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Full-Text Articles in Cell Biology

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish Jan 2021

Mitochondrial Aspects Of Neuronal Pathology In Triple-Transgenic Alzheimer’S Disease Mice, John Zachary Cavendish

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative disease afflicting millions of people in the United States alone and is the only one of the top leading causes of morbidity and mortality with no effective disease-modifying therapies. It is the most common form of dementia, affecting one in three people over the age of 85. While the hallmarks of the disease include accumulation of beta-amyloid-based extracellular plaques and hyperphosphorylated tau-based intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, treatment strategies centered on removing or mitigating these components of AD have all failed in humans. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been increasingly recognized as an early and ...


Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh Jun 2020

Dictyostelium Discoideum Protein Kinase C-Orthologue Pkca Regulates The Actin Cytoskeleton Through Interaction With Phospholipase D And P21-Activated Kinase, Sean Singh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Proper regulation of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial to many cellular processes. Many of these processes are regulated by extracellular signaling cues, which direct changes in the actin cytoskeleton, resulting in changes to cellular morphology, and directed motility. The social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, is used as a simple model system to study the translation of extracellular signals to the actin cytoskeleton. When starved, these unicellular amoebae undergo a multicellular developmental process characterized by a tightly regulated sequence of signaling events. This results in chemotaxis and formation of a multicellular aggregate, and ultimately cell differentiation and the formation of a fruiting ...


Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao May 2020

Mutagenesis Of The Btea Gene Encoding A Bordetella Virulence Protein, Xiaolei Mao

2020 Symposium Posters

Bordetella Type III Secretion System Effector A (BteA) is a virulence protein found in members of the genus Bordetella which include important pathogens of humans and other mammals. Bordetella pertussis is a causative agent of the whooping cough, a highly contagious respiratory disease that is especially dangerous, and sometimes deadly, for infants. The BteA protein appears to be an important factor in the ability of these pathogens to cause disease, as it leads to rapid killing of a wide range of mammalian cells. The aim of this project is to determine which regions of the DNA are important for mediating ...


Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson May 2020

Coping With Stress: The Caulobacter Approach, Bronson R. Weston, Yang Cao, John J. Tyson

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan May 2020

Patenting Antibodies: A Complication In Written Description Jurisprudence, Krisha Yadav-Rajan

DePaul Journal of Health Care Law

No abstract provided.


The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh May 2020

The Impact Of Age/Rage Signaling On Oxidative Stress Under Diabetic Conditions In Cardiac Fibroblasts, Christopher Dorroh

Honors Theses

Diabetes is a major health concern in the United States, with 1.5 million new cases diagnosed each year. Patients who suffer from diabetes have an increased risk of developing heart failure, a form of cardiovascular disease. Heart failure has been shown to result from increased left ventricular stiffness, which in turn is caused by increased remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This increase in ECM remodeling is a result of AGE/RAGE signaling, which occurs at a heightened level in the cardiac fibroblast cells of diabetics. Studies have shown that diabetics have elevated levels of AGEs (Advanced Glycation End-Products ...


Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt May 2020

Multi-Generational Effects Of ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol Exposure On Gene Expression In Liver Tissue, Kayla Lovitt

Honors Theses

Cannabis is the most commonly used, cultivated, and trafficked illicit drug worldwide. Increased availability and acceptance of cannabis and cannabinoid-containing products provide the necessity for understanding how these substances influence aging. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to concentrations of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (0.08, 0.4, 2 µM) during embryonic-larval development, the effects on aging were measured 30 months later and in the offspring of the exposed fish (F1 generation. We observed results indicating a biphasic and hormetic effect. Treatment with the lowest concentration of THC significantly increased egg production, while higher concentrations resulted in impaired ...


