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Glioblastoma

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Articles 1 - 30 of 31

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Microrna-29a Activates A Multi-Component Growth And Invasion Program In Glioblastoma, Yun Zhao, Wei Huang, Tae-Min Kim, Yuchae Jung, Lata G. Menon, Hongyan Xing, Hongwei Li, Rona S. Carroll, Peter J. Park, Hong Wei Yang, Mark D. Johnson Jan 2019

Microrna-29a Activates A Multi-Component Growth And Invasion Program In Glioblastoma, Yun Zhao, Wei Huang, Tae-Min Kim, Yuchae Jung, Lata G. Menon, Hongyan Xing, Hongwei Li, Rona S. Carroll, Peter J. Park, Hong Wei Yang, Mark D. Johnson

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor characterized by rapid growth, diffuse invasion and therapeutic resistance. We recently used microRNA expression profiles to subclassify glioblastoma into five genetically and clinically distinct subclasses, and showed that microRNAs both define and contribute to the phenotypes of these subclasses. Here we show that miR-29a activates a multi-faceted growth and invasion program that promotes glioblastoma aggressiveness.

METHODS: microRNA expression profiles from 197 glioblastomas were analyzed to identify the candidate miRNAs that are correlated to glioblastoma aggressiveness. The candidate miRNA, miR-29a, was further studied in vitro and in vivo.

RESULTS: Members of the miR-29 subfamily ...


Cd147 As A Potential Therapeutic Target In Glioblastoma Treatment, Beau Adams Nov 2018

Cd147 As A Potential Therapeutic Target In Glioblastoma Treatment, Beau Adams

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma (GBM) tumors are the most common and lethal form of cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). GBM tumors appear to contain a mixture of different cell types, which makes them difficult to treat. GBM cells exhibit altered morphology from normal cells on several different levels, which highlights different pathways to potentially target for therapeutic treatments. The human surface glycoprotein CD147, also known as basigin, is expressed at significantly higher levels in GBMs compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue. Furthermore, levels of CD147 expression correlate with brain tumor progression and show the highest expression in GBM. Here, we suppressed tumor ...


Molecular Patterns Underlying Trail Sensitisation By Iap Antagonist Tl32711 In Glioblastoma, Frank A. Lincoln Apr 2018

Molecular Patterns Underlying Trail Sensitisation By Iap Antagonist Tl32711 In Glioblastoma, Frank A. Lincoln

PhD theses

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive form of primary brain tumour with no effective approved treatment being available. Here, we, therefore, studied the responsiveness of GBM cell lines to combination treatments with death ligand TRAIL and IAP antagonist TL32711 (Birinapant). Responses were highly heterogeneous, with synergistic death responses as well as treatment resistance being observed. Compared to resistant cell lines, all TRAIL+TL32711-responsive cell lines expressed significantly higher amounts of procaspase-8 (PC8), and Bid. The expression of other TRAIL pathway components or IAP proteins did not differ notably between responders and non-responders. The direct interplay of PC8 and Bid forms ...


The Effect Of The Loss Of Lgl1 In Murine Neural Progenitor Cells On Mapk Signaling And Proliferation, Monique R. Lacourse Jan 2018

The Effect Of The Loss Of Lgl1 In Murine Neural Progenitor Cells On Mapk Signaling And Proliferation, Monique R. Lacourse

Theses and projects

Glioblastoma is an incurable, aggressive, and highly invasive type of brain tumor that harbors tumor initiating cells characterized by disrupted polarized cell divisions. A cell polarity gene lethal (2) giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) has been implicated in gliomas and is a tumor suppressor initially identified in Drosophila with roles in proliferation. The loss of Lgl1 in Drosophila activates the MAPK protein kinase JNK and the Ras pathway and therefore its downstream kinase ERK, a transcription factor modulator. Furthermore, when Lgl1 is knocked out in mice, a phenotype similar to glioma is seen. Loss of the human form of Lgl1, Hugl1 ...


