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Articles 1 - 30 of 157

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts Aug 2019

Bioengineering Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds For Volumetric Muscle Loss, Kevin Roberts

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss overwhelms skeletal muscle’s ordinarily capable regenerative machinery, resulting in fibrosis and severe functional deficits which have defied clinical repair strategies. My work spans the design and preclinical evaluation of implants intended to drive the cell community of injured muscle toward a regenerative state, as well as the development of an understanding of the molecular responses of this cell community to biomaterial interventions. I demonstrate a new class of biomaterial by leveraging the productive capacity of sacrificial hollow fiber membrane cell culture; I show specifically that unique threads of whole extracellular matrix can be isolated by solvent ...


Multimodal Quantitative Imaging Of Brain Cancer In Cultured Cells, Xin Feng, Alona Muzikansky, Alonzo H. Ross, Michael R. Hamblin, Peter R. Jermain, Anna N. Yaroslavsky Jul 2019

Multimodal Quantitative Imaging Of Brain Cancer In Cultured Cells, Xin Feng, Alona Muzikansky, Alonzo H. Ross, Michael R. Hamblin, Peter R. Jermain, Anna N. Yaroslavsky

Open Access Articles

Fluorescence emission, polarization and subcellular localization of methylene blue (MB) were studied in four cancerous and two normal human brain cell lines. Fluorescence emission and polarization images were acquired and analyzed. The co-localization of MB with mitochondria, lysosomes and nuclei of the cells was evaluated. Glioblastoma cells exhibited significantly higher MB fluorescence polarization compared to normal astrocytes. Preferential accumulation of MB in mitochondria of glioblastoma cells may explain higher fluorescence polarization values in cancer cells as compared to normal. These findings may lead to the development of a quantitative method for the detection of brain cancer in single cells.


Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali Jul 2019

Endogenous Force Transmission Between Epithelial Cells And A Role For Α-Catenin, Sandeep Dumbali

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In epithelial tissues, epithelial cells adhere to each other as well as to the underlying extra-cellular matrix (ECM). E-cadherin-based intercellular junctions play an important role in tissue integrity. These junctions experience cell-generated mechanical forces via apparent adaptor proteins such as beta (β) catenin, alpha (α) catenin and vinculin. Abnormalities in these junctions may result in skin related diseases and cancers. Here, I devised methods to determine the endogenous intercellular force within cell pairs as well as in large epithelial islands. I further ascertained the factors that affect the level of inter-cellular tension.

Experiments with pairs of epithelial cells exogenously expressing ...


Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori Jan 2019

Mechanisms And Immunogenicity Of Nspef-Induced Cell Death In B16f10 Melanoma Tumors, Alessandra Rossi, Olga N. Pakhomova, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Samantha Weygandt, Anna A. Bulysheva, Len E. Murray, Peter A. Mollica, Claudia Muratori

Bioelectrics Publications

Accumulating data indicates that some cancer treatments can restore anticancer immunosurveillance through the induction of tumor immunogenic cell death (ICD). Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) have been shown to efficiently ablate melanoma tumors. In this study we investigated the mechanisms and immunogenicity of nsPEF-induced cell death in B16F10 melanoma tumors. Our data show that in vitro nsPEF (20-200, 200-ns pulses, 7 kV/cm, 2 Hz) caused a rapid dose-dependent cell death which was not accompanied by caspase activation or PARP cleavage. The lack of nsPEF-induced apoptosis was confirmed in vivo in B16F10 tumors. NsPEF also failed to trigger ICD-linked responses ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Spatiotemporal Modeling And Model Restructuration Approaches In Studies Of Intracellular Signalling Pathways, Md Shahinuzzaman Jan 2019

Spatiotemporal Modeling And Model Restructuration Approaches In Studies Of Intracellular Signalling Pathways, Md Shahinuzzaman

Doctoral Dissertations

"The main focus of the research is to understand the complex phenomena of cell transduction pathways and cell biology in a single cell. Mathematical modeling and experimental evaluation are widely used approaches for this kind of research. Firstly, A multiscale framework for protein-protein interaction has been established using Brownian dynamics algorithm. Sit specific feature, steric collision, diffusion, co-localization and complex formation with time and space has been included in this spatial modeling framework. By implementation of the time adaptive feature in this framework, the computation time reduces in an order of magnitude compared with traditional modeling framework. This multiscale Brownian ...


