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Ovarian cancer

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Articles 1 - 14 of 14

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Inactivating Mutations And X-Ray Crystal Structure Of The Tumor Suppressor Opcml Reveal Cancer-Associated Functions, James R. Birtley, Zachary Maben, Grant C. Weaver, Mollie M. Jurewicz, Lawrence J. Stern, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra Jul 2019

Inactivating Mutations And X-Ray Crystal Structure Of The Tumor Suppressor Opcml Reveal Cancer-Associated Functions, James R. Birtley, Zachary Maben, Grant C. Weaver, Mollie M. Jurewicz, Lawrence J. Stern, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra

Open Access Articles

OPCML, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced epigenetically in ovarian and other cancers. Here we report, by analysis of databases of tumor sequences, the observation of OPCML somatic missense mutations from various tumor types and the impact of these mutations on OPCML function, by solving the X-ray crystal structure of this glycoprotein to 2.65 A resolution. OPCML consists of an extended arrangement of three immunoglobulin-like domains and homodimerizes via a network of contacts between membrane-distal domains. We report the generation of a panel of OPCML variants with representative clinical mutations and demonstrate clear phenotypic effects in vitro and ...


Frost450, A Novel Microtubule Targeting Agent: Resistance And Cross-Resistance In An Ovarian Cancer Cell Line, Jonathan Chancellor Fox Dec 2018

Frost450, A Novel Microtubule Targeting Agent: Resistance And Cross-Resistance In An Ovarian Cancer Cell Line, Jonathan Chancellor Fox

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Drug resistance remains problematic for chemotherapy treatments. As primary treatment strategies tend to lose potency against cancer, there is a need for treatment options that overcome drug resistance mechanisms. FROST450, a novel microtubule destabilizing agent, has proven anticancer effects that overcome taxane and multidrug resistance. However, to better understand the clinical potential of FROST450, in this study we examine the mechanisms and implications of acquired FROST450 resistance in an A2780 ovarian cancer cell line. Results indicate FROST450 resistance is associated with increased mitochondrial respiration and with changes in gene sequence or expression level of proteins associated with microtubules, and that ...


Proteomic Characterization Of Ovarian And Breast Cancer Microenvironments For Improved Diagnostics And Therapeutic Targeting, Dylan Z. Dieters-Castator Jun 2018

Proteomic Characterization Of Ovarian And Breast Cancer Microenvironments For Improved Diagnostics And Therapeutic Targeting, Dylan Z. Dieters-Castator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cancers exist within complex microenvironments formed by heterogeneous cell types. This diversity creates significant challenges for detection, diagnosis and treatment. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful approach capable of characterizing complex biological systems which are characteristic of cancer biology. In this thesis, proteomics was utilized to answer several questions related to ovarian cancer diagnosis and detection, and the effects of NODAL, an embryonic morphogen, on the breast cancer secretome and stromal cell recruitment. First, I compared multiple sample preparation techniques and found high-pH/low-pH fractionation to yield the greatest proteome coverage over commonly used approaches. Second, I compared the proteomes ...


The Role Of Yes-Associated Protein 1 In Ovarian Physiology And Pathology, Xiangmin Lv Dec 2017

The Role Of Yes-Associated Protein 1 In Ovarian Physiology And Pathology, Xiangmin Lv

Theses & Dissertations

Ovarian granulosa cells are the major somatic components of the ovarian follicle. Proper proliferation and differentiation of ovarian granulosa cells are essential for successful follicle development. Accumulating evidence indicates that the Hippo-YAP signaling pathway plays critical roles in both development and tumorigenesis of several organs. The present study aims to investigate the role of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) in ovarian granulosa cell proliferation, differentiation, and malignant transformation. At first, we found that nuclear YAP (active) was highly expressed in proliferative granulosa cells, whereas cytoplasmic YAP (inactive) was detected mainly in terminally-differentiated luteal cells. Further studies suggested that endogenous YAP activity ...


