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Articles 1 - 30 of 59

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi Jan 2019

Star-Related Lipid Transfer Protein 10 (Stard10): A Novel Key Player In Alcohol-Induced Breast Cancer Progression, Andrea Floris, Jia Luo, Jacqueline A. Frank, Jennifer Zhou, Sandro Orrù, Michela Biancolella, Sabina Pucci, Augusto Orlandi, Paolo Campagna, Antonella Balzano, Komal Ramani, Maria Lauda Tomasi

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: Ethanol abuse promotes breast cancer development, metastasis and recurrence stimulating mammary tumorigenesis by mechanisms that remain unclear. Normally, 35% of breast cancer is Erb-B2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase 2 (ERBB2)-positive that predisposes to poor prognosis and relapse, while ethanol drinking leads to invasion of their ERBB2 positive cells triggering the phosphorylation status of mitogen-activated protein kinase. StAR-related lipid transfer protein 10 (STARD10) is a lipid transporter of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); changes on membrane composition of PC and PE occur before the morphological tumorigenic events. Interestingly, STARD10 has been described to be highly expressed in 35–40% of ...


Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold Aug 2018

Identification Of Susceptibility Pathways For The Role Of Chromosome 15q25.1 In Modifying Lung Cancer Risk, Xuemei Ji, Yohan Bossé, Maria Teresa Landi, Jiang Gui, Xiangjun Xiao, David Qian, Philippe Joubert Joubert, Maxime Lamontagne, Yafang Li, Ivan Gorlov, Mariella De Biasi, Younghun Han, Olga Gorlova, Rayjean J. Hung, Xifeng Wu, James Mckay, Xuchen Zong, Robert Carreras-Torres, David C. Christiani, Neil Caporaso, Mattias Johansson, Geoffrey Liu, Stig E. Bojesen, Loic Le Marchand, Demetrios Albanes, Heike Bickeböller, Melinda C. Aldrich, William S. Bush, Adonina Tardon, Gad Rennert, Susanne M. Arnold

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to ...


Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu Apr 2018

Human Cancer And Platelet Interaction, A Potential Therapeutic Target, Shike Wang, Zhenyu Li, Ren Xu

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Cancer patients experience a four-fold increase in thrombosis risk, indicating that cancer development and progression are associated with platelet activation. Xenograft experiments and transgenic mouse models further demonstrate that platelet activation and platelet-cancer cell interaction are crucial for cancer metastasis. Direct or indirect interaction of platelets induces cancer cell plasticity and enhances survival and extravasation of circulating cancer cells during dissemination. In vivo and in vitro experiments also demonstrate that cancer cells induce platelet aggregation, suggesting that platelet-cancer interaction is bidirectional. Therefore, understanding how platelets crosstalk with cancer cells may identify potential strategies to inhibit cancer metastasis and to reduce ...


Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou Mar 2018

Profiling Prostate Cancer Therapeutic Resistance, Cameron A. Wade, Natasha Kyprianou

Urology Faculty Publications

The major challenge in the treatment of patients with advanced lethal prostate cancer is therapeutic resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) and chemotherapy. Overriding this resistance requires understanding of the driving mechanisms of the tumor microenvironment, not just the androgen receptor (AR)-signaling cascade, that facilitate therapeutic resistance in order to identify new drug targets. The tumor microenvironment enables key signaling pathways promoting cancer cell survival and invasion via resistance to anoikis. In particular, the process of epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT), directed by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), confers stem cell properties and acquisition of a migratory and invasive phenotype via resistance to anoikis ...


