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Biological Phenomena, Cell Phenomena, and Immunity

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Articles 1 - 29 of 29

Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Control Of Cellular Responses To Mechanical Cues Through Yap/Taz Regulation, Ishani Dasgupta, Dannel Mccollum Oct 2019

Control Of Cellular Responses To Mechanical Cues Through Yap/Taz Regulation, Ishani Dasgupta, Dannel Mccollum

Open Access Articles

To perceive their three-dimensional environment, cells and tissues must be able to sense and interpret various physical forces like shear, tensile, and compression stress. These forces can be generated both internally and externally in response to physical properties, like substrate stiffness, cell contractility, and forces generated by adjacent cells. Mechanical cues have important roles in cell fate decisions regarding proliferation, survival, differentiation as well as the processes of tissue regeneration and wound repair (1). Aberrant remodeling of the extracellular space and/or defects in properly responding to mechanical cues likely contributes to various disease states such as fibrosis, muscle diseases ...


A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander Sep 2019

A Small Peptide Antagonist Of The Fas Receptor Inhibits Neuroinflammation And Prevents Axon Degeneration And Retinal Ganglion Cell Death In An Inducible Mouse Model Of Glaucoma, Anitha Krishnan, Andrew J. Kocab, David N. Zacks, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Meredith Gregory-Ksander

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Glaucoma is a complex, multifactorial disease where apoptosis, microglia activation, and inflammation have been linked to the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and axon degeneration. We demonstrated previously that FasL-Fas signaling was required for axon degeneration and death of RGCs in chronic and inducible mouse models of glaucoma and that Fas activation triggered RGC apoptosis, glial activation, and inflammation. Here, we investigated whether targeting the Fas receptor with a small peptide antagonist, ONL1204, has anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a microbead-induced mouse model of glaucoma.

METHODS: Intracameral injection of microbeads was used to elevate intraocular pressure (IOP) in ...


Distinct Transcriptional Roles For Histone H3-K56 Acetylation During The Cell Cycle In Yeast, Salih Topal, Pauline Vasseur, Marta Radman-Livaja, Craig L. Peterson Sep 2019

Distinct Transcriptional Roles For Histone H3-K56 Acetylation During The Cell Cycle In Yeast, Salih Topal, Pauline Vasseur, Marta Radman-Livaja, Craig L. Peterson

Open Access Articles

Dynamic disruption and reassembly of promoter-proximal nucleosomes is a conserved hallmark of transcriptionally active chromatin. Histone H3-K56 acetylation (H3K56Ac) enhances these turnover events and promotes nucleosome assembly during S phase. Here we sequence nascent transcripts to investigate the impact of H3K56Ac on transcription throughout the yeast cell cycle. We find that H3K56Ac is a genome-wide activator of transcription. While H3K56Ac has a major impact on transcription initiation, it also appears to promote elongation and/or termination. In contrast, H3K56Ac represses promiscuous transcription that occurs immediately following replication fork passage, in this case by promoting efficient nucleosome assembly. We also detect ...


Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera Sep 2019

Diverse Repertoire Of Human Adipocyte Subtypes Develops From Transcriptionally Distinct Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells, So Yun Min, Anand Desai, Zinger Yang, Agastya Sharma, Tiffany Desouza, Ryan Genga, Alper Kucukural, Lawrence M. Lifshitz, Soren Nielsen, Camilla Scheele, Rene Maehr, Manuel Garber, Silvia Corvera

Open Access Articles

Single-cell sequencing technologies have revealed an unexpectedly broad repertoire of cells required to mediate complex functions in multicellular organisms. Despite the multiple roles of adipose tissue in maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis, adipocytes are thought to be largely homogenous with only 2 major subtypes recognized in humans so far. Here we report the existence and characteristics of 4 distinct human adipocyte subtypes, and of their respective mesenchymal progenitors. The phenotypes of these distinct adipocyte subtypes are differentially associated with key adipose tissue functions, including thermogenesis, lipid storage, and adipokine secretion. The transcriptomic signature of "brite/beige" thermogenic adipocytes reveals mechanisms for ...