Chemically Modified Monolayer Surfaces Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Attachment And Differentiation For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Matthew N. Rush Dec 2018

Chemically Modified Monolayer Surfaces Influence Valvular Interstitial Cell Attachment And Differentiation For Heart Valve Tissue Engineering, Matthew N. Rush

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

As a cell mediated-process, valvular heart disease (VHD) results in significant morbidity and mortality world-wide. In the US alone, valvular heart disease VHD is estimated to affect 2.5% of the population with a disproportionate impact on an increasing elderly populous. It is well understood that the primary driver for valvular calcification is the differentiation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) into an osteoblastic-like phenotype. However, the factors leading to the onset of osteoblastic-like VICs (obVICs) and resulting calcification are not fully understood and a more complete characterization of VIC differentiation and phenotypic change is required before treatment of valve disease ...


Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller Dec 2018

Il-12 Gene Electrotransfer Triggers A Change In Immune Response Within Mouse Tumors, Guilan Shi, Chelsea Edelblute, Sezgi Arpag, Cathryn Lundberg, Richard Heller

Bioelectrics Publications

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer with a relatively low survival rate. Immune-based therapies have shown promise in the treatment of melanoma, but overall complete response rates are still low. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential of plasmid IL-12 (pIL-12) delivered by gene electrotransfer (GET) to be an effective immunotherapy for melanoma. However, events occurring in the tumor microenvironment following delivery have not been delineated. Therefore, utilizing a B16F10 mouse melanoma model, we evaluated changes in the tumor microenvironment following delivery of pIL-12 using different GET parameters or injection of plasmid alone. The results revealed a unique immune cell ...


Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley Nov 2018

Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley

Bioelectrics Publications

Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Transcriptome sequencing is increasingly revealing that equally rich compliments of ion channels exist in both excitable and non-excitable tissue. In this review, we discuss a range of critical ...


Modulating Viscoelasticity, Stiffness, And Degradation Of Synthetic Cellular Niches Via Stoichiometric Tuning Of Covalent Versus Dynamic Noncovalent Cross-Linking, Yu Tan, Henry Huang, David C. Ayers, Jie Song Aug 2018

Modulating Viscoelasticity, Stiffness, And Degradation Of Synthetic Cellular Niches Via Stoichiometric Tuning Of Covalent Versus Dynamic Noncovalent Cross-Linking, Yu Tan, Henry Huang, David C. Ayers, Jie Song

Open Access Articles

Viscoelasticity, stiffness, and degradation of tissue matrices regulate cell behavior, yet predictive synergistic tuning of these properties in synthetic cellular niches remains elusive. We hypothesize that reversible physical cross-linking can be quantitatively introduced to synthetic hydrogels to accelerate stress relaxation and enhance network stiffness, while strategic placement of isolated labile linkages near cross-linking sites can predict hydrogel degradation, both of which are essential for creating adaptive cellular niches. To test these hypotheses, chondrocytes were encapsulated in hydrogels formed by biorthogonal covalent and noncovalent physical cross-linking of a pair of hydrophilic building blocks. The stiffer and more viscoelastic hydrogels with DBCO-DBCO ...


Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib Aug 2018

Determining The Effect Of Locally Delivered Bioactive Modulators On Macrophage Activation At The Implantation Site Of Different Biomaterials In Rats, Kamel Alkhatib

Theses and Dissertations

Altering the foreign body reaction by targeting macrophages has been of interest in the biomaterials field to improve the integration of longevity of implanted biomedical devices. The objective of this dissertation was to study the effect of locally delivered bioactive modulators on macrophage activation at the implantation site of different biomaterials in rats. Iloprost, a prostacyclin analog, was tested for its ability to direct macrophages to their pro-wound healing phenotype after the implantation of microdialysis probe in the subcutaneous space of male Sprague Dawley rats. This study showed that iloprost can shift macrophage activation states in vivo to the pro-wound ...


