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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Jun 2019

Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible cellular process, characterized by changes in gene expression and activation of proteins, favoring the trans-differentiation of the epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype. This process increases cell migration and invasion of tumor cells, progression of the cell cycle, and resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy, all of which support tumor progression. One of the signaling pathways involved in tumor progression is the MAPK pathway. Within this family, the ERK subfamily of proteins is known for its contributions to EMT. The ERK subfamily is divided into typical (ERK 1/2/5), and atypical (ERK 3/4 ...


Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers Mar 2019

Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Purpose

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal and aggressive subtype of breast cancer. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy regulator that suppresses tumor growth, and 1-(3-chloro-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (FND-4b) is a novel AMPK activator that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer. The purpose of this project was to test the effects of FND-4b on AMPK activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on TNBC.

Materials and methods

(i) Estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (ER+BC; MCF-7, and T-47D), TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1806), and ...


Phosphorylation Impairs Dicer1 Function To Accelerate Aging And Tumorigenesis In Vivo, Neeraj Aryal May 2018

Phosphorylation Impairs Dicer1 Function To Accelerate Aging And Tumorigenesis In Vivo, Neeraj Aryal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Altered DICER1 protein levels are associated with developmental disorders, infertility, macular degenerative blindness, aging, and cancer in humans. Recently, post-translational regulation of Dicer1 via phosphorylation has been described in C. elegans. Oscillation of Dicer1 phosphorylation to regulate its activity is essential for germ cell development and embryogenesis in worms. These observations led us to posit that Dicer1 protein levels and activity are under tight regulation for normal mammalian homeostasis. To test whether phosphorylation of Dicer1 regulates its activity in mammals, I generated phospho-mimetic knock-in mouse models by replacing Serines 1712 and 1836 with Aspartic acids individually or together (dual phosphorylation ...


Abl Kinase Regulation By Braf/Erk And Cooperation With Akt In Melanoma, Aditi Jain, Rakshamani Tripathi, Courtney P. Turpin, Chi Wang, Rina Plattner Aug 2017

Abl Kinase Regulation By Braf/Erk And Cooperation With Akt In Melanoma, Aditi Jain, Rakshamani Tripathi, Courtney P. Turpin, Chi Wang, Rina Plattner

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

The melanoma incidence continues to increase, and the disease remains incurable for many due to its metastatic nature and high rate of therapeutic resistance. In particular, melanomas harboring BRAFV600E and PTEN mutations often are resistant to current therapies, including BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Abl kinases (Abl/Arg) are activated in melanomas and drive progression; however, their mechanism of activation has not been established. Here we elucidate a novel link between BRAFV600E/ERK signaling and Abl kinases. We demonstrate that BRAFV600E/ERK play a critical role in binding, phosphorylating and regulating Abl localization and Abl ...


The Role Of Mdm2 Phosphorylation In P53 Responses To Dna Damage And Tumor Suppression: A Dissertation, Michael I. Carr Jul 2016

The Role Of Mdm2 Phosphorylation In P53 Responses To Dna Damage And Tumor Suppression: A Dissertation, Michael I. Carr

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The p53 tumor suppressor protein is upregulated in response to DNA damage and other stress signals. The upregulation of p53 involves freeing it from negative regulation imposed by Mdm2 and MdmX (Mdm4). Accumulating evidence indicates that phosphorylation of Mdm proteins by different stress-activated kinases such as ATM or c-Abl significantly impacts p53 functions. We have previously shown that ATM phosphorylation of Mdm2 Ser394 is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation following DNA damage.

This dissertation describes in vivo examination of the mechanism by which Mdm2 Ser394 phosphorylation impacts p53 activities and its contribution to suppression of oncogene and DNA ...


Gsk3Beta-Mediated Ezh2 Phosphorylation Suppresses Methylation Of H3k27 And Ezh2’S Oncogenic Functions, How-Wen Ko May 2016

Gsk3Beta-Mediated Ezh2 Phosphorylation Suppresses Methylation Of H3k27 And Ezh2’S Oncogenic Functions, How-Wen Ko

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

During the process of tumorigenesis, inactivation of tumor suppressors is a critical step. Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase and the enzymatic core subunit of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), promotes cell growth and migration through catalyzing trimethylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) and plays an important role in tumorigenesis. Its expression can be controlled by phosphorylation. However, the regulation of EZH2 activity by tumor suppressor kinase is not well understood. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3b), a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase, is involved in many cellular processes. GSK3b also participates in neoplastic transformation, tumor ...


Functional Regulation Of Yap By Aurora A Kinase In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Shih-Shin Chang May 2016

Functional Regulation Of Yap By Aurora A Kinase In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Shih-Shin Chang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the ...