Nonsurgical Approaches To Glioblastoma, Moshe Baitelman Jan 2018

Nonsurgical Approaches To Glioblastoma, Moshe Baitelman

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

Due to the sensitivity of location, brain cancer is one of the most difficult and deadly known cancers. There are various forms of cancer in the brain with many shared characteristics as well as unique manifestations in each. While cancers originating in the central nervous system present in several ways, the most common forms are high grade gliomas generally, and glioblastoma or anaplastic astrocytomas specifically. With the advent of technology, researchers have been able to propose and refine extensive profiles of these relentless tumors, enabling greater and more successful treatment profiles to be developed. Where treatments used to consist primarily ...


Comparative Molecular Characterization Of Typical And Exceptional Responders In Glioblastoma, Kristin Wipfler Dec 2017

Comparative Molecular Characterization Of Typical And Exceptional Responders In Glioblastoma, Kristin Wipfler

Theses & Dissertations

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and the deadliest type of primary brain tumor, with a median survival time of only 15 months despite aggressive treatment. Although most patients have an extremely poor prognosis, a small number of patients survive far beyond the median survival time. Investigation of these “exceptional responders” has sparked a great deal of interest and is becoming an important focus in the field of cancer research. To investigate the molecular differences between typical and exceptional responders in GBM, comparative analyses of copy number, methylation, gene expression, miRNA expression, and protein expression data sets from The Cancer ...


A Machine Learning Classifier Trained On Cancer Transcriptomes Detects Nf1 Inactivation Signal In Glioblastoma, Gregory P. Way, Robert J. Allaway, Stephanie J. J. Bouley, Camilo E. Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey Greene Feb 2017

A Machine Learning Classifier Trained On Cancer Transcriptomes Detects Nf1 Inactivation Signal In Glioblastoma, Gregory P. Way, Robert J. Allaway, Stephanie J. J. Bouley, Camilo E. Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey Greene

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We have identified molecules that exhibit synthetic lethality in cells with loss of the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene. However, recognizing tumors that have inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor function is challenging because the loss may occur via mechanisms that do not involve mutation of the genomic locus. Degradation of the NF1 protein, independent of NF1 mutation status, phenocopies inactivating mutations to drive tumors in human glioma cell lines. NF1 inactivation may alter the transcriptional landscape of a tumor and allow a machine learning classifier to detect which tumors will benefit from synthetic lethal molecules. We developed a ...


Intracranial Aav-Ifn-Beta Gene Therapy Eliminates Invasive Xenograft Glioblastoma And Improves Survival In Orthotopic Syngeneic Murine Model, Dwijit Guhasarkar, James Neiswender, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Miguel Sena-Esteves Feb 2017

Intracranial Aav-Ifn-Beta Gene Therapy Eliminates Invasive Xenograft Glioblastoma And Improves Survival In Orthotopic Syngeneic Murine Model, Dwijit Guhasarkar, James Neiswender, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Miguel Sena-Esteves

Open Access Articles

The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-beta) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. First, we show that a single intracranial injection of AAV encoding human IFN-beta eliminates invasive human GBM8 tumors and promotes long-term survival. Next, we screened five AAV-IFN-beta vectors with different ...


Exploiting Dna Repair And Er Stress Response Pathways To Induce Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Dissertation, Jessica L. Weatherbee Aug 2016

Exploiting Dna Repair And Er Stress Response Pathways To Induce Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Dissertation, Jessica L. Weatherbee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly grade IV brain tumor characterized by a heterogeneous population of cells that are drug resistant, aggressive, and infiltrative. The current standard of care, which has not changed in over a decade, only provides GBM patients with 12-14 months survival post diagnosis. We asked if the addition of a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducing agent, JLK1486, to the standard chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ), which induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), would enhance TMZ’s efficacy. Because GBMs rely on the ER to mitigate their hypoxic environment and DNA repair to fix TMZ induced DSBs, we ...