Development Of An Auto-Bioluminescent Lung Cell Line For Evaluation Of In Vitro Effects Of E-Cigarette Compounds On Normal Cell Proliferation, Olivia Morrison May 2020

Development Of An Auto-Bioluminescent Lung Cell Line For Evaluation Of In Vitro Effects Of E-Cigarette Compounds On Normal Cell Proliferation, Olivia Morrison

Honors Theses

The effects of smoking have long been studied; however, with the rise of electronic cigarettes there is a growing interest in the effects of this smoking substitute. Marketed as a safer alternative to tobacco cigarettes, the popularity of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has dramatically increased. This has demanded regulatory methods to be put into effect, however, scientific study is only beginning on the new fad to determine the impacts of its use on the human body. The present study aims to examine the biological effects of lung cell exposure to tobacco alkaloids found in electronic cigarette filling solutions. We hypothesize ...


Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey May 2020

Surface Runoff Alters Cave Microbial Community Structure And Function, Madison Davis, Maria A. Messina, Giuseppe Nicolosi, Salvatore Petralia, Melvin D. Baker, Christiana K. S. Mayne, Chelsea M. Dinon, Christina J. Moss, Bogdan P. Onac, James R. Garey

Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology Faculty Publications

Caves formed by sulfuric acid dissolution have been identified worldwide. These caves can host diverse microbial communities that are responsible for speleogenesis and speleothem formation. It is not well understood how microbial communities change in response to surface water entering caves. Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic tools were used to determine the impact of surface water on the microbial community diversity and function within a spring pool found deep in the Monte Conca Cave system in Sicily, Italy. Sulfur oxidizers comprised more than 90% of the microbial community during the dry season and were replaced by potential anthropogenic contaminants ...


Quantification Of Mammalian Circadian Rhythms In Response To Photopollution With A Focus On Splitting Behavior, Mehdi Khan May 2020

Quantification Of Mammalian Circadian Rhythms In Response To Photopollution With A Focus On Splitting Behavior, Mehdi Khan

University Honors Program Senior Projects

Circadian rhythms are generated by internal biological clocks of organisms and are responsible for the synchronization of an organism’s external and internal environment. The cells responsible for conducting and maintaining the circadian system are known to be coupled in order to maintain a harmonic rhythm. Desynchronization of the master circadian rhythm can cause the presence of two or more rhythms to emerge in a single organism, also known as splitting behavior. Photopollution and artificial light is known to disrupt this synchronization and result in a desynchronized or split rhythm. Many studies have highlighted that photopollution can disrupt the biological ...


A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham May 2020

A Study Of Matr3 And Its Effects On The Neural Progenitor Cells Of Xenopus Laevis Tadpoles, Kendall Branham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the genes and mechanisms that regulate the highly important process of neurogenesis in the developing nervous system is crucial to uncovering why disease arises when this system is disrupted. Neural progenitor cells and their multipotent nature allow for the growth of a large pool of stem cells in the early stages of development, but the signal that leads these cells to the irreversible fate of becoming a neuron is unclear. The gene matr3 has been implicated in having a role in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural stem cells but its role needs further investigation to fully reveal how its ...


Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi May 2020

Sensing Ribonuclease H Activity With Dna Nanoswitches, Ruju Trivedi

Biological Sciences

Ribonuclease H (RNase H) is a damage-repair protein and ribonuclease that specifically catalyzes the hydrolysis of RNA in an RNA/DNA duplex and breaks down RNA/DNA junctions. It plays an important role in a variety of biological processes including DNA replication, DNA repair, and transcription. It is also pivotal in anti-HIV drug development and the analysis of cellular processes and has been shown to be a potential therapeutic target for various neoplastic diseases. This thesis discusses a unique assay based on DNA nanoswitches to detect RNase H levels and activity. The assay is based on conformational changes of DNA ...