Atf6alpha Impacts Cell Number By Influencing Survival, Death And Proliferation, Rohit B. Sharma, Jarin T. Snyder, Laura C. Alonso Sep 2019

Atf6alpha Impacts Cell Number By Influencing Survival, Death And Proliferation, Rohit B. Sharma, Jarin T. Snyder, Laura C. Alonso

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature suggests the cell-intrinsic activity of Atf6alpha during ER stress responses has implications for tissue cell number during growth and development, as well as in adult biology and tumorigenesis [1]. This concept is important, linking the cellular processes of secretory protein synthesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress response with functional tissue capacity and organ size. However, the field contains conflicting observations, especially notable in secretory cell types like the pancreatic beta cell.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here we summarize current knowledge of the basic biology of Atf6alpha, along with the pleiotropic roles Atf6alpha plays in cell life ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks Jan 2019

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Endothelial Cell Responses To Elevated Glucose, Gabriella Sugerman

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Developing a tissue-engineered Blood Vessel Mimic (BVM) to represent diabetic macrovascular disease could expedite design of new vascular devices specifically tailored to diabetic patients. In contribution toward this model, this thesis assessed Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) responses to high glucose conditions. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Cluster of Differentiation 36 (CD36) were selected to signify oxidative stress activity, a hallmark of diabetic macrovascular disease. Next, activity of potential reference genes B2M, HPRT1, and ACTB was assessed. All genes were found to exceed acceptable variability, so the E-ΔC T method of data analysis was selected. Next, cellular responses to high ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Death: Recommendations Of The Nomenclature Committee On Cell Death 2018, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Eric H. Baehrecke, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer Mar 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Of Cell Death: Recommendations Of The Nomenclature Committee On Cell Death 2018, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Eric H. Baehrecke, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Guido Kroemer

Open Access Articles

Over the past decade, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) has formulated guidelines for the definition and interpretation of cell death from morphological, biochemical, and functional perspectives. Since the field continues to expand and novel mechanisms that orchestrate multiple cell death pathways are unveiled, we propose an updated classification of cell death subroutines focusing on mechanistic and essential (as opposed to correlative and dispensable) aspects of the process. As we provide molecularly oriented definitions of terms including intrinsic apoptosis, extrinsic apoptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-driven necrosis, necroptosis, ferroptosis, pyroptosis, parthanatos, entotic cell death, NETotic cell death, lysosome-dependent cell ...


Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda Jan 2017

Mt1-Mmp Mediates The Migratory And Tumourigenic Potential Of Breast Cancer Cells Via Non-Proteolytic Mechanisms, Mario Cepeda

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Membrane Type-1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is a multifunctional protease that affects cell function via proteolytic and non-proteolytic mechanisms such as promoting degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) or augmentation of cell migration and viability, respectively. MT1-MMP has been implicated in metastatic progression ostensibly due to its ability to degrade ECM components and to allow migration of cells through the basement membrane. Despite in vitro studies demonstrating this principle, this knowledge has not translated into the use of MMP inhibitors (MMPi) that inhibit substrate catalysis as effective cancer therapeutics, or been corroborated by evidence of in vivo ECM degradation mediated by ...


Peroxiredoxin Catalysis At Atomic Resolution, Arden Perkins, Derek Parsonage, Kimberly J. Nelson, O. Maduka Ogba, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Leslie B. Poole, P. Andrew Karplus Sep 2016

Peroxiredoxin Catalysis At Atomic Resolution, Arden Perkins, Derek Parsonage, Kimberly J. Nelson, O. Maduka Ogba, Paul Ha-Yeon Cheong, Leslie B. Poole, P. Andrew Karplus

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous cysteine-based peroxidases that guard cells against oxidative damage, are virulence factors for pathogens, and are involved in eukaryotic redox regulatory pathways. We have analyzed catalytically active crystals to capture atomic resolution snapshots of a PrxQ-subfamily enzyme (from Xanthomonas campestris) proceeding through thiolate, sulfenate, and sulfinate species. These analyses provide structures of unprecedented accuracy for seeding theoretical studies, and show novel conformational intermediates giving insight into the reaction pathway. Based on a highly non-standard geometry seen for the sulfenate intermediate, we infer that the sulfenate formation itself can strongly promote local unfolding of the active site to ...


Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han Mar 2016

Identification Of Potential Drug Targets In Cancer Signaling Pathways Using Stochastic Logical Models, Peican Zhu, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Hasan Uludag, Jie Han

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

The investigation of vulnerable components in a signaling pathway can contribute to development of drug therapy addressing aberrations in that pathway. Here, an original signaling pathway is derived from the published literature on breast cancer models. New stochastic logical models are then developed to analyze the vulnerability of the components in multiple signalling sub-pathways involved in this signaling cascade. The computational results are consistent with the experimental results, where the selected proteins were silenced using specific siRNAs and the viability of the cells were analyzed 72 hours after silencing. The genes elF4E and NFkB are found to have nearly no ...


Role Of Stat3 In Human Nk Cell Functions, Prasad V. Phatarpekar Dec 2015

Role Of Stat3 In Human Nk Cell Functions, Prasad V. Phatarpekar

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes, which play a critical role in the immune response against malignant cells and microbial infections. NK cells are equipped with activating receptors, which upon detecting ligands expressed on stressed cells induce cytolytic activity of NK cells. Stimulation of NK cell proliferation and priming of NK cytolytic capability are accomplished by cytokines, which mediate their signals mainly through JAK-STAT signaling pathway. Previously, we found that K562 cells genetically modified to express membrane bound IL-21 (mbIL-21), which predominantly activates STAT3, induce robust expansion and activation of human NK cells. Further investigations revealed role of STAT3 ...


Iron Alters Cell Survival In A Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway In Ovarian Cancer Cells., Edward Haller Jan 2015

Iron Alters Cell Survival In A Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway In Ovarian Cancer Cells., Edward Haller

Edward Haller

ABSTRACT The role of iron in the development of cancer remains unclear. We previously reported that iron reduces cell survival in a Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent manner in ovarian cells; however, the underlying downstream pathway leading to reduced survival was unclear. Although levels of intracellular iron, ferritin/CD71 protein and reactive oxygen species did not correlate with iron-induced cell survival changes, we identified mitochondrial damage (via TEM) and reduced expression of outer mitochondrial membrane proteins (translocase of outer membrane: TOM20 and TOM70) in cell lines sensitive to iron. Interestingly, Ru360 (an inhibitor of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter) reversed ...


Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford Jun 2014

Fty720 (Fingolimod) Provides Insight Into The Molecular Mechanisms Of Multiple Sclerosis, Madelyn Elizabeth Crawford

Pursuit - The Journal of Undergraduate Research at the University of Tennessee

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a prolonged immune- mediated inflammatory response that targets myelin. Nearly all of the drugs approved for the treatment of MS are general immunosuppressants or only function in symptom management. The oral medication fingolimod, however, is reported to have direct therapeutic effects on cells of the central nervous system in addition to immunomodulatory functions. Fingolimod is known to interact with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors, and the most widely- accepted theory for its mechanism of action is functional antagonism of the receptor. This review examines significant neuromodulatory effects achieved by functional antagonism of the ...


The Role Of Oxygen Tension And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling In The Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate, Amer Youssef Jan 2014

The Role Of Oxygen Tension And Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling In The Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cell Fate, Amer Youssef

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human placenta of different gestational ages is a readily available source for isolation of adult mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) for potential use in regenerative therapies. The chorionic villous region, the largest component of a placenta that interfaces with the maternal circulation, is a rich source of placental MSCs (PMSCs). To remain multipotent, PMSCs are best maintained in culture conditions that mimic the in vivo microenvironment. Insulin like growth factors (IGFs, IGF-I and -II) and oxygen tension are two of the most important microenvironmental factors in the placenta. They are of low concentration or tension respectively, at early gestation, and ...


Effect Of A 10 Day Decrease In Physical Activity On Circulating Angiogenic Cells, Gayatri Guhanarayan Jan 2014

Effect Of A 10 Day Decrease In Physical Activity On Circulating Angiogenic Cells, Gayatri Guhanarayan

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are early predictors of cardiovascular health and are inversely proportional to related outcomes. Increased number and function of CACs is seen in healthy individuals compared with individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise increases CAC number and function in CVD populations, through a nitric oxide-mediated mechanism. Inactivity is a growing concern in industrialized nations; it is an independent risk factor for CVD and is linked to increased mortality. The purpose of this study was to understand the effect of reduced physical activity (rPA) on two CAC populations (CFU-Hill and CD34+) in highly active individuals. We examined the ...


Oncogenic Transformation Of Mammary Epithelial Cells By Transforming Growth Factor Beta Independent Of Mammary Stem Cell Regulation, Karen A. Dunphy, Jae-Hong Seo, Daniel J. Kim, Amy L. Roberts, James Direnzo, Amanda Balboni Jul 2013

Oncogenic Transformation Of Mammary Epithelial Cells By Transforming Growth Factor Beta Independent Of Mammary Stem Cell Regulation, Karen A. Dunphy, Jae-Hong Seo, Daniel J. Kim, Amy L. Roberts, James Direnzo, Amanda Balboni

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

BackgroundTransforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is transiently increased in the mammary gland during involution and by radiation. While TGFβ normally has a tumour suppressor role, prolonged exposure to TGFβ can induce an oncogenic epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) program in permissive cells and initiate the generation of cancer stem cells. Our objective is to mimic the transient exposure to TGFβ during involution to determine the persistent effects on premalignant mammary epithelium.