Nanoparticle Orientation To Control Rna Loading And Ligand Display On Extracellular Vesicles For Cancer Regression, Fengmei Pi, Daniel W. Binzel, Tae Jin Lee, Zhefeng Li, Meiyan Sun, Piotr G. Rychahou, Hui Li, Farzin Haque, Shaoying Wang, Carlo M. Croce, Bin Guo, B. Mark Evers, Peixuan Guo Jan 2018

Nanoparticle Orientation To Control Rna Loading And Ligand Display On Extracellular Vesicles For Cancer Regression, Fengmei Pi, Daniel W. Binzel, Tae Jin Lee, Zhefeng Li, Meiyan Sun, Piotr G. Rychahou, Hui Li, Farzin Haque, Shaoying Wang, Carlo M. Croce, Bin Guo, B. Mark Evers, Peixuan Guo

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Nanotechnology offers many benefits, and here we report an advantage of applying RNA nanotechnology for directional control. The orientation of arrow-shaped RNA was altered to control ligand display on extracellular vesicle membranes for specific cell targeting, or to regulate intracellular trafficking of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or microRNA (miRNA). Placing membrane-anchoring cholesterol at the tail of the arrow results in display of RNA aptamer or folate on the outer surface of the extracellular vesicle. In contrast, placing the cholesterol at the arrowhead results in partial loading of RNA nanoparticles into the extracellular vesicles. Taking advantage of the RNA ligand for ...


Ecog-Acrin (E4805) Randomized Phase Ii Study To Determine The Effect Of 2 Different Doses Of Aflibercept In Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Roberto Pili, Opeyemi Jegede, Michael A. Carducci, Judith Manola, David L. Groteluschen, Leonard L. Appleman, Glenn Liu, James C. Shanks, Shaker R. Dakhil, Janice Dutcher, Robert S. Dipaola Dec 2017

Ecog-Acrin (E4805) Randomized Phase Ii Study To Determine The Effect Of 2 Different Doses Of Aflibercept In Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, Roberto Pili, Opeyemi Jegede, Michael A. Carducci, Judith Manola, David L. Groteluschen, Leonard L. Appleman, Glenn Liu, James C. Shanks, Shaker R. Dakhil, Janice Dutcher, Robert S. Dipaola

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Background—Aflibercept is a recombinantly-produced fusion protein that has potent anti-VEGF activity. We tested whether aflibercept has clinical activity in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). The recommended Phase 2 dose was 4 mg/kg but several patients treated at 1 mg/kg demonstrated prolonged progression-free survival (PFS). We therefore tested both doses in a parallel group randomized trial.

Methods—Eligible patients (pts) had histologically confirmed advanced or metastatic ccRCC and previous treatments including prior exposure to a VEGF RTKI. Patients received aflibercept (either 1 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg) day 1 of a 14-day cycle until progression. Patients ...


Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau Nov 2017

Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes. Using a transgenic screen in zebrafish, thymocyte selection–associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) was uncovered as a collaborating oncogenic driver that accelerated T-ALL onset by expanding the initiating pool of transformed clones and elevating genomic instability. TOX is highly expressed in a majority of human T-ALL and is required for proliferation and continued xenograft growth in mice. Using a wide array of functional analyses, we uncovered that TOX binds directly to KU70/80 and suppresses recruitment of this complex to DNA breaks to inhibit nonhomologous end joining ...


Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie Oct 2017

Nanoparticle Delivery Of Mir-34a Eradicates Long-Term-Cultured Breast Cancer Stem Cells Via Targeting C22orf28 Directly, Xiaoti Lin, Weiyu Chen, Fengqin Wei, Binhua P. Zhou, Mien-Chie Hung, Xiaoming Xie

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated as the seeds of therapeutic resistance and metastasis, due to their unique abilities of self-renew, wide differentiation potentials and resistance to most conventional therapies. It is a proactive strategy for cancer therapy to eradicate CSCs. Methods: Tumor tissue-derived breast CSCs (BCSC), including XM322 and XM607, were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS); while cell line-derived BCSC, including MDA-MB-231.SC and MCF-7.SC, were purified by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). Analyses of microRNA and mRNA expression array profiles were performed in multiple breast cell lines. The mentioned nanoparticles were constructed following the standard ...


Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds Oct 2017

Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has shown significant anticancer activity. Sulindac sulfide amide (1) possessing greatly reduced COX-related inhibition relative to sulindac displayed in vivoantitumor activity that was comparable to sulindac in a human colon tumorxenograft model. Inspired by these observations, a panel of diverse sulindac amide derivatives have been synthesized and their activity probed against three cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and breast). A neutral analog, compound 79 was identified with comparable potency relative to lead 1 and activity against a panel of lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Several new series also show good activity relative ...


Loss Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Induces Glycolysis And Promotes Apoptosis Resistance Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells: An Important Role In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Carcinogenesis, Jin Dai, Yanli Ji, Wei Wang, Donghern Kim, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Lei Wang, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang Sep 2017

Loss Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Induces Glycolysis And Promotes Apoptosis Resistance Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells: An Important Role In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Carcinogenesis, Jin Dai, Yanli Ji, Wei Wang, Donghern Kim, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Lei Wang, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are confirmed human carcinogens for lung cancer. Our previous studies has demonstrated that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low dose of Cr(VI) causes malignant cell transformation. The acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties is involved in the initiation of cancers. The present study has observed that a small population of cancer stem-like cells (BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC) exists in the Cr(VI)-transformed cells (BEAS-2B-Cr). Those BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC exhibit extremely reduced capability of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis resistance. BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are metabolic inactive as evidenced by reductions in oxygen consumption, glucose uptake ...


Abl Kinase Regulation By Braf/Erk And Cooperation With Akt In Melanoma, Aditi Jain, Rakshamani Tripathi, Courtney P. Turpin, Chi Wang, Rina Plattner Aug 2017

Abl Kinase Regulation By Braf/Erk And Cooperation With Akt In Melanoma, Aditi Jain, Rakshamani Tripathi, Courtney P. Turpin, Chi Wang, Rina Plattner

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

The melanoma incidence continues to increase, and the disease remains incurable for many due to its metastatic nature and high rate of therapeutic resistance. In particular, melanomas harboring BRAFV600E and PTEN mutations often are resistant to current therapies, including BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Abl kinases (Abl/Arg) are activated in melanomas and drive progression; however, their mechanism of activation has not been established. Here we elucidate a novel link between BRAFV600E/ERK signaling and Abl kinases. We demonstrate that BRAFV600E/ERK play a critical role in binding, phosphorylating and regulating Abl localization and Abl ...


A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar Aug 2017

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Primary tumors are often heterogeneous, composed of therapy-sensitive and emerging therapy-resistant cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of therapy-sensitive tumors in heterogeneous tumor microenvironments results in apoptosis of therapy-resistant tumors. In this study, we identify a prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) amino-terminal fragment (PAF) that is released by diverse therapy-sensitive cancer cells following therapy-induced caspase cleavage of the tumor suppressor Par-4 protein. PAF caused apoptosis in cancer cells resistant to therapy and inhibited tumor growth. A VASA segment of Par-4 mediated its binding and degradation by the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo45, resulting in loss of Par-4 proapoptotic function. Conversely, PAF, which contains this VASA ...


Temperature Induces Significant Changes In Both Glycolytic Reserve And Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines, Mihail I. Mitov, Jennifer W. Harris, Michael Alstott, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, B. Mark Evers, D. Allan Butterfield May 2017

Temperature Induces Significant Changes In Both Glycolytic Reserve And Mitochondrial Spare Respiratory Capacity In Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines, Mihail I. Mitov, Jennifer W. Harris, Michael Alstott, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, B. Mark Evers, D. Allan Butterfield

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Thermotherapy, as a method of treating cancer, has recently attracted considerable attention from basic and clinical investigators. A number of studies and clinical trials have shown that thermotherapy can be successfully used as a therapeutic approach for various cancers. However, the effects of temperature on cancer bioenergetics have not been studied in detail with a real time, in a microplate, label-free detection approach.

This study investigate how changes in temperature affect the bioenergetics characteristics (mitochondrial function and glycolysis) of three colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines utilizing the Seahorse XF96 technology. Experiments were performed at 32°C, 37°C and 42 ...