The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti Apr 2020

The Coordinate Actions Of Calcineurin And Hog1 Mediate The Stress Response Through Multiple Nodes Of The Cell Cycle Network, Cassandra M. Leech, Mackenzie J. Flynn, Heather E. Arsenault, Jianhong Ou, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Jennifer A. Benanti

Open Access Articles

Upon exposure to environmental stressors, cells transiently arrest the cell cycle while they adapt and restore homeostasis. A challenge for all cells is to distinguish between stress signals and coordinate the appropriate adaptive response with cell cycle arrest. Here we investigate the role of the phosphatase calcineurin (CN) in the stress response and demonstrate that CN activates the Hog1/p38 pathway in both yeast and human cells. In yeast, the MAPK Hog1 is transiently activated in response to several well-studied osmostressors. We show that when a stressor simultaneously activates CN and Hog1, CN disrupts Hog1-stimulated negative feedback to prolong Hog1 ...


Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network Apr 2020

Sars-Cov-2 Receptor Ace2 Is An Interferon-Stimulated Gene In Human Airway Epithelial Cells And Is Detected In Specific Cell Subsets Across Tissues, Carly G. K. Ziegler, Yuming Cao, Zhiru Guo, Jennifer P. Wang, Robert W. Finberg, Manuel Garber, Alex K. Shalek, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Hca Lung Biological Network

Coronavirus COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

There is pressing urgency to understand the pathogenesis of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes the disease COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. The cell subsets targeted by SARS-CoV-2 in host tissues and the factors that regulate ACE2 expression remain unknown. Here, we leverage human, non-human primate, and mouse single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets across health and disease to uncover putative targets of SARS-CoV-2 among tissue-resident cell subsets. We identify ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expressing cells within lung ...


Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles Apr 2020

Comparative Study Of The Effects Of Light On Photophore Ultrastructure From Two Families Of Deep-Sea Decapod Crustaceans: Oplophoridae And Sergestidae, Jamie E. Sickles

HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations

Counterillumination, the mechanism by which pelagic species produce bioluminescence to replace the light blocked by their bodies to hide their silhouettes, has been known for over 100 years. However, little is known about how these animals are able to so precisely replicate the intensity of downwelling light. The recent discovery of opsins in photophores (Bracken-Grissom et al. 2020) suggests that these autogenic organs (i.e. non-bacterial) may be sensitive to light, in addition to their function of emitting visible light. The study presented here is 1) the first ultrastructural assessment of photophores in species Systellaspis debilis, Janicella spinicauda, Parasergestes armatus ...


155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore Apr 2020

155— Analysis Of Her4.1 And Ascl1a In Gef Mutants, Rico Amato, Tessa Beiter, Christopher Lepore

GREAT Day

Zebrafish are a model organism for studying developmental abnormalities, especially in the eye. The good effort (gef) mutant zebrafish have smaller eyes than wild-type embryos due to rapid retinal degeneration that becomes apparent only after two days post fertilization. The genetic problem arises from a deletion of intronic DNA sequence which leads to the loss of an exon and disrupts the coding region of the Cha1b protein. Chaf1b is a subunit of the Chromosome assembly factor 1 (CAF-1), a complex of three proteins which has a role in histone loading and chromatin regulation. This small eye phenotype has been hypothesized ...


486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil Apr 2020

486— Cell Cycle Effect On Hla Expression In Htb-4 And Mrc-5, Nick Turnquist, Andrew Kareeparampil

GREAT Day

Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) is a gene that codes for cell-surface proteins that are the basis of our bodies’ immune response. We observed two cell lines, HTB-4 and a non-cancerous cell line known as MRC-5. Our purpose for this experiment was to observe the effect of the cell cycle on HLA expression for these cell lines. Two flasks were prepared for each cell line: one confluent and one non-confluent. Flow cytometry analysis was performed for each of the four flasks. The flow cytometry results of the MRC-5 cells indicate increased HLA expression in the confluent flask, in the G1 phase ...


Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler Apr 2020

Analysis Of Cyclin E In Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Hannah Gustafson, Katrina Vang, Tim Vogt, Sara Stickler

Research and Scholarship Symposium Posters

Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC), a rare primary liver cancer, differs from the most common liver cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, as FL-HCC is not correlated with chronic liver diseases. Mayo Clinic conducted a proteomic screening and found the proline biosynthetic pathway to be dysregulated in FL-HCC patients. In liver cells, free proline has been shown to induce the mTOR pathway, which stimulates cell proliferation through upregulation of full-length Cyclin E (FL-E). In addition, FL-E can be partially cleaved by an enzyme called serine protease neutrophil elastase, creating low molecular weight cyclin E (LMW-E) that has been linked to tumorigenesis. To further investigate ...


Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sarah R. Chadwick Apr 2020

Regulation Of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Sarah R. Chadwick

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used extensively to uncover the genetic mechanisms that control basic cellular processes, including survival, maintenance, and response to stressors. One metric of yeast survival is chronological lifespan (CLS), which is the amount of time non-dividing yeast cells can survive at stationary phase. Variations in CLS following genetic alteration are used to understand the function of specific genes and pathways in cellular aging. Many factors contribute to aging, including accumulation of toxic misfolded secretory proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress), to which the cell responds through activation of ER stress signaling pathways, such ...


Identification And Characterization Of The Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland Citrullinome, Guangyuan Li, Coleman H. Young, Bryce Snow, Amanda O. Christensen, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Venkatesh V. Nemmara, Paul R. Thompson, Heather M. Rothfuss, Brian D. Cherrington Apr 2020

Identification And Characterization Of The Lactating Mouse Mammary Gland Citrullinome, Guangyuan Li, Coleman H. Young, Bryce Snow, Amanda O. Christensen, M. Kristen Demoruelle, Venkatesh V. Nemmara, Paul R. Thompson, Heather M. Rothfuss, Brian D. Cherrington

Open Access Articles

Citrullination is a post-translational modification (PTM) in which positively charged peptidyl-arginine is converted into neutral peptidyl-citrulline by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD or PADI) enzymes. The full protein citrullinome in many tissues is unknown. Herein, we used mass spectrometry and identified 107 citrullinated proteins in the lactation day 9 (L9) mouse mammary gland including histone H2A, alpha-tubulin, and beta-casein. Given the importance of prolactin to lactation, we next tested if it stimulates PAD-catalyzed citrullination using mouse mammary epithelial CID-9 cells. Stimulation of CID-9 cells with 5 microg/mL prolactin for 10 min induced a 2-fold increase in histone H2A citrullination and a ...


Histone Deacetylases 1 And 2 Silence Cryptic Transcription To Promote Mitochondrial Function During Cardiogenesis, Zachary J. Milstone, Sherin Saheera, Lauren Bourke, Tomer Shpilka, Cole M. Haynes, Chinmay M. Trivedi Apr 2020

Histone Deacetylases 1 And 2 Silence Cryptic Transcription To Promote Mitochondrial Function During Cardiogenesis, Zachary J. Milstone, Sherin Saheera, Lauren Bourke, Tomer Shpilka, Cole M. Haynes, Chinmay M. Trivedi

Open Access Articles

Cryptic transcription occurs widely across the eukaryotic genome; however, its regulation during vertebrate development is not understood. Here, we show that two class I histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac2, silence cryptic transcription to promote mitochondrial function in developing murine hearts. Mice lacking Hdac1 and Hdac2 in heart exhibit defective developmental switch from anaerobic to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), severe defects in mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial function, and complete embryonic lethality. Hdac1/Hdac2 promotes the transition to OXPHOS by enforcing transcriptional fidelity of metabolic gene programs. Mechanistically, Hdac1/Hdac2 deacetylates histone residues including H3K23, H3K14, and H4K16 to suppress cryptic transcriptional initiation ...