Translation Initiation Complex Eif4f Is A Therapeutic Target For Dual Mtor Kinase Inhibitors In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma., Christos Demosthenous, Jing Jing Han, Mary J Stenson, Matthew J Maurer, Linda E Wellik, Brian Link, Kristen Hege, Ahmet Dogan, Eduardo Sotomayor, Thomas Witzig, Mamta Gupta Apr 2015

Translation Initiation Complex Eif4f Is A Therapeutic Target For Dual Mtor Kinase Inhibitors In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma., Christos Demosthenous, Jing Jing Han, Mary J Stenson, Matthew J Maurer, Linda E Wellik, Brian Link, Kristen Hege, Ahmet Dogan, Eduardo Sotomayor, Thomas Witzig, Mamta Gupta

Medicine Faculty Publications

Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4E(WT)) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4E(cap mutant)) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site ...


Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi Dec 2014

Mdm2-Mediated Degradation Of Sirt6 Phosphorylated By Akt1 Promotes Tumorigenesis And Trastuzumab Resistance In Breast Cancer, Umadevi Thirumurthi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Sirtuin6 (SIRT6) is one of the members of the Sirtuin family and functions as a longevity assurance gene by promoting genomic stability. It also regulates various cancer-associated pathways and was recently established as a bonafide tumor suppressor in colon cancer. This suggests that SIRT6 is an attractive target for pharmacological activation in cancer treatment, and hence, identification of potential regulators of SIRT6 would be an important and critical contribution towards cancer treatment. Here, we show that AKT1 phosphorylates SIRT6 at Ser338 and induces MDM2-SIRT6 interaction, priming SIRT6 for degradation via the MDM2-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Blocking SIRT6 Ser338 phosphorylation ...


Coupling S100a4 To Rhotekin Alters Rho Signaling Output In Breast Cancer Cells, Min Chen, Anne R. Bresnick, Kathleen L. O'Connor Aug 2013

Coupling S100a4 To Rhotekin Alters Rho Signaling Output In Breast Cancer Cells, Min Chen, Anne R. Bresnick, Kathleen L. O'Connor

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Rho signaling is increasingly recognized to contribute to invasion and metastasis. In this study, we discovered that metastasis-associated protein S100A4 interacts with the Rho-binding domain (RBD) of Rhotekin, thus connecting S100A4 to the Rho pathway. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that S100A4 specifically and directly binds to Rhotekin RBD, but not the other Rho effector RBDs. S100A4 binding to Rhotekin is calcium-dependent and uses residues distinct from those bound by active Rho. Interestingly, we found that S100A4 and Rhotekin can form a complex with active RhoA. Using RNA interference, we determined that suppression of both S100A4 and ...


The Human Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network: Evolution And Hotspots Of Hijacking In Cancer., Lei Li, Chabane Tibiche, Cong Fu, Tomonori Kaneko, Michael F. Moran, Martin Schiller, Shawn Shun-Cheng Li, Edwin Wang Jul 2012

The Human Phosphotyrosine Signaling Network: Evolution And Hotspots Of Hijacking In Cancer., Lei Li, Chabane Tibiche, Cong Fu, Tomonori Kaneko, Michael F. Moran, Martin Schiller, Shawn Shun-Cheng Li, Edwin Wang

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Phosphotyrosine (pTyr) signaling, which plays a central role in cell-cell and cell-environment interactions, has been considered to be an evolutionary innovation in multicellular metazoans. However, neither the emergence nor the evolution of the human pTyr signaling system is currently understood. Tyrosine kinase (TK) circuits, each of which consists of a TK writer, a kinase substrate, and a related reader, such as Src homology (SH) 2 domains and pTyr-binding (PTB) domains, comprise the core machinery of the pTyr signaling network. In this study, we analyzed the evolutionary trajectories of 583 literature-derived and 50,000 computationally predicted human TK circuits in 19 ...


Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic Jan 2012

Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a dynamic kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) interface that switches from a labile to a stable condition in response to correct MT attachments. This transition is essential to satisfy the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) and couple MT-generated force with chromosome movements, but the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that during mitosis the MT- and KT-associated protein CLASP2 is progressively and distinctively phosphorylated by Cdk1 and Plk1 kinases, concomitant with the establishment of KT-MT attachments. CLASP2 S1234 was phosphorylated by Cdk1, which primed CLASP2 for association with Plk1. Plk1 recruitment to ...