Paracrine Regulation Of Melanocyte Genomic Stability: A Focus On Nucleotide Excision Repair, Stuart Gordon Jarrett, Katharine Marie Carter, John August D'Orazio May 2017

Paracrine Regulation Of Melanocyte Genomic Stability: A Focus On Nucleotide Excision Repair, Stuart Gordon Jarrett, Katharine Marie Carter, John August D'Orazio

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

UV radiation is a major environmental risk factor for the development of melanoma by causing DNA damage and mutations. Resistance to UV damage is largely determined by the capacity of melanocytes to respond to UV injury by repairing mutagenic photolesions. The nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the major mechanism by which cells correct UV photodamage. This multistep process involves the basic steps of damage recognition, isolation, localized strand unwinding, assembly of a repair complex, excision of the damage‐containing strand 3′ and 5′ to the photolesion, synthesis of a sequence‐appropriate replacement strand, and finally ligation to restore continuity ...


Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair Mar 2017

Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we show how ascorbic acid kills cancer cells and sensitizes prostate cancer to radiation therapy while also conferring protection upon normal prostate epithelial cells against radiation-induced ...


Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol-Induced Aggressiveness Of Breast Cancer, Yongchao Wang, Mei Xu, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo Jan 2017

Cellular And Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol-Induced Aggressiveness Of Breast Cancer, Yongchao Wang, Mei Xu, Zun-Ji Ke, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Breast cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in women. Both Epidemiological and experimental studies indicate a positive correlation between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. While alcohol exposure may promote the carcinogenesis or onset of breast cancer, it may as well enhance the progression and aggressiveness of existing mammary tumors. Recent progress in this line of research suggests that alcohol exposure is associated with invasive breast cancer and promotes the growth and metastasis of mammary tumors. There are multiple potential mechanisms involved in alcohol-stimulated progression and aggressiveness of breast cancer. Alcohol may increase the mobility ...


Fibroblast Growth Requires Ct10 Regulator Of Kinase (Crk) And Crk-Like (Crkl)., Taeju Park, Mateusz Koptyra, Tom Curran Dec 2016

Fibroblast Growth Requires Ct10 Regulator Of Kinase (Crk) And Crk-Like (Crkl)., Taeju Park, Mateusz Koptyra, Tom Curran

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

CT10 regulator of kinase (Crk) and Crk-like (CrkL) are the cellular counterparts of the viral oncogene v-Crk Elevated levels of Crk and CrkL have been observed in many human cancers; inhibition of Crk and CrkL expression reduced the tumor-forming potential of cancer cell lines. Despite a close relationship between the Crk family proteins and tumorigenesis, how Crk and CrkL contribute to cell growth is unclear. We ablated endogenous Crk and CrkL from cultured fibroblasts carrying floxed alleles of Crk and CrkL by transfection with synthetic Cre mRNA (synCre). Loss of Crk and CrkL induced by synCre transfection blocked cell proliferation ...


Analysis Of Rna Expression Of Normal And Cancer Tissues Reveals High Correlation Of Cop9 Gene Expression With Respiratory Chain Complex Components, Christina A. Wicker, Tadahide Izumi Dec 2016

Analysis Of Rna Expression Of Normal And Cancer Tissues Reveals High Correlation Of Cop9 Gene Expression With Respiratory Chain Complex Components, Christina A. Wicker, Tadahide Izumi

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome, composed of eight subunits, is implicated in cancer genetics with its deneddylase activity to modulate cellular concentration of oncogenic proteins such as IkB and TGFβ. However, its function in the normal cell physiology remains elusive. Primarily focusing on gene expression data of the normal tissues of the head and neck, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify groups of genes that were expressed synergistically with the COP9 genes, particularly with the COPS5 (CSN5), which possesses the catalytic activity of COP9.

RESULTS: Expressions of seven of the COP9 genes (COPS2, COPS3, COPS4, COPS5, COPS6 ...


Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao Oct 2016

Pleckstrin Homology (Ph) Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase Controls Cell Polarity By Negatively Regulating The Activity Of Atypical Protein Kinase C, Xiaopeng Xiong, Xin Li, Yang-An Wen, Tianyan Gao

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

The proper establishment of epithelial polarity allows cells to sense and respond to signals that arise from the microenvironment in a spatiotemporally controlled manner. Atypical PKCs (aPKCs) are implicated as key regulators of epithelial polarity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the negative regulation of aPKCs remains largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP), a novel family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, plays an important role in regulating epithelial polarity by controlling the phosphorylation of both aPKC isoforms. Altered expression of PHLPP1 or PHLPP2 disrupted polarization of Caco2 cells grown in 3D cell ...


P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio Mar 2016

P-Rex1 Promotes Resistance To Vegf/Vegfr-Targeted Therapy In Prostate Cancer, Hira Lal Goel, Bryan Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Rolf A Brekken, Craig W. Vander Kooi, Arthur M. Mercurio

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Autocrine VEGF signaling is critical for sustaining prostate and other cancer stem cells (CSCs), and it is a potential therapeutic target, but we observed that CSCs isolated from prostate tumors are resistant to anti-VEGF (bevacizumab) and anti-VEGFR (sunitinib) therapy. Intriguingly, resistance is mediated by VEGF/neuropilin signaling, which is not inhibited by bevacizumab and sunitinib, and it involves the induction of P-Rex1, a Rac GEF, and consequent Rac1-mediated ERK activation. This induction of P-Rex1 is dependent on Myc. CSCs isolated from the PTENpc−/− transgenic model of prostate cancer exhibit Rac1-dependent resistance to bevacizumab. Rac1 inhibition or P-Rex1 downregulation increases ...


Targeting Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment, Valery Vilchez, Lilia M. Turcios, Francesc Marti, Roberto Gedaly Jan 2016

Targeting Wnt/Β-Catenin Pathway In Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment, Valery Vilchez, Lilia M. Turcios, Francesc Marti, Roberto Gedaly

Surgery Faculty Publications

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Liver cancer is generally related to hepatitis B or C infection and cirrhosis. Usually, patients with HCC are asymptomatic and are diagnosed at late stages when surgical treatment is no longer suitable. Limited treatment options for patients with advanced HCC are a major concern. Therefore, there is an urge for finding novel therapies to treat HCC. Liver cancer is highly heterogeneous and involved deregulation of several signaling pathways. Wnt/β-catenin pathway is frequently upregulated in HCC and it is implicated in maintenance of tumor initiating cells ...


Clinical Significance Of The Integrin Α6Β4 In Human Malignancies, Rachel L Stewart, Kathleen L O'Connor Sep 2015

Clinical Significance Of The Integrin Α6Β4 In Human Malignancies, Rachel L Stewart, Kathleen L O'Connor

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Integrin α6β4 is a cellular adhesion molecule that binds to laminins in the extracellular matrix and nucleates the formation of hemidesmosomes. During carcinoma progression, integrin α6β4 is released from hemidesmosomes, where it can then signal to facilitate multiple aspects of tumor progression including sustaining proliferative signaling, tumor invasion and metastasis, evasion of apoptosis, and stimulation of angiogenesis. The integrin achieves these ends by cooperating with growth factor receptors including EGFR, ErbB-2, and c-Met to amplify downstream pathways such as PI3K, AKT, MAPK, and the Rho family small GTPases. Furthermore, it dramatically alters the transcriptome ...


Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor Aug 2015

Crosstalk Between Brca-Fanconi Anemia And Mismatch Repair Pathways Prevents Msh2-Dependent Aberrant Dna Damage Responses, Min Peng, Jenny X. Xie, Anna J. Ucher, Janet Stavnezer, Sharon B. Cantor

Janet M. Stavnezer

Several proteins in the BRCA-Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway, such as FANCJ, BRCA1, and FANCD2, interact with mismatch repair (MMR) pathway factors, but the significance of this link remains unknown. Unlike the BRCA-FA pathway, the MMR pathway is not essential for cells to survive toxic DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs), although MMR proteins bind ICLs and other DNA structures that form at stalled replication forks. We hypothesized that MMR proteins corrupt ICL repair in cells that lack crosstalk between BRCA-FA and MMR pathways. Here, we show that ICL sensitivity of cells lacking the interaction between FANCJ and the MMR protein MLH1 is ...