Regenerative Medicine Therapy: Adipose Derived Extracellular Vesicles In Viral Myocarditis, David Gorelov, Damian N. Di Florio, Gary R. Salomon, Angita Jain, Nick E. Saikaili, Danielle J. Beetler, Swikriti Shrestha, Ming Tian, Joy Wolfram Phd, Delisa Fairweather Phd Apr 2020

Regenerative Medicine Therapy: Adipose Derived Extracellular Vesicles In Viral Myocarditis, David Gorelov, Damian N. Di Florio, Gary R. Salomon, Angita Jain, Nick E. Saikaili, Danielle J. Beetler, Swikriti Shrestha, Ming Tian, Joy Wolfram Phd, Delisa Fairweather Phd

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Objective: Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle, is an autoimmune heart disease that can be caused by viruses, bacteria and toxins. Myocarditis can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and heart failure. Currently there are no disease-specific therapies for treating myocarditis or preventing progression to DCM. Adipose Extracellular Vesicles (AEVs) are lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are released into the outside environment of adipocytes and provide promising regenerative potential for inflammatory diseases like myocarditis.

Methods: Lipoaspirate was obtained from women and men and AEVs isolated from the lipoaspirate using tangential flow filtration. We injected wild type male BALB/c mice with 250uL ...


Npgreat: Hybrid Assembly Of Human Subtelomeres With The Use Of Nanopore And Linked-Read Datasets, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman Apr 2020

Npgreat: Hybrid Assembly Of Human Subtelomeres With The Use Of Nanopore And Linked-Read Datasets, Eleni Adam, Desh Ranjan, Harold Riethman

College of Sciences Posters

The telomeres are vitally important regions that are located at the tips of the chromosomes. Their dysfunction, caused by length shortening can lead to senescent cells, which in turn cause age-related diseases, including cancer. The subtelomeres, located next to the telomeres, possess the critical role of regulating the adjacent telomere lengths. Even after many years of research, human subtelomeres have proven to be very hard to assemble due to their morphology. In order to overcome these problems, the hybrid assembly method we develop utilizes two of the latest available types of data, which complement each other: Linked-Reads and ultralong Nanopore ...


Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling Apr 2020

Dgts Production As A Phosphate Starvation Response In The Human Fungal Pathogen Candida Albicans, Caleb Wehling

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Betaine lipids are a class of membrane lipids with betaine head groups. Three betaine lipids are known - diacylglyceryltrimethylhomoserine (DGTS), diacylglycerylhydroxymethylalanine (DGTA), and diacylglycerylcarboxymethylcholine (DGCC). Betaine lipids are most common in algae, although DGTS, the most common betaine lipid, is also found in many bacteria and fungi. Organisms which produce betaine lipids (especially DGTS) often don’t produce phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), and DGTS structure resembles PtdCho structure without any phosphorous, leading to the hypothesis that betaine lipids may substitute for phospholipids in some organisms. This has been confirmed by discoveries that some organisms are capable of switching their membrane composition from PtdCho ...


The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl Apr 2020

The Effect Of Hypoxia On Brain Cell Proliferation In Weakly Electric Fish, Petrocephalus Degeni, Kaitlin Klovdahl

Senior Theses and Projects

Oxygen levels tend to remain at a steady state concentration in the Earth’s atmosphere, yet in some bodies of water, they can fluctuate and decrease drastically. Many organisms that inhabit the swamps, lakes, streams, and parts of the ocean where this occurs have evolved adaptations to manage this environmental uncertainty and continue normal oxygen consumption. The Lwamunda swamp in Uganda is chronically hypoxic, yet it is home to many species, including the electric fish Petrocephalus degeni. P. degeni are unusual by nature of their immense brain, and the Lwamunda swamp appears ill-suited for maintaining this large, metabolically active organ ...


Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance Related To White, Beige, And Brown Adipocytes, Michael P. Czech Apr 2020

Mechanisms Of Insulin Resistance Related To White, Beige, And Brown Adipocytes, Michael P. Czech

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The diminished glucose lowering effect of insulin in obesity, called "insulin resistance," is associated with glucose intolerance, type 2 diabetes, and other serious maladies. Many publications on this topic have suggested numerous hypotheses on the molecular and cellular disruptions that contribute to the syndrome. However, significant uncertainty remains on the mechanisms of its initiation and long-term maintenance.