The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood Jan 2013

The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Early Endothelial Tubulogenic Processes, Ryan M. Underwood

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The effects of mechanical forces on endothelial cell function and behavior are well documented, but have not been fully characterized. Specifically, fluid pressure has been shown to elicit physical and chemical responses known to be involved in the initiation and progression of endothelial cell-mediated vascularization. Central to the process of vascularization is the formation of tube-like structures. This process—tubulogenesis—is essential to both the physiological and pathological growth of tissues. Given the known effects of pressure on endothelial cells and its ubiquitous presence in the vasculature, we investigated pressure as a magnitude-dependent parameter for the regulation of endothelial tubulogenic ...


Single Cell Wound Healing In Drosophila Melanogaster Embryos, John Rosasco Jan 2012

Single Cell Wound Healing In Drosophila Melanogaster Embryos, John Rosasco

Summer Research

The role of contractile actin and myosin filaments filaments and the links they form with other proteins are vitally important to single cell wound healing, Which occurs in synctial Drosophila embryos as well as in vertebrates. Previous work by Wayne Rickoll has concentrated on determining the orientations of actin during wound healing during dorsal closure in Drosophila, a morphogenetic process in which epidermal cells extend to cover the embryonic gut during development. Transmission electron microscope analysis of cells undergoing dorsal closure revealed that actin is oriented parallel and perpendicular to the leading edge of the wound. Based on this observation ...


Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly Aug 2010

Immune Recognition Of Self Nucleic Acids Driven By Endogenous Antimicrobial Peptides: Role In Autoimmunity, Dipyaman Ganguly

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Innate immune recognition of extracellular host-derived self-DNA and self-RNA is prevented by endosomal seclusion of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the dendritic cells (DCs). However, in psoriasis plasmacytoid dendritic cells have been found to be able to sense self-DNA molecules in complex with the endogenous cationic antimicrobial peptide LL37, which are internalized into the endosomal compartments and thus can access TLR9. We investigated whether this endogenous peptide can also interact with extracellular self-RNA and lead to DC activation. We found that LL37 binds self-RNA as well as self-DNA going into an electrostatic interaction; forms micro-aggregates of nano-scale particles protected from ...


Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo Aug 2010

Defining The Role Of Il-15 Trans-Presentation By Distinct Cell-Types During The Development And Homeostasis Of Natural Killer And Invariant Natural Killer T Cells, Eliseo F. Castillo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The immuno-regulatory functions displayed by NK and iNKT cells have highlighted their importance as key lymphocytes involved in innate and adaptive immunity. Therefore, understanding the dynamics influencing the generation of NK and iNKT cells is extremely important. IL-15 has been shown to provide a critical signal throughout the development and homeostasis of NK and iNKT cells; however, the cellular source of IL-15 has remained unclear. In this investigation, I provide evidence that the cell-type providing IL-15 to NK and iNKT cells via trans-presentation is determined by the tissue site and the maturation status of NK and iNKT cells. For NK ...


The Effect Of Endothelin-1 On The Expression Of Cdk Inhibitors P21 & P27 In Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells, Lakshmi Reddy Bollu Jul 2009

The Effect Of Endothelin-1 On The Expression Of Cdk Inhibitors P21 & P27 In Bovine Corneal Endothelial Cells, Lakshmi Reddy Bollu

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mammalian corneal endothelial cells are considered to be non-proliferative due to the arrest of cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the down regulation of cyclin dependant kinase inhibitors (p21cip1 and p27kip1) levels by Endothelin-1 (ET-1), would overcome the G1 phase arrest and promote cell cycle progression and proliferation in cultured BCECs (Bovine corneal endothelial cells). BCECs were isolated from bovine corneas and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 10% serum. 5-Bromo 2-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) incorporation was determined in serum starved cultures in 24-well plates as a measure of cell ...