A Laminin 511 Matrix Is Regulated By Taz And Functions As The Ligand For The Alpha6bbeta1 Integrin To Sustain Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Cheng Chang, Hira Lal Goel, Huijie Gao, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Sulev Ingerpuu, Manuel Patarroyo, Shiliang Cao, Elgene Lim, Junhao Mao, Karen Kulju. Mckee, Peter D. Yurchenco, Arthur M. Mercurio May 2015

A Laminin 511 Matrix Is Regulated By Taz And Functions As The Ligand For The Alpha6bbeta1 Integrin To Sustain Breast Cancer Stem Cells, Cheng Chang, Hira Lal Goel, Huijie Gao, Bryan M. Pursell, Leonard D. Shultz, Dale L. Greiner, Sulev Ingerpuu, Manuel Patarroyo, Shiliang Cao, Elgene Lim, Junhao Mao, Karen Kulju. Mckee, Peter D. Yurchenco, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Understanding how the extracellular matrix impacts the function of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is a significant but poorly understood problem. We report that breast CSCs produce a laminin (LM) 511 matrix that promotes self-renewal and tumor initiation by engaging the alpha6Bbeta1 integrin and activating the Hippo transducer TAZ. Although TAZ is important for the function of breast CSCs, the mechanism is unknown. We observed that TAZ regulates the transcription of the alpha5 subunit of LM511 and the formation of a LM511 matrix. These data establish a positive feedback loop involving TAZ and LM511 that contributes to stemness in breast cancer.


Translation Initiation Complex Eif4f Is A Therapeutic Target For Dual Mtor Kinase Inhibitors In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma., Christos Demosthenous, Jing Jing Han, Mary J Stenson, Matthew J Maurer, Linda E Wellik, Brian Link, Kristen Hege, Ahmet Dogan, Eduardo Sotomayor, Thomas Witzig, Mamta Gupta Apr 2015

Translation Initiation Complex Eif4f Is A Therapeutic Target For Dual Mtor Kinase Inhibitors In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma., Christos Demosthenous, Jing Jing Han, Mary J Stenson, Matthew J Maurer, Linda E Wellik, Brian Link, Kristen Hege, Ahmet Dogan, Eduardo Sotomayor, Thomas Witzig, Mamta Gupta

Medicine Faculty Publications

Deregulated mRNA translation has been implicated in disease development and in part is controlled by a eukaryotic initiation complex eIF4F (composed of eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A). We demonstrate here that the cap bound fraction from lymphoma cells was enriched with eIF4G and eIF4E indicating that lymphoma cells exist in an activated translational state. Moreover, 77% (110/142) of diffuse large B cell lymphoma tumors expressed eIF4E and this was associated with an inferior event free survival. Over-expression of wild-type eIF4E (eIF4E(WT)) but not cap-mutant eIF4E (eIF4E(cap mutant)) increased the activation of the eIF4F complex. Treatment with the active-site ...


Clinical Significance Of A Point Mutation In Dna Polymerase Beta (Polb) Gene In Gastric Cancer., Xiaohui Tan, Hongyi Wang, Guangbin Luo, Shuyang Ren, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Harindarpal S. Gill, Sidney W. Fu, Youyong Lu Jan 2015

Clinical Significance Of A Point Mutation In Dna Polymerase Beta (Polb) Gene In Gastric Cancer., Xiaohui Tan, Hongyi Wang, Guangbin Luo, Shuyang Ren, Wenmei Li, Jiantao Cui, Harindarpal S. Gill, Sidney W. Fu, Youyong Lu

Medicine Faculty Publications

Gastric cancer (GC) is a major cause of global cancer mortality. Genetic variations in DNA repair genes can modulate DNA repair capability and, consequently, have been associated with risk of developing cancer. We have previously identified a T to C point mutation at nucleotide 889 (T889C) in DNA polymerase beta (POLB) gene, a key enzyme involved in base excision repair in primary GCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mutation and expression of POLB in a larger cohort and to identify possible prognostic roles of the POLB alterations in GC. Primary GC specimens and their matched normal ...


Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives Nov 2014

Nuclear Pore Component Nup98 Is A Potential Tumor Suppressor And Regulates Posttranscriptional Expression Of Select P53 Target Genes, Stephan Singer, Ruiying Zhao, Anthony M. Barsotti, Anette Ouwehand, Mina Fazollahi, Elias Coutavas, Kai Breuhahn, Olaf Neumann, Thomas Longerich, Tobias Pusterla, Maureen A. Powers, Keith M. Giles, Peter J. Leedman, Jochen Hess, David Grunwald, Harmen J. Bussemaker, Robert H. Singer, Peter Schirmacher, Carol Prives

David Grünwald

The p53 tumor suppressor utilizes multiple mechanisms to selectively regulate its myriad target genes, which in turn mediate diverse cellular processes. Here, using conventional and single-molecule mRNA analyses, we demonstrate that the nucleoporin Nup98 is required for full expression of p21, a key effector of the p53 pathway, but not several other p53 target genes. Nup98 regulates p21 mRNA levels by a posttranscriptional mechanism in which a complex containing Nup98 and the p21 mRNA 3'UTR protects p21 mRNA from degradation by the exosome. An in silico approach revealed another p53 target (14-3-3sigma) to be similarly regulated by Nup98. The ...


Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2014

Id2 Complexes With The Snag Domain Of Snai1 Inhibiting Snai1-Mediated Repression Of Integrin Beta4, Cheng Chang, Xiaofang Yang, Bryan Pursell, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a fundamental process that underlies development and cancer. Although the EMT involves alterations in the expression of specific integrins that mediate stable adhesion to the basement membrane, such as alpha6beta4, the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Here, we report that Snai1 inhibits beta4 transcription by increasing repressive histone modification (trimethylation of histone H3 at K27 [H3K27Me3]). Surprisingly, Snai1 is expressed and localized in the nucleus in epithelial cells, but it does not repress beta4. We resolved this paradox by discovering that Id2 complexes with the SNAG domain of Snai1 on the beta4 promoter and constrains ...


Imp3 Expression Is Associated With Poor Outcome And Epigenetic Deregulation In Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Yuanyuan Gao, Michelle Yang, Zhong Jiang, Bruce A. Woda, Arthur M. Mercurio, Jianjie Qin, Xinli Huang, Feng Zhang Nov 2014

Imp3 Expression Is Associated With Poor Outcome And Epigenetic Deregulation In Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma, Yuanyuan Gao, Michelle Yang, Zhong Jiang, Bruce A. Woda, Arthur M. Mercurio, Jianjie Qin, Xinli Huang, Feng Zhang

Arthur M. Mercurio

IMP3 is a fetal protein not expressed in normal adult tissues. IMP3 is an oncoprotein and a useful biomarker for a variety of malignancies and is associated with reduced overall survival of a number of them. IMP3 expression and its prognostic value for patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) have not been well investigated. The molecular mechanism underlying IMP3 expression in human cancer cells remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated IMP3 expression in ICC and adjacent nonneoplastic liver in 72 unifocal primary ICCs from a single institute by immunohistochemistry, immunoblotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. IMP3 was specifically expressed in ...


Another Armed Cd4(+) T Cell Ready To Battle Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Roniel Cabrera, Gyongyi Szabo Sep 2014

Another Armed Cd4(+) T Cell Ready To Battle Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Roniel Cabrera, Gyongyi Szabo

Gyongyi Szabo

No abstract provided.