SCOPE OF REVIEW: To simplify insulin resistance analysis, this review focuses on the unifying concept that adipose tissue is a central regulator of systemic glucose homeostasis by controlling liver and skeletal muscle metabolism. Key aspects of adipose function related to insulin resistance ...


Can Protozoa Prove The Beginning Of The World?, Karina L. Burton Apr 2020

Can Protozoa Prove The Beginning Of The World?, Karina L. Burton

Classical Conversations

Protozoa are magnificent creatures. They exhibit all of the functions intrinsic to living organisms: irritability, metabolism, growth and reproduction. Within these functions, there are numerous examples of mutations that occur in order for organisms to adapt to their given environments. Irritability is demonstrated in protozoa by their use of pseudopodia, flagella, or cilia for motility; it has been shown that such locomotors exhibit diversity while maintaining similar protein and chemical structures that appear to be a result of evolutionary processes. Metabolism in protozoa is similar to that of larger animals, but their diet is unique. They primarily feast upon bacteria ...


Beta-Amyloid Clustering Around Asc Fibrils Boosts Its Toxicity In Microglia, Lea L. Friker, Hannah Scheiblich, Inga V. Hochheiser, Rebecca Brinkschulte, Dietmar Riedel, Eicke Latz, Matthias Geyer, Michael T. Heneka Mar 2020

Beta-Amyloid Clustering Around Asc Fibrils Boosts Its Toxicity In Microglia, Lea L. Friker, Hannah Scheiblich, Inga V. Hochheiser, Rebecca Brinkschulte, Dietmar Riedel, Eicke Latz, Matthias Geyer, Michael T. Heneka

Open Access Articles

Alzheimer's disease is the world's most common neurodegenerative disorder. It is associated with neuroinflammation involving activation of microglia by beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits. Based on previous studies showing apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) binding and cross-seeding extracellular Abeta, we investigate the propagation of ASC between primary microglia and the effects of ASC-Abeta composites on microglial inflammasomes and function. Indeed, ASC released by a pyroptotic cell can be functionally built into the neighboring microglia NOD-like receptor protein (NLRP3) inflammasome. Compared with protein-only application, exposure to ASC-Abeta composites amplifies the proinflammatory response, resulting in pyroptotic cell death, setting free ...


Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse, Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando Mar 2020

Flexibility And Constraint In Preimplantation Gene Regulation In Mouse, Colin C. Conine, Marina Krykbaeva, Lina Song, Robert C. Brewster, Nir Friedman, Oliver J. Rando

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Although many features of embryonic development exhibit remarkable stability in the face of environmental perturbations, it is also clear that some aspects of early embryogenesis can be modulated by non-genetic influences during and after fertilization. Among potential perturbations experienced during reproduction, understanding the consequences of differing ex vivo fertilization methods at a molecular level is imperative for comprehending both the basic biology of early development and the potential consequences of assisted reproduction. Here, we set out to explore stable and flexible aspects of preimplantation gene expression using single-embryo RNA-sequencing of mouse embryos fertilized by natural mating, in vitro fertilization, or ...


Investigating The Role Of Torc1 And The Transcription Factor Sfp1p In The Regulation Of Hmo1 Gene In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Mathew Damien Smith Mar 2020

Investigating The Role Of Torc1 And The Transcription Factor Sfp1p In The Regulation Of Hmo1 Gene In Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Mathew Damien Smith

LSU Master's Theses

HMGB proteins are eukaryotic, chromatin-associated proteins that play roles in both DNA dynamics and transcription regulation. Hmo1p is an HMGB protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that behaves somewhat like a hybrid between mammalian HMGB proteins and the metazoan linker histone H1. mTORC1, a protein complex containing the Tor1p kinase and a major regulator of cellular growth, is inhibited by both rapamycin and stress. It has also been shown to not only associate with Hmo1p at various gene promoters, but also regulate the HMO1 gene itself through direct binding. In this study, the Hmo1p-mTORC1 relationship was further investigated through two questions: 1 ...