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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla May 2018

Ketone Bodies And Signaling In Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines, Kyla B. Buettner, Pankaj K. Singh, Surendra K. Shukla

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and 95% of these cases are caused by PDAC (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma). Ketone bodies have previously been shown to decrease cell proliferation and cancer-induced cachexia. The molecular mechanism of ketone body-mediated growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer cells is not well understood. Research conducted thus far has not explored which molecular pathways are affected by ketone body treatment in pancreatic cancer cells. In the current study, the effect of the ketone body sodium hydroxybutyrate on the JAK-STAT and mTOR pathways and cell migration was explored. A decrease ...


Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego Dec 2017

Metabolic Reprogramming Of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cells In Response To Chronic Low Ph Stress, Jaime Abrego

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is among the most lethal of all cancers with a 5-year survival rate of only 8.2%. This is because PDAC is diagnosed in its advanced stages and is characterized by radio and chemotherapy resistance. Aggressiveness of PDAC tumors is attributed to its high metabolic phenotype, which is characterized by increased glycolysis rate and lactate secretion, while oxidative metabolism is reduced. These metabolic features are required to fulfill the biosynthetic demands of proliferating PDAC cells. However, this increase in metabolic activity results in acidification of the extracellular space because the dense fibrotic stroma of PDAC tumors ...


Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang Aug 2017

Investigating The Role Of Prmt1 And Arginine Methylation Of Hsp70 In Human Pancreatic Cancer, Liang Wang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Protein arginine methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) is the major arginine methyltransferase, which catalyzes the addition of one or two methyl groups to the arginine residues of its substrate proteins. The best-known substrate for PRMT1 is histone, while more and more non-histone proteins are now found to be methylated by PRMT1. Dysregulation of PRMT1 is reported in several human cancer types. However, its biological roles in human pancreatic cancer initiation and development are still unclear. In the first part of this study, I found that the expression level of PRMT1 was elevated in both human and mouse pancreatic cancer tissues in immunohistochemistry ...


Aberrant Glycosylation In Pancreatic Cancer Progression, Seema Chugh May 2017

Aberrant Glycosylation In Pancreatic Cancer Progression, Seema Chugh

Theses & Dissertations

Aberrant changes in O-glycosylation patterns underlie pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression and metastasis. Glycosylation is a post-translational modification in which carbohydrate moieties are attached to the protein substrate. My dissertation is focused on mucin-type O-glycosylation, which is the predominant form of O-glycosylation and is regulated by a myriad of glycosyltransferases.

PDAC is one of the most lethal diseases and the mechanistic involvement of aberrant O-glycosylation in its progression and metastasis is unknown. The aberrant glycosylation refers to the appearance of unusual carbohydrate structures such as truncated carbohydrate antigens, often referred to as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.

In this dissertation, my goal ...


Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Controlled By Cellular Immunity?, Kirby Robbins, John Harms, Lawrence Mylin Jan 2017

Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Controlled By Cellular Immunity?, Kirby Robbins, John Harms, Lawrence Mylin

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is aggressive and poorly understood with a five-year survival rate of only 9% because most cases are diagnosed at a late stage. Because of ambiguous symptoms, pancreatic cancer is very difficult to detect early, and often when it is finally diagnosed, the cancer has already metastasized or has become too robust to cure. Current treatments are largely ineffective, so there is a great need for a novel approach to targeting this debilitating disease. To determine whether an intracellular peptide target expressed only in pancreatic cancer cells can be utilized to control or eradicate pancreatic cancer tumors by T ...


Exploration Into The Functional Impact Of Muc1 On The Formation And Regulation Of Transcriptional Complexes Containing Ap-1 And P53, Ryan L. Hanson Aug 2016

Exploration Into The Functional Impact Of Muc1 On The Formation And Regulation Of Transcriptional Complexes Containing Ap-1 And P53, Ryan L. Hanson

Theses & Dissertations

The transmembrane glycoprotein MUC1 is aberrantly expressed in the majority of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cases and promotes tumor progression by engaging in morphogenetic signaling through its cytoplasmic tail. Furthermore, MUC1 can translocate to the nucleus and function as a transcriptional co-regulator in conjunction with transcriptional complexes containing activator protein-1 (AP-1) and p53. The specificity of these interactions are thought to rely on specific patterning of post-translational modifications within the cytoplasmic tail of MUC1.