Inhibition Of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Enhances The Tumor Growth Of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Derived From A Low-Grade Papillary Serous Carcinoma In P53-Independent Pathway, Xue Xiao, Gong Yang, Peng Bai, Shunping Gui, Tri M. Bui Nguyen, +8 Additional Authors Aug 2016

Inhibition Of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Enhances The Tumor Growth Of Ovarian Cancer Cell Line Derived From A Low-Grade Papillary Serous Carcinoma In P53-Independent Pathway, Xue Xiao, Gong Yang, Peng Bai, Shunping Gui, Tri M. Bui Nguyen, +8 Additional Authors

Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine Faculty Publications

Background: NF-kB can function as an oncogene or tumor suppressor depending on cancer types. The role of NF-kB in low-grade serous ovarian cancer, however, has never been tested. We sought to elucidate the function of NF-kB in the low-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Methods: The ovarian cancer cell line, HOC-7, derived from a low-grade papillary serous carcinoma. Introduction of a dominant negative mutant, IkBαM, which resulted in decrease of NF-kB function in ovarian cancer cell lines. The transcription ability, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis were observed in derivative cell lines in comparison with parental cells.

Results: Western blot analysis indicated increased ...


Oncolytic Virus Therapy For The Treatment Of Metastatic Ovarian Cancer, Jessica Tong Apr 2016

Oncolytic Virus Therapy For The Treatment Of Metastatic Ovarian Cancer, Jessica Tong

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The management of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) faces two major challenges which standard treatments fail to effectively address: 1) Diffuse metastasis as a consequence of late stage diagnosis and 2) intra-tumoral heterogeneity, which fuels tumor evolution and drives the acquisition of chemotherapeutic resistance. In this thesis, we tested new therapeutic strategies using a 3-dimensional in vitro spheroid culture model that mimics key steps of epithelial ovarian cancer metastasis; and another model that mimics both temporal and cellular heterogeneity by establishing multiple cell lines from a single patient over the course of disease progression. Using these models, we investigated ...


Exploring The Regulation And Function Of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity In Ovarian Cancer Spheroids, Samah Rafehi Apr 2016

Exploring The Regulation And Function Of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Plasticity In Ovarian Cancer Spheroids, Samah Rafehi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) serves as a key mechanism driving tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis in many carcinomas. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) signalling is implicated in several steps during cancer pathogenesis and acts as a classical inducer of EMT. Since epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) cells have the potential to switch between epithelial and mesenchymal states during metastasis, we predicted that modulation of TGFβ signalling would significantly impact EMT and the malignant potential of EOC spheroid cells. Ovarian cancer patient ascites-derived cells naturally underwent an EMT response when aggregating into spheroids, and this was reversed upon spheroid re-attachment to a substratum ...


Alternative Methods For The Treatment Of Chemo-Resistant Cancers, Kaitlyn Wong Jan 2016

Alternative Methods For The Treatment Of Chemo-Resistant Cancers, Kaitlyn Wong

Doctoral Dissertations

Great strides have been made in cancer therapy in the past century, yet it remains one of the leading causes of death in the United States today. This work aimed to shed light on novel methods to treat a variety of aggressive and often chemo-resistant cancers both in vitro and in vivo.

The first aim of this work was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of poly(methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (polyMPC) prodrugs compared to standard chemotherapeutic agents. Conjugation of polyMPC to drugs such as doxorubicin (Dox) can result in its improved solubility, prolonged half-life and therapeutic efficacy. PolyMPC and polyMPC-Dox (at a ...


Suboptimal Cytoreduction In Ovarian Carcinoma Is Associated With Molecular Pathways Characteristic Of Increased Stromal Activation, Zhenqiu Liu, Jessica A. Beach, Hasmik Agadjanian, Dongyu Jia, Paul-Joseph Aspuria, Beth Y. Karlan, Sandra Orsulic Nov 2015

Suboptimal Cytoreduction In Ovarian Carcinoma Is Associated With Molecular Pathways Characteristic Of Increased Stromal Activation, Zhenqiu Liu, Jessica A. Beach, Hasmik Agadjanian, Dongyu Jia, Paul-Joseph Aspuria, Beth Y. Karlan, Sandra Orsulic

Dongyu Jia

Objective: Suboptimal cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with poor survival but it is unknown if poor outcome is due to the intrinsic biology of unresectable tumors or insufficient surgical effort resulting in residual tumor-sustaining clones. Our objective was to identify the potential molecular pathway(s) and cell type(s) that may be responsible for suboptimal surgical resection.
Methods: By comparing gene expression in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, we identified a gene network associated with suboptimal cytoreduction and explored the biological processes and cell types associated with this gene network.
Results: We show that primary ...