Novel Role Of Antioxidant-1 (Atox1) As A Copper-Dependent Transcription Factor Involved In Cell Proliferation, S. Itoh, H. W. Kim, O. Nakagawa, K. Ozumi, Susan M. Lessner, H. Aoki, K. Akram, R. D. Mckinney, M. Ushio-Fukai, T. Fukai Feb 2008

Novel Role Of Antioxidant-1 (Atox1) As A Copper-Dependent Transcription Factor Involved In Cell Proliferation, S. Itoh, H. W. Kim, O. Nakagawa, K. Ozumi, Susan M. Lessner, H. Aoki, K. Akram, R. D. Mckinney, M. Ushio-Fukai, T. Fukai

Faculty Publications

Copper plays a fundamental role in regulating cell growth. Many types of human cancer tissues have higher copper levels than normal tissues. Copper can also induce gene expression. However, transcription factors that mediate copper-induced cell proliferation have not been identified in mammals. Here we show that antioxidant-1 (Atox1), previously appreciated as a copper chaperone, represents a novel copper-dependent transcription factor that mediates copper-induced cell proliferation. Stimulation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) with copper markedly increased cell proliferation, cyclin D1 expression, and entry into S phase, which were completely abolished in Atox1-/- MEFs. Promoter analysis and EMSA revealed that copper stimulates ...


Hras Intracellular Trafficking And Signal Transduction, Jodi Ho-Jung Mckay Jan 2007

Hras Intracellular Trafficking And Signal Transduction, Jodi Ho-Jung Mckay

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Cancer, which is characterized by uncontrolled cell division and proliferation, is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Of these deaths, approximately 30% are the result of mutations in Ras protein. When activated, Ras propagates multiple signal transduction cascades and induces cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Within the Ras subfamily, there are several isoforms of Ras which differ in their posttranslational modifications. The modifications include proteolytic cleavage of the CAAX box, farnesylation, and palmitoylation which act as plasma membrane anchors where most signal transduction takes place. This dissertation demonstrates that Ras endocytosis takes place through a novel ...


Reaction-Diffusion Models Of Cancer Dispersion, Kim Yvette Ward Apr 1998

Reaction-Diffusion Models Of Cancer Dispersion, Kim Yvette Ward

Mathematics & Statistics Theses & Dissertations

The phenomenological modeling of the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of one-dimensional models of cancer dispersion are studied. The models discussed pertain primarily to the transition of a tumor from an initial neoplasm to the dormant avascular state, i.e. just prior to the vascular state, whenever that may occur. Initiating the study is the mathematical analysis of a reaction-diffusion model describing the interaction between cancer cells, normal cells and growth inhibitor. The model leads to several predictions, some of which are supported by experimental data and clinical observations $\lbrack25\rbrack$. We will examine the effects of additional terms on ...


Growth Characteristics Of Large Granular Lymphocytes In Vitro Upon Stimulation With Mitogens Phytohemagglutinin And Recombinant Interleukin-2, Lisa Morin Apr 1988

Growth Characteristics Of Large Granular Lymphocytes In Vitro Upon Stimulation With Mitogens Phytohemagglutinin And Recombinant Interleukin-2, Lisa Morin

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

A pilot experiment was performed in which peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from whole blood using the Ficoll-Hypaque technique. Percoll discontinuous-gradient centrifugation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells resulted in a 2-fold increase in natural killer cell activity coupled with a 3 to 4-fold increase in large granular lymphocytes. Morphology, function (NK activity), and phenotype of Percoll fractions 2-4, presumably large granular lymphocytes, were compared with that of lower density fractions 6-7 over a 28-day period. Augmentation agents phytohemagglutinin and recombinant interleukin-2 were added to the culture medium. Optimal increase in cell number of fractions 2-4 was achieved by the addition ...


The Theories Of The Inheritance Of The Iso-Agglutinogens In The Blood, John Mcdonald Apr 1933

The Theories Of The Inheritance Of The Iso-Agglutinogens In The Blood, John Mcdonald

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

There has been of late a great deal of interest in and investigation of blood grouping from a genetic standpoint. It is the purpose of this paper to give and discuss the present status of the theories regarding the inheritance of these agglutinating factors.

Dr. Karl Landstiner, a native of Austria, born in Vienna where he carried on the original research work in relation to blood grouping, but now an attache of the Rockerfeller Institute for Medial Research, was first to recognize serological differences in human blood. In 1901 he found that twenty-two individuals whose blood he had examined could ...


Anomalies In Blood Groups, James Mccabe Apr 1933

Anomalies In Blood Groups, James Mccabe

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Before being able to sot forth the atypical reactions and conditions which have been noted in the human blood groups, it will be necessary to show briefly the manner in which human blood is classified and the typical reactions on which this classification is based. To begin, all individuals may, in regard to isoagglutination, be divided into four well defined groups. These blood-group characteristics were found to be due to the constitution of the blood itself and were found to remain unchanged throughout life. They are inherited according to the Mendelian Laws.