The Overexpression Of Basigin-3 In Glioblastoma, Samantha M. Wightman Aug 2016

The Overexpression Of Basigin-3 In Glioblastoma, Samantha M. Wightman

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive forms of brain tumor. With the current standard of care, survival prognosis for GBM patients is 15 months with a five-year survival rate of less than 3%. An increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cell growth and survival of GBMs may result in novel treatments to target and eradicate the disease. The protein Basigin-2 (aka EMMPRIN) induces the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) enzymes, and its expression level is positively correlated with GBM tumor grade. In 2011, Liao et al. reported that a splice variant of the basigin gene, called ...


Er Stress In Temozolomide-Treated Glioblastomas Interferes With Dna Repair And Induces Apoptosis, Jessica L. Weatherbee, Jean-Louis Kraus, Alonzo H. Ross Jun 2016

Er Stress In Temozolomide-Treated Glioblastomas Interferes With Dna Repair And Induces Apoptosis, Jessica L. Weatherbee, Jean-Louis Kraus, Alonzo H. Ross

Open Access Articles

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly grade IV brain tumor. Radiation in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), the current chemotherapeutic for GBMs, only provides 12-14 months survival post diagnosis. Because GBMs are dependent on both activation of the DNA damage pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, we asked if a novel ER stress inducing agent, JLK1486, increases the efficacy of TMZ. We found that the combination of TMZ+JLK1486 resulted in decreased proliferation in a panel of adherent GBM cells lines and reduced secondary sphere formation in non-adherent and primary lines. Decreased proliferation correlated with increased cell death due ...


Exploring New Strategies To Overcome Resistance In Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Dissertation, Yulian P. Ellis Aug 2015

Exploring New Strategies To Overcome Resistance In Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Dissertation, Yulian P. Ellis

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are highly malignant in nature and despite an aggressive therapy regimen, long–term survival for glioma patients is uncommon as cells with intrinsic or acquired resistance to treatment repopulate the tumor. This creates the need to investigate new therapies for enhancing GBM treatment outside of the standard of care, which includes Temozolomide (TMZ). Our lab focused on two novel strategies to overcome resistance in GBMs. In our first approach, the cellular responses of GBM cell lines to two new TMZ analogues, DP68 and DP86, are reported. The efficacy of these compounds was independent of DNA repair ...


Combined Inhibition Of Bcl-2/Bcl-Xl And Usp9x/Bag3 Overcomes Apoptotic Resistance In Glioblastoma In Vitro And In Vivo, Georg Karpel-Massler, Chang Shu, Lily Chau, Matei Banu, Marc-Eric Halatsch, Mike-Andrew Westhoff, Yulian P. Ramirez, Alonzo H. Ross, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Peter Canoll, Markus D. Siegelin Jun 2015

Combined Inhibition Of Bcl-2/Bcl-Xl And Usp9x/Bag3 Overcomes Apoptotic Resistance In Glioblastoma In Vitro And In Vivo, Georg Karpel-Massler, Chang Shu, Lily Chau, Matei Banu, Marc-Eric Halatsch, Mike-Andrew Westhoff, Yulian P. Ramirez, Alonzo H. Ross, Jeffrey N. Bruce, Peter Canoll, Markus D. Siegelin

Open Access Articles

Despite great efforts taken to advance therapeutic measures for patients with glioblastoma, the clinical prognosis remains grim. The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein Mcl-1 is overexpressed in glioblastoma and represents an important resistance factor to the BH-3 mimetic ABT263. In this study, we show that combined treatment with ABT263 and GX15-070 overcomes apoptotic resistance in established glioblastoma cell lines, glioma stem-like cells and primary cultures. Moreover, this treatment regimen also proves to be advantageous in vivo. On the molecular level, GX15-070 enhanced apoptosis by posttranslational down-regulation of the deubiquitinase, Usp9X, and the chaperone Bag3, leading to a sustained depletion of Mcl-1 ...


Induction Of Caspase-Dependent Death By Proteasome Targeted Therapy In Glioblastoma, Christa A. Manton May 2015

Induction Of Caspase-Dependent Death By Proteasome Targeted Therapy In Glioblastoma, Christa A. Manton

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

New therapeutic options are needed for glioblastoma, a deadly disease with a median survival of only 14 months with current treatment. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) shows efficacy in cancers like myeloma, but its clinical utility in other cancer types has been more limited. Newer proteasome inhibitors such as marizomib (MRZ) have unique inhibitory and death inducing properties that have not been well examined in GBM. Additionally, targeting other components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is possible, but has not been explored in GBM. Questions also still remain about the ability of BTZ and MRZ to be delivered to brain tumors ...