Advances In Controlling Differentiation Of Adult Stem Cells For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Metin Uz, Suprem R. Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya Mallapragada Jul 2018

Advances In Controlling Differentiation Of Adult Stem Cells For Peripheral Nerve Regeneration, Metin Uz, Suprem R. Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S. Sakaguchi, Jonathan C. Claussen, Surya Mallapragada

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes including, neuronal or glial cell types, constitute a great asset for biomedical applications involving peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cell plasticity, in particular their ability to undergo transdifferentiation, is sensitive to various cellto- cell interactions and external stimuli involving the interactions with physical, mechanical and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e.g., glial cells and neurons). These techniques include using chemical and/or electrical induction as well ...


Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora Jul 2018

Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Adaptation of cancer cells to changes in the biochemical microenvironment in an expanding tumor mass is a crucial aspect of malignant progression, tumor metabolism, and drug efficacy. In vitro, it is challenging to mimic the evolution of biochemical gradients and the cellular heterogeneity that characterizes cancer tissues found in vivo. It is well accepted that more realistic and controllable in vitro 3D model systems are required to improve the overall cancer research paradigm and thus improve on the translation of results, but multidisciplinary approaches are needed for these advances. This work develops such approaches and demonstrates that new droplet-based cell-encapsulation ...


Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch May 2018

Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch

University Scholar Projects

Recent advances in the field of biomaterials have suggested that cells cultured on substrates resembling the native tissue mechanical properties, matrix and growth factor composition, and topography can adopt phenotypes that more closely resemble the in vivo tissue compared to cells cultured on non-mimetic constructs. Understanding the effect of culture substrate on in vitro tissue formation is important for bioengineering applications that include mechanistic studies of healthy tissue function and development of disease models. In this work, Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells were seeded on flat and crypt-like topographies of 3D-printed cytocompatible hydrogels derived from silk fibroin protein. Silk hydrogels were selected ...


Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch May 2018

Effect Of Silk-Based Hydrogel Topography On Intestinal Epithelial Cell Morphology And Wound Healing In Vitro, Marisa E. Boch

Honors Scholar Theses

Recent advances in the field of biomaterials have suggested that cells cultured on substrates resembling the native tissue mechanical properties, matrix and growth factor composition, and topography can adopt phenotypes that more closely resemble the in vivo tissue compared to cells cultured on non-mimetic constructs. Understanding the effect of culture substrate on in vitro tissue formation is important for bioengineering applications that include mechanistic studies of healthy tissue function and development of disease models. In this work, Caco-2 adenocarcinoma cells were seeded on flat and crypt-like topographies of 3D-printed cytocompatible hydrogels derived from silk fibroin protein. Silk hydrogels were selected ...


Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee May 2018

Mitochondrial Mrna Translation Is Required For Maintenance Of Oxidative Capacity, David Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Oxidative metabolism is required to produce adequate energy to sustain human life. A primary example of deteriorating oxidative capacity is seen in the cardiac musculature during chronic heart failure. This suggests that by improving oxidative potential, chronic heart disease could be mitigated and one approach to accomplish this may be through targeting the mt-mRNA translation system. Purpose: This investigation’s purpose was to characterize disruptions in mt-mRNA translation machinery in multiple forms of cardiomyopathy and to determine if mitochondrial mRNA translation initiation factor (mtIF2) is necessary to maintain oxidative capacity in cardiomyocytes. Methods Using a combination of animal and cell ...


Tracing Actin Filament Bundles In Three-Dimensional Electron Tomography Density Maps Of Hair Cell Stereocilia, Salim Sazzed, Junha Song, Julio Kovacs, Willi Wriggers, Manfred Auer, Jing He Apr 2018

Tracing Actin Filament Bundles In Three-Dimensional Electron Tomography Density Maps Of Hair Cell Stereocilia, Salim Sazzed, Junha Song, Julio Kovacs, Willi Wriggers, Manfred Auer, Jing He

Computer Science Faculty Publications

Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful method of visualizing the three-dimensional organization of supramolecular complexes, such as the cytoskeleton, in their native cell and tissue contexts. Due to its minimal electron dose and reconstruction artifacts arising from the missing wedge during data collection, cryo-ET typically results in noisy density maps that display anisotropic XY versus Z resolution. Molecular crowding further exacerbates the challenge of automatically detecting supramolecular complexes, such as the actin bundle in hair cell stereocilia. Stereocilia are pivotal to the mechanoelectrical transduction process in inner ear sensory epithelial hair cells. Given the complexity and dense arrangement of actin ...