Integrin (Alpha 6 Beta 4) Regulation Of Eif-4e Activity And Vegf Translation: A Survival Mechanism For Carcinoma Cells, Jun Chung, Robin E. Bachelder, Elizabeth A. Lipscomb, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Integrin (Alpha 6 Beta 4) Regulation Of Eif-4e Activity And Vegf Translation: A Survival Mechanism For Carcinoma Cells, Jun Chung, Robin E. Bachelder, Elizabeth A. Lipscomb, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We define a novel mechanism by which integrins regulate growth factor expression and the survival of carcinoma cells. Specifically, we demonstrate that the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) translation in breast carcinoma cells. The mechanism involves the ability of this integrin to stimulate the phosphorylation and inactivation of 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), a translational repressor that inhibits the function of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E). The regulation of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation by alpha 6 beta 4 derives from the ability of this integrin to activate the PI-3K-Akt pathway and, consequently, the rapamycin-sensitive kinase mTOR that ...


Regulation Of Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin Laminin Receptor Function By The Cytoplasmic Domain Of The Alpha 6 Subunit, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Regulation Of Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin Laminin Receptor Function By The Cytoplasmic Domain Of The Alpha 6 Subunit, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is expressed on the macrophage surface in an inactive state and requires cellular activation with PMA or cytokines to function as a laminin receptor (Shaw, L. M., J. M. Messier, and A. M. Mercurio. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110:2167-2174). In the present study, the role of the alpha 6 subunit cytoplasmic domain in alpha 6 beta 1 integrin activation was examined. The use of P388D1 cells, an alpha 6-integrin deficient macrophage cell line, facilitated this analysis because expression of either the alpha 6A or alpha 6B subunit cDNAs restores their activation responsive laminin ...


The Activation Dependent Adhesion Of Macrophages To Laminin Involves Cytoskeletal Anchoring And Phosphorylation Of The Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin, Leslie M. Shaw, Jeanne M. Messier, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

The Activation Dependent Adhesion Of Macrophages To Laminin Involves Cytoskeletal Anchoring And Phosphorylation Of The Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin, Leslie M. Shaw, Jeanne M. Messier, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Macrophages require activation with either PMA (Mercurio, A. M., and L. M. Shaw. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:1873-1880) or interferon-gamma (Shaw, L. M., and A. M. Mercurio. 1989. J. Exp. Med. 169:303-308) to adhere to a laminin substratum. In the present study, we identified an integrin laminin receptor on macrophages and characterized cellular changes that occur in response to PMA activation that facilitate laminin adhesion. A monoclonal antibody (GoH3) that recognizes the integrin alpha 6 subunit (Sonnenberg, A., H. Janssen, F. Hogervorst, J. Calafat, and J. Hilgers. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:10376-10383) specifically inhibited adhesion to laminin-coated ...


Protein Kinase C-Dependent Mobilization Of The Alpha6beta4 Integrin From Hemidesmosomes And Its Association With Actin-Rich Cell Protrusions Drive The Chemotactic Migration Of Carcinoma Cells, Isaac Rabinovitz, Alex Toker, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Protein Kinase C-Dependent Mobilization Of The Alpha6beta4 Integrin From Hemidesmosomes And Its Association With Actin-Rich Cell Protrusions Drive The Chemotactic Migration Of Carcinoma Cells, Isaac Rabinovitz, Alex Toker, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We explored the hypothesis that the chemotactic migration of carcinoma cells that assemble hemidesmosomes involves the activation of a signaling pathway that releases the alpha6beta4 integrin from these stable adhesion complexes and promotes its association with F-actin in cell protrusions enabling it to function in migration. Squamous carcinoma-derived A431 cells were used because they express alpha6beta4 and migrate in response to EGF stimulation. Using function-blocking antibodies, we show that the alpha6beta4 integrin participates in EGF-stimulated chemotaxis and is required for lamellae formation on laminin-1. At concentrations of EGF that stimulate A431 chemotaxis ( approximately 1 ng/ml), the alpha6beta4 integrin is ...


Regulation Of Dna Damage Processing By Covalent Modification Of Thymine Dna Glycosylase, Ryan D. Mohan May 2010

Regulation Of Dna Damage Processing By Covalent Modification Of Thymine Dna Glycosylase, Ryan D. Mohan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) is an essential DNA repair enzyme mediating excision of uracil and thymine mispaired with guanine within CpG contexts. Unrepaired, these lesions result in G:C to A:T transitions which are major contributors to genome instability. Interestingly, TDG interacts functionally with transcriptional regulators and participates in directed cytosine demethylation at promoters. TDG is subject to multiple post-translational modifications (PTM) and we undertook an analysis of how these regulate TDG function. Initially, we examined TDG regulation by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) and identified a novel SUMO binding motif (SBM1, residues 144-148). We hypothesized that SBM1, along with ...