Igfbp2 Potentiates Egfr-Stat3 Signaling In Glioma, Yingxuan Chua May 2015

Igfbp2 Potentiates Egfr-Stat3 Signaling In Glioma, Yingxuan Chua

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Gliomas are clinically challenging brain tumors with dismal survival rates due to its infiltrative nature and ineffective standard therapy. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) is a pleiotropic oncogenic protein that has both extracellular and intracellular functions. Despite a clear causal role in cancer development, the contributions of intracellular IGFBP2 to tumor development and progression are poorly understood. Here we present evidence that both exogenous IGFBP2 treatment and cellular IGFBP2 overexpression lead to aberrant activation of EGFR, which subsequently activates STAT3 signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that IGFBP2 augments the nuclear accumulation of EGFR to potentiate STAT3 transactivation activities, via ...


Effects Of Leptin On Established Glioblastoma Cell Lines, Nicholas J. Cook Aug 2014

Effects Of Leptin On Established Glioblastoma Cell Lines, Nicholas J. Cook

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma is one of the most difficult cancers to treat because it is aggressive and resistant to therapy. The discovery of new therapeutic targets is drastically needed as zero improved treatment options have been added to the standard of care over the past 15 years. New and promising therapeutic targets are arising from psychosocial and environmental enrichment studies examining the role of stress in cancer progression. In animal models, eustress appears to slow tumor growth and recurrence resulting in increased overall survival and progression free survival while distress is associated with decreased overall survival. The cellular pathways activated by eustress ...


Quantification Of Protoporphyrin Ix Accumulation In Glioblastoma Cells – A New Technique, John E Lawrence Jan 2014

Quantification Of Protoporphyrin Ix Accumulation In Glioblastoma Cells – A New Technique, John E Lawrence

Journal Articles

5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) is a precursor of heme synthesis. A metabolite, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), selectively accumulates in neoplastic tissue including glioblastoma. Presurgical administration of 5-ALA forms the basis of fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) of glioblastoma (GBM) tumors. However, not all gliomas accumulate sufficient quantities of PpIX to fluoresce, thus limiting the utility of FGR. We therefore developed an assay to determine cellular and pharmacological factors that impact PpIX fluorescence in GBM. This assay takes advantage of a GBM cell line engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein. Methods. The human GBM cell line U87MG was transfected with a YFP expression vector. After ...


Quantification Of Protoporphyrin Ix Accumulation In Glioblastoma Cells – A New Technique, Johnathan Lawrence, Ashish Patel, Richard Rovin, Robert Belton, Catherine Bammert, Robert Winn Dec 2013

Quantification Of Protoporphyrin Ix Accumulation In Glioblastoma Cells – A New Technique, Johnathan Lawrence, Ashish Patel, Richard Rovin, Robert Belton, Catherine Bammert, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

Introduction. 5-Aminolevulinic Acid (5-ALA) is a precursor of heme synthesis. A metabolite, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), selectively accumulates in neoplastic tissue including glioblastoma. Presurgical administration of 5-ALA forms the basis of fluorescence-guided resection (FGR) of glioblastoma (GBM) tumors. However, not all gliomas accumulate sufficient quantities of PpIX to fluoresce, thus limiting the utility of FGR. We therefore developed an assay to determine cellular and pharmacological factors that impact PpIX fluorescence in GBM. This assay takes advantage of a GBM cell line engineered to express yellow fluorescent protein. Methods. The human GBM cell line U87MG was transfected with a YFP expression vector ...