Within this dissertation, we examined how MUC1 influences the formation and activity of these transcription factors and the resulting impact on tumor progression and metastasis. In our ...


Role Of Ddr1 In Pancreatic Cancer, Huocong Huang Aug 2016

Role Of Ddr1 In Pancreatic Cancer, Huocong Huang

Theses & Dissertations

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas are highly malignant cancers, characterized by extensive invasion into surrounding tissues, metastasis to distant organs at a very early stage, and a limited response to therapy. One of the main features of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas is desmoplasia, which leads to extensive deposition of collagen I. We have demonstrated that collagen I can induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer cells. A hallmark of EMT is an increase in the expression of a mesenchymal cadherin, N-cadherin. Our previous studies have shown that up-regulation of N-cadherin can promote tumor cell invasion and that collagen I-induced EMT is through two ...


Syndecan-1 Tagged Liposomes As A Theranostic Nanoparticle For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma., Wenyuan Yin May 2016

Syndecan-1 Tagged Liposomes As A Theranostic Nanoparticle For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma., Wenyuan Yin

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Theranostic nanoparticles are emerging as a novel mechanism for detecting and treating cancer. Due to the difficulties in detection and treatment of pancreatic cancer, these particles could serve within this unique niche. In this study, a Syndecan-1 ligand was utilized to increase tumor specificity of fluorescent dye encapsulated liposomes which were evaluated as a potential theranostic nanoparticle for pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Their diagnostic capabilities and specificity to pancreatic adenocarcinoma were determined in vitro using immunocytochemistry and in vivo using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Immunocytochemistry showed that liposomes preferentially bound and released their contents into cells expressing high levels of Insulin-Like Growth ...


Lipocalin 2 Promotes The Establishment Of A Pro-Tumorigenic Microenvironment In Pancreatic Cancer, Sobeyda B. Gomez-Chou May 2016

Lipocalin 2 Promotes The Establishment Of A Pro-Tumorigenic Microenvironment In Pancreatic Cancer, Sobeyda B. Gomez-Chou

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a disease characterized by a dismal prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of 7%. A unique hallmark of this disease is an abundant desmoplastic reaction that can account for up to 90% of the solid tumor volume. Key components of the PDAC stroma include the extracellular matrix (ECM) rich in collagen type I and III, activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) and inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages. The main line of evidence has suggested a pro-tumorigenic role for the PDAC stroma as it has been shown to help enhance tumor growth, invasive potential and ...


Increasing The Stability And Expression Of Green Fluorescent Protein In Pancreatic Cancer Cells For Metastasis Assays, Holly M. Ross, John F. Harms Jan 2016

Increasing The Stability And Expression Of Green Fluorescent Protein In Pancreatic Cancer Cells For Metastasis Assays, Holly M. Ross, John F. Harms

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with only 11% of patients diagnosed with metastatic disease surviving the first year. Even so, few studies exist to characterize the mechanism of metastasis in this highly aggressive form of cancer. Consequently, it is imperative that techniques, such as tagging cells with green fluorescent protein (GFP), are developed to track cancerous cells over the course of their spread. Unfortunately, the existing GFP vector contains a cytomegalovirus promotor, which is readily silenced by cells and decreases the vector’s usefulness for long-term studies in vivo. It was ...


The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit Dec 2015

The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit

Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of CXCR2, a seven transmembrane G- protein coupled receptor, in mediating autocrine as well as paracrine mechanisms during pancreatic cancer progression. Data presented in the initial section demonstrates the aberrant expression of the CXCR2 biological axis in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. A study performed within the first section of this dissertation investigates the contribution of CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer initiation. These studies have identified a novel role of CXCR2 in mediating KRAS(G12D) -induced autocrine growth transformation of pancreatic cancer cells. The upregulation of the CXCR2 biological axis was found to be directly ...