T-Cell Treatments For Solid And Hematological Tumors, Drew C. Deniger Aug 2013

T-Cell Treatments For Solid And Hematological Tumors, Drew C. Deniger

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cell-based therapies have demonstrated potency and efficacy as cancer treatment modalities. T cells can be dichotomized by their T cell receptor (TCR) complexes where alpha/beta T cells (95% of T cells) and gamma/delta T cells (+T cells proliferated to clinically significant numbers and ROR1+ tumor cells were effectively targeted and killed by both ROR1-specific CAR+ T cell populations, although ROR1RCD137 were superior to ROR1RCD28 in clearance of leukemia xenografts in vivo. The second specific aim focused on generating bi-specific CD19-specific CAR+ gamma/delta T cells with polyclonal TCRgamma/delta repertoire on CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC). Enhanced ...


Features Of Dormancy In Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Cells, Rohann Jm Correa Jul 2013

Features Of Dormancy In Metastatic Ovarian Cancer Cells, Rohann Jm Correa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The most prevalent subtype of ovarian cancer – high-grade serous (HGS) carcinoma – is also the most lethal, since the majority of cases are characterized by advanced-stage (metastatic) presentation. Metastasis of this cancer proceeds by an intra-peritoneal route, involving detachment of cells from the primary tumour and dissemination throughout the peritoneal cavity as multicellular aggregates, or spheroids. Herein, we demonstrate that HGS patient-derived tumour cells cultured to form in vitro spheroids exhibit features of cancer dormancy, a cellular state known to promote therapeutic resistance and disease recurrence. We discovered that upon spheroid formation, cells became non-proliferative, exhibiting a cell cycle profile and ...


Brca1 Dna-Binding Activity Is Stimulated By Bard1, Amanda Simons, Andrew Horwitz, Lea Starita, Karen Griffin, R Williams, J.N. Glover, Jeffrey Parvin Feb 2013

Brca1 Dna-Binding Activity Is Stimulated By Bard1, Amanda Simons, Andrew Horwitz, Lea Starita, Karen Griffin, R Williams, J.N. Glover, Jeffrey Parvin

Amanda Simons

The breast- and ovarian-specific tumor suppressor BRCA1 has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including transcription, ubiquitination, and DNA repair. Its tumor suppression activity is tightly linked to that of BARD1, a protein that heterodimerizes with BRCA1. It has been previously shown that BRCA1 binds to DNA, an interesting functional observation in light of the genetic data linking BRCA1 to DNA repair pathways. In this work, we reexamine the DNA-binding properties of BRCA1, comparing them with the DNA-binding properties of the BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer. Because nuclear BRCA1 exists as a heterodimer with BARD1, it is likely that in vitro studies ...


Chronic Stress Promotes Tumor Growth Through Increased Bdnf Production And Neo-Innervation, Julie K. Allen May 2012

Chronic Stress Promotes Tumor Growth Through Increased Bdnf Production And Neo-Innervation, Julie K. Allen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in response to chronic biobehavioral stress results in high levels of catecholamines and persistent activation of adrenergic signaling, which promotes tumor growth and progression. However it is unknown how catecholamine levels within the tumor exceed systemic levels in circulation. I hypothesized that neo-innervation of tumors is required for stress-mediated effects on tumor growth.

Results: First, I examined whether sympathetic nerves are present in human ovarian cancer samples as well as orthotopic ovarian cancer models. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for neurofilament revealed that catecholaminergic neurons are present within tumor tissue. In order to determine ...


Outpatient Administration Of Paclitaxel, Siu Fun Wong Jan 1994

Outpatient Administration Of Paclitaxel, Siu Fun Wong

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Paclitaxel (Taxol®, Bristol-Meyers Squibb), anti neoplastic agent made from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, is undoubtedly one of the most exciting agents to be evaluated over the past decade. Paclitaxel has demonstrated significant promise against ovarian and metastatic breast cancer, and appears to be the most effective single agent to date for non-small-cell lung cancer in trials conducted by Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG).