bone and mutations in Wnt pathway members such as Wnt co-receptor Lrp5 and Wnt inhibitor Sost have been shown to be associated with low or high bone mass disorders, however, very little is known about specific roles played by different Wnt ligands in bone development, repair and remodeling. To identify downstream targets of Wnt signaling ...


Effects Of Proline And Glycine On The Cnidocyte Discharge Of Hydra Magnipapillata, Janine R. Appleton Jan 2015

Effects Of Proline And Glycine On The Cnidocyte Discharge Of Hydra Magnipapillata, Janine R. Appleton

Honors Theses and Capstones

The sense of taste enables animals to utilize environmental cues to detect favorable foods. Through specialized sensory receptors, Cnidarians employ stinging cells called cnidocytes to perform a variety of activities such as locomotion, capturing prey, inducing of feeding responses, and defense. Their discharge is highly regulated by mechanical and chemical signals that are mediated by a complex system including the opsin and taste pathways. Taste 1 Receptors (T1R) have previously been isolated in vertebrates but only until recently, have been noted in invertebrates. Receptors specific to L- amino acids corresponding to the taste sensation of umami, were studied to determine ...


Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course, Carlos Liachovitzky Jan 2015

Human Anatomy And Physiology Preparatory Course, Carlos Liachovitzky

Open Educational Resources

The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course.

The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning.


Modeling T Cell Receptor Recognition Of Cd1-Lipid And Mr1-Metabolite Complexes, Brian G. Pierce, Thom Vreven, Zhiping Weng Sep 2014

Modeling T Cell Receptor Recognition Of Cd1-Lipid And Mr1-Metabolite Complexes, Brian G. Pierce, Thom Vreven, Zhiping Weng

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: T cell receptors (TCRs) can recognize diverse lipid and metabolite antigens presented by MHC-like molecules CD1 and MR1, and the molecular basis of many of these interactions has not been determined. Here we applied our protein docking algorithm TCRFlexDock, previously developed to perform docking of TCRs to peptide-MHC (pMHC) molecules, to predict the binding of alphabeta and gammadelta TCRs to CD1 and MR1, starting with the structures of the unbound molecules.

RESULTS: Evaluating against TCR-CD1d complexes with crystal structures, we achieved near-native structures in the top 20 models for two out of four cases, and an acceptable-rated prediction for ...


Structure-Function Analysis Of Zapc, An Ftsz-Ring Stabilizer, In Escherichia Coli Cytokinesis, Lukasz Tchorzewski Jan 2014

Structure-Function Analysis Of Zapc, An Ftsz-Ring Stabilizer, In Escherichia Coli Cytokinesis, Lukasz Tchorzewski

Dissertations and Theses

In Escherichia coli, cell division is defined by the polymerization and constriction of a cytokinetic ring (Z ring) formed by FtsZ, a tubulin-like GTPase, at midcell. Division also involves the formation of a multi-protein complex at midcell known as the divisome. Several divisome proteins promote the assembly/disassembly processes of FtsZ, thereby exercising spatiotemporal control over division. Among FtsZ regulatory proteins are the FtsZ ringassociated proteins (Zap), which either directly or indirectly stabilize the Z-ring by increasing lateral interactions amongst FtsZ protofilaments in the Z-ring. ZapA-D are recruited during early cytokinesis and have overlapping functions in stabilizing FtsZ at midcell ...


Directed Cell Migration In Multi-Cue Environments, Laura Lara Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider Oct 2013

Directed Cell Migration In Multi-Cue Environments, Laura Lara Rodriguez, Ian C. Schneider

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Cell migration plays a critical role in development, angiogenesis, immune response, wound healing and cancer metastasis. During these processes, cells are often directed to migrate towards targets by sensing aligned fibers or gradients in concentration, mechanical properties or electric field. Often times, cells must integrate migrational information from several of these different cues. While the cell migration behavior, signal transduction and cytoskeleton dynamics elicited by individual directional cues has been largely determined, responses to multiple directional cues are much less understood. However, initial work has pointed to several interesting behaviors in multi-cue environments, including competition and cooperation between cues to ...


Premature Chromosome Condensation Of Synchronized Chinese Hamster Lung Cells, Steven Michael Tucci Jun 1977

Premature Chromosome Condensation Of Synchronized Chinese Hamster Lung Cells, Steven Michael Tucci

Biology Master’s Theses

The orderly, nonrandom pattern of nuclear chromatin is observable when it is condensed as visually distinct and structurally reproducible metaphase chromosomes. Interphase nuclei are susceptible to being induced to condense prematurely when by somatic cell fusion they become exposed to the influence of mitotic nuclei. The mitotic inducer has a differential effect on G1, S, and G­2 chromatin and produces varied premature condensation products. In the following experiments metaphase-G1 fusions yielded single, elongated chromatids. The metaphase-S fusions resulted in pulverized condensation products. Metaphase-G2 fusions produced sister, elongated chromatids.

Sendai virus was used as the fusing agent ...


Characterization Of Transfer Rna Associated With Plasma Membranes, Vincent Joseph Mancusi Jun 1976

Characterization Of Transfer Rna Associated With Plasma Membranes, Vincent Joseph Mancusi

Biology Master’s Theses

RNA extracted from purified rat liver plasma membranes was found to contain transfer RNA. Amino acid acceptor activity was detected for arginine and lysine, a confirmation of previous reports. In addition, acceptor activity was also detected for tryptophan and proline. Isoaccepting tRNA species for lysine and arginine were chromatographed using Benzoylated DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography. No major difference was found between cytoplasmic and membrane isoaccepting species for lysine and arginine transfer RNAs.