Armms As A Versatile Platform For Intracellular Delivery Of Macromolecules, Qiyu Wang, Jiujiu Yu, Tatenda Kadungure, Joseph Beyene, Hong Zhang, Quan Lu Mar 2018

Armms As A Versatile Platform For Intracellular Delivery Of Macromolecules, Qiyu Wang, Jiujiu Yu, Tatenda Kadungure, Joseph Beyene, Hong Zhang, Quan Lu

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Majority of disease-modifying therapeutic targets are restricted to the intracellular space and are therefore not druggable using existing biologic modalities. The ability to efficiently deliver macromolecules inside target cells or tissues would greatly expand the current landscape of therapeutic targets for future generations of biologic drugs, but remains challenging. Here we report the use of extracellular vesicles, known as arrestin domain containing protein 1 [ARRDC1]-mediated microvesicles (ARMMs), for packaging and intracellular delivery of a myriad of macromolecules, including the tumor suppressor p53 protein, RNAs, and the genome-editing CRISPR-Cas9/guide RNA complex. We demonstrate selective recruitment of these macromolecules into ...


In Situ Designer Lipid Production: Integration Of Novel Characteristics And Behaviors Into Synthetic Cell Membranes, Danielle S. Konetski Jan 2018

In Situ Designer Lipid Production: Integration Of Novel Characteristics And Behaviors Into Synthetic Cell Membranes, Danielle S. Konetski

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This thesis investigated the coupling of lysolipids and functionalized tails for in situ formation of synthetic liposomes designed to enable specific characteristics or behaviors in applications ranging from drug delivery to the advancement of artificial cell development. Copper-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) mediated lipid coupling was improved via incorporation of a photoinitiation system. Here, photo-CuAAC enabled spatiotemporal control over liposome assembly, an over 400-fold increase in formation density, and control over the maximal cross-sectional area of the liposomes formed.

Thiol-Michael mediated lipid coupling was enabled using thiol-functionalized lysolipids and acrylate tails where phospholipids were produced over 48 hours with approximate 90 ...


Wild-Type P53 Enhances Endothelial Barrier Function By Mediating Rac1 Signalling And Rhoa Inhibition, Nektarios Barabutis, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas Jan 2018

Wild-Type P53 Enhances Endothelial Barrier Function By Mediating Rac1 Signalling And Rhoa Inhibition, Nektarios Barabutis, Christiana Dimitropoulou, Betsy Gregory, John D. Catravas

Bioelectrics Publications

Inflammation is the major cause of endothelial barrier hyper-permeability, associated with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study reports that p53 "orchestrates" the defence of vascular endothelium against LPS, by mediating the opposing actions of Rac1 and RhoA in pulmonary tissues. Human lung microvascular endothelial cells treated with HSP90 inhibitors activated both Rac1- and P21-activated kinase, which is an essential element of vascular barrier function. 17AAG increased the phosphorylation of both LIMK and cofilin, in contrast to LPS which counteracted those effects. Mouse lung microvascular endothelial cells exposed to LPS exhibited decreased expression of phospho-cofilin. 17AAG treatment ...


Nano-Pulse Stimulation Ablates Orthotopic Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma And Induces Innate And Adaptive Memory Immune Mechanisms That Prevent Recurrence, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2018

Nano-Pulse Stimulation Ablates Orthotopic Rat Hepatocellular Carcinoma And Induces Innate And Adaptive Memory Immune Mechanisms That Prevent Recurrence, Brittany P. Lassiter, Siqi Guo, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

Nano-pulse stimulation (NPS), previously called nsPEFs, induced a vaccine-like effect after ablation of orthotopic N1-S1 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), protecting rats from subsequent challenges with N1-S1 cells. To determine immunity, immune cell phenotypes were analyzed in naïve, treated and protected rats. NPS provides a positive, post-ablation immuno-therapeutic outcome by alleviating immunosuppressive T regulatory cells (Treg) in the tumor microenvironment (TME), allowing dendritic cell influx and inducing dynamic changes in natural killer cells (NKs), NKT-cells and T-lymphocytes in blood, spleen and liver. NPS induced specific increases in NKs and NKT-cells expressing CD8 and activation receptors CD314-NKG2D and CD161 (NK1.1) in the ...


Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier Jan 2018

Asymmetric Patterns Of Small Molecule Transport After Nanosecond And Microsecond Electropermeabilization, Esin B. Sözer, C. Florencia Pocetti, P. Thomas Vernier

Bioelectrics Publications

Imaging of fluorescent small molecule transport into electropermeabilized cells reveals polarized patterns of entry, which must reflect in some way the mechanisms of the migration of these molecules across the compromised membrane barrier. In some reports, transport occurs primarily across the areas of the membrane nearest the positive electrode (anode), but in others cathode-facing entry dominates. Here we compare YO-PRO-1, propidium, and calcein uptake into U-937 cells after nanosecond (6 ns) and microsecond (220 µs) electric pulse exposures. Each of the three dyes exhibits a different pattern. Calcein shows no preference for anode- or cathode-facing entry that is detectable with ...


Nano-Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Pancreatic Cancer And The Changes In Immune Profile, Sigi Guo, Niculina I. Burcus, James Hornef, Yu Jing, Chunqi Jiang, Richard Heller, Stephen J. Beebe Jan 2018

Nano-Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Pancreatic Cancer And The Changes In Immune Profile, Sigi Guo, Niculina I. Burcus, James Hornef, Yu Jing, Chunqi Jiang, Richard Heller, Stephen J. Beebe

Bioelectrics Publications

A Pancreatic cancer is a notorious malignant neoplasm with an extremely poor prognosis. Current standard of care is rarely effective against late-stage pancreatic cancer. In this study, we assessed nanopulse stimulation (NPS) as a local treatment for pancreatic cancer in a syngeneic mouse Pan02 pancreatic cancer model and characterized corresponding changes in the immune profile. A single NPS treatment either achieved complete tumor regression or prolonged overall survival in animals with partial tumor regression. While this is very encouraging, we also explored if this local ablation effect could also result in immune stimulation, as was observed when NPS led to ...


Alteration Of Metabolite Profiling By Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment In Human Myeloma Cells, Dehui Xu, Yujing Xu, Ning Ning, Qingjie Cui, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong Jan 2018

Alteration Of Metabolite Profiling By Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment In Human Myeloma Cells, Dehui Xu, Yujing Xu, Ning Ning, Qingjie Cui, Zhijie Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Despite new progress of chemotherapy in multiple myeloma (MM) clinical treatment, MM is still a refractory disease and new technology is needed to improve the outcomes and prolong the survival. Cold atmospheric plasma is a rapidly developed technology in recent years, which has been widely applied in biomedicine. Although plasma could efficiently inactivate various tumor cells, the effects of plasma on tumor cell metabolism have not been studied yet.

METHODS: In this study, we investigated the metabolite profiling of He plasma treatment on myeloma tumor cells by gas-chromatography time-of-flight (GC-TOF) mass-spectrometry. Meanwhile, by bioinformatic analysis such as GO and ...


Excitation And Injury Of Adult Ventricular Cardiomyocytes By Nano- To Millisecond Electric Shocks, Iurii Semenov, Sergey Grigoryev, Johanna U. Neuber, Christian W. Zemlin, Olga N. Pakhomova, Maura Casciola, Andrei G. Pakhomov Jan 2018

Excitation And Injury Of Adult Ventricular Cardiomyocytes By Nano- To Millisecond Electric Shocks, Iurii Semenov, Sergey Grigoryev, Johanna U. Neuber, Christian W. Zemlin, Olga N. Pakhomova, Maura Casciola, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Intense electric shocks of nanosecond (ns) duration can become a new modality for more efficient but safer defibrillation. We extended strength-duration curves for excitation of cardiomyocytes down to 200 ns, and compared electroporative damage by proportionally more intense shocks of different duration. Enzymatically isolated murine, rabbit, and swine adult ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCM) were loaded with a Ca2+ indicator Fluo-4 or Fluo-5N and subjected to shocks of increasing amplitude until a Ca2+ transient was optically detected. Then, the voltage was increased 5-fold, and the electric cell injury was quantified by the uptake of a membrane permeability marker dye, propidium ...