T-Cell Treatments For Solid And Hematological Tumors, Drew C. Deniger Aug 2013

T-Cell Treatments For Solid And Hematological Tumors, Drew C. Deniger

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell-based therapies have demonstrated potency and efficacy as cancer treatment modalities. T cells can be dichotomized by their T cell receptor (TCR) complexes where alpha/beta T cells (95% of T cells) and gamma/delta T cells (+T cells proliferated to clinically significant numbers and ROR1+ tumor cells were effectively targeted and killed by both ROR1-specific CAR+ T cell populations, although ROR1RCD137 were superior to ROR1RCD28 in clearance of leukemia xenografts in vivo. The second specific aim focused on generating bi-specific CD19-specific CAR+ gamma/delta T cells with polyclonal TCRgamma/delta repertoire on CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC). Enhanced ...


Mechanisms Underlying The Heterogeneous Sensitivities Of Cancer Cells To Proteasome Inhibitors, Matthew C. White May 2013

Mechanisms Underlying The Heterogeneous Sensitivities Of Cancer Cells To Proteasome Inhibitors, Matthew C. White

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The mechanisms underlying cellular response to proteasome inhibitors have not been clearly elucidated in solid tumor models. Evidence suggests that the ability of a cell to manage the amount of proteotoxic stress following proteasome inhibition dictates survival. In this study using the FDA-approved proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade®) in solid tumor cells, we demonstrated that perhaps the most critical response to proteasome inhibition is repression of global protein synthesis by phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2-α subunit (eIF2α). In a panel of 10 distinct human pancreatic cancer cells, we showed marked heterogeneity in the ability of cancer cells to induce ...


The Role Of Tak1 In Pancreatic Cancer Development, Qianghua Xia Dec 2011

The Role Of Tak1 In Pancreatic Cancer Development, Qianghua Xia

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Pancreatic cancer is a big challenge in large due to the lack of early symptoms. In addition, drug resistance is a major obstacle to the success of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer. The underlying mechanism of drug resistance in human pancreatic cancers is not well understood. Better understanding of the mechanism of molecular pathways in human pancreatic cancers can help to identify the novel therapeutic target candidates, and develop the new preventive and clinic strategies to improve patient ...


The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song Dec 2011

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with less than 5% of five year survival rate. New molecular markers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed for patients with PDA. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of human malignancies, including diffuse glioma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and carcinomas of lung, colon, prostate, breast, ovary, esophagus, stomach, and kidney. However, the expression and functions of Axl in PDA are unclear. We hypothesized that Axl contributes to the development and progression of PDA. We examined Axl expression in 54 human PDA samples ...


Role Of Prostaglandin E2 In The Regulation Of Pancreatic Stellate Cells Hyper Activity Associated With Pancreatic Cancer, Chantale Charo Aug 2011

Role Of Prostaglandin E2 In The Regulation Of Pancreatic Stellate Cells Hyper Activity Associated With Pancreatic Cancer, Chantale Charo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal type of cancer due to its high metastasis rate and resistance to chemotherapy. Pancreatic fibrosis is a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis and the hyperactive stroma associated with pancreatic cancer. Strong evidence supports an important role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2 generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are the predominant source of extracellular matrix production (ECM), thus being the key players in both diseases. Given this background, the primary objective is to delineate the role of PGE2 on human pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) hyper activation associated ...


Altered Responses To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Pancreatic Cancer, Jennifer H. Choe May 2011

Altered Responses To Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Pancreatic Cancer, Jennifer H. Choe

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) represents the fourth most common cause of cancer-associated death in the United States. Little progress has been made in understanding how proteotoxic stress affects rapidly proliferating pancreatic tumor cells. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurs when protein homeostasis in the ER lumen is perturbed. ER stress activates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to reduce the protein load in the ER. Under conditions of moderate ER stress, the UPR promotes cell cycle arrest which allows time for successful protein load reduction and enables cell survival. However, under conditions of high levels of ER stress the UPR induces cellular ...


Role And Regulation Of Epha2 In Pancreatic Cancer, Pavel A. Levin Aug 2010

Role And Regulation Of Epha2 In Pancreatic Cancer, Pavel A. Levin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cancer cause of death in the US. Gemcitabine is the first-line therapy for this disease, but unfortunately it shows only very modest benefit. The focus of the current study was to investigate the role and regulation of EphA2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in PDAC, to further understand this disease and identify new therapeutic targets.

The role of EphA2 was determined in PDAC by siRNA mediated silencing. In combination with gemcitabine, silencing of EphA2 caused a dramatic increase in apoptosis even in highly resistant cells in vitro. Furthermore, EphA2 silencing was found ...