Upregulation Of Dna Sensors In B16.F10 Melanoma Spheroid Cells After Electrotransfer Of Pdna, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Tanja Jesenko, Loree C. Heller, Maja Cemazar Jan 2018

Upregulation Of Dna Sensors In B16.F10 Melanoma Spheroid Cells After Electrotransfer Of Pdna, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Tanja Jesenko, Loree C. Heller, Maja Cemazar

Bioelectrics Publications

Increased expression of cytosolic DNA sensors, a category of pattern recognition receptor, after control plasmid DNA electrotransfer was observed in our previous studies on B16.F10 murine melanoma cells. This expression was correlated with the upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and was associated with cell death. Here, we expanded our research to include the influence of features of cells in a 3-dimensional environment, which better represents the tumors’ organization in vivo. Our results show that lower number of cells were transfected in spheroids compared to 2-dimensional cultures, that growth was delayed after electroporation alone or after electrotransfer of plasmid ...


Electrotransfer Of Different Control Plasmids Elicits Different Antitumor Effectiveness In B16.F10 Melanoma, Masa Bosnjak, Tanjo Jesenko, Urska Kamensek, Gregor Sersa, Jaka Lavrencak, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar Jan 2018

Electrotransfer Of Different Control Plasmids Elicits Different Antitumor Effectiveness In B16.F10 Melanoma, Masa Bosnjak, Tanjo Jesenko, Urska Kamensek, Gregor Sersa, Jaka Lavrencak, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar

Bioelectrics Publications

Several studies have shown that different control plasmids may cause antitumor action in different murine tumor models after gene electrotransfer (GET). Due to the differences in GET protocols, plasmid vectors, and experimental models, the observed antitumor effects were incomparable. Therefore, the current study was conducted comparing antitumor effectiveness of three different control plasmids using the same GET parameters. We followed cytotoxicity in vitro and the antitumor effect in vivo after GET of control plasmids pControl, pENTR/U6 scr and pVAX1 in B16.F10 murine melanoma cells and tumors. Types of cell death and upregulation of selected cytosolic DNA sensors and ...


Tumor Cell Death After Electrotransfer Of Plasmid Dna Is Associated With Cytosolic Dna Sensor Upregulation, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Nina Semenova, Olga N. Pakhomova, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar Jan 2018

Tumor Cell Death After Electrotransfer Of Plasmid Dna Is Associated With Cytosolic Dna Sensor Upregulation, Katarina Znidar, Masa Bosnjak, Nina Semenova, Olga N. Pakhomova, Loree Heller, Maja Cemazar

Bioelectrics Publications

Cytosolic DNA sensors are a subgroup of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and are activated by the abnormal presence of the DNA in the cytosol. Their activation leads to the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and can also induce cell death. The presence of cytosolic DNA sensors and inflammatory cytokines in TS/A murine mammary adenocarcinoma and WEHI 164 fibrosarcoma cells was demonstrated using real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). After electrotransfer of plasmid DNA (pDNA) using two pulse protocols, the upregulation of DNA-depended activator of interferon regulatory factor or Z-DNA ...


Modeling Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy In Neonatal Cardiomyocytes In Cultured In 3d, Esther Choi Jan 2018

Modeling Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy In Neonatal Cardiomyocytes In Cultured In 3d, Esther Choi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Heart disease continues to be the leading cause of death in both men and women. It is accompanied with cellular- and organ- level remodeling that cannot be mimicked or recaptured by cells on standard culture platforms. Polyethylene glycol hydrogels bridge this gap by providing user-defined tunability for cell culture. A novel 3D cell culture system was developed to encapsulate neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVMs) in a single plane, and cell health was assessed. In parallel, recombinant adenoviruses containing the mutations responsible for human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) in the beta myosin gene (R403Q and R453C) were generated and used as a ...


Binding Affinity And Specificity Of Sh2 Domain Interactions In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks, Tom Ronan Dec 2017

Binding Affinity And Specificity Of Sh2 Domain Interactions In Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling Networks, Tom Ronan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling mechanisms play a central role in intracellular signaling and control development of multicellular organisms, cell growth, cell migration, and programmed cell death. Dysregulation of these signaling mechanisms results in defects of development and diseases such as cancer. Control of this network relies on the specificity and selectivity of Src Homology 2 (SH2) domain interactions with phosphorylated target peptides. In this work, we review and identify the limitations of current quantitative understanding of SH2 domain interactions, and identify severe limitations in accuracy and availability of SH2 domain interaction data. We propose a framework to address some ...