Phenytoin Reduces 5-Ala Mediated Fluorescence In Glioblastoma Cells, Christopher Steele, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Winn Dec 2012

Phenytoin Reduces 5-Ala Mediated Fluorescence In Glioblastoma Cells, Christopher Steele, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a devastating form of cancer, and essentially all GBM tumors recur causing fatality. A new surgical technique, fluorescence-guided resection of GBM using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ala), improves the extent of resection and positively impacts the length and quality of patient survival. The fluorescence achieved in neoplastic tissue depends directly on the accumulation of porphyrins derived from the metabolism of the 5-ala prodrug within the cancer cell. However, 5-ala induced fluorescence has been reported to be inconsistent. In an effort to determine the cause of the inconsistent fluorescence, the authors investigated the effect of medications commonly prescribed to ...


Elucidating The Igfbp2 Signaling Pathway In Glioma Development And Progression, Kristen M. Holmes May 2012

Elucidating The Igfbp2 Signaling Pathway In Glioma Development And Progression, Kristen M. Holmes

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Diffuse gliomas are highly lethal central nervous system malignancies which, unfortunately, are the most common primary brain tumor and also the least responsive to the very few therapeutic modalities currently available to treat them. IGFBP2 is a newly recognized oncogene that is operative in multiple cancer types, including glioma, and shows promise for a targeted therapeutic approach. Elevated IGFBP2 expression is present in high-grade glioma and correlates with poor survival. We have previously demonstrated that IGFBP2 induces glioma development and progression in a spontaneous glioma mouse model, which highlighted its significance and potential for future therapy. However, we did not ...


Notch Regulation Of Adam12 Expression In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Ala'a S. Alsyaideh Jan 2012

Notch Regulation Of Adam12 Expression In Glioblastoma Multiforme, Ala'a S. Alsyaideh

Masters Theses 1911 - February 2014

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor, accounting for 17% of all primary brain tumors in the United States. Despite the available surgical, radiation, and chemical therapeutic options, the invasive and infiltrative nature of the tumor render current treatment options minimally effective. Recent reports have identified multiple regulators of glioblastoma progression and invasiveness. It has been demonstrated that ADAM12, A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase encoded by ADAM12 gene, is over-expressed in glioblastoma and directly correlated with tumor proliferation. Additionally, dysregulation of the Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many gliomas. Lastly, an evolving role of microRNAs ...


Glioblastoma Derived Exosomes Induce Apoptosis In Cytotoxic T Cells Through A Fas Ligand Mediated Mechanism, Keith Sabin, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Robert Belton, Robert Winn Dec 2011

Glioblastoma Derived Exosomes Induce Apoptosis In Cytotoxic T Cells Through A Fas Ligand Mediated Mechanism, Keith Sabin, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Robert Belton, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme deploy s a number of weapons to thwart the immune system. Within the tumor microenvironment, cytotoxic T cells fall victim to Fas ligand (FasL) induced apoptosis. In prostate and colorectal cancer, exosomes can mediate this FasL induced T cell apoptosis. Exosomes are tiny, membrane bound vesicles that are released from a cell. They contain functional mRNA and protein and have cell surface molecules representative of their parent cell. It is not known if GBM derived exosomes can also mediate FasL triggered apoptosis. In this study, the role of tumor derived exosomes as the delivery vehicle for FasL ...


Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma, Johnathan Lawrence, Nicholas Cook, Richard Rovin, Robert Winn Dec 2011

Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma, Johnathan Lawrence, Nicholas Cook, Richard Rovin, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

The hormone leptin has a variety of functions. Originally known for its role in satiety and weight loss, leptin more recently has been shown to augment tumor growth in a variety of cancers. Within gliomas, there is a correlation between tumor grade and tumor expression of leptin and its receptor. This suggests that autocrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment may promote the growth of high-grade gliomas. Leptin does this through stimulation of cellular pathways that are also advantageous for tumor growth and recurrence: antiapoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration. Conversely, a loss of leptin expression attenuates tumor growth. In animal models ...


Effects Of ß3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist On Gene Expression Of Leptin In Glioblastoma, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Nicholas J. Cook, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Belton, Robert J. Winn Dec 2011

Effects Of ß3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist On Gene Expression Of Leptin In Glioblastoma, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Nicholas J. Cook, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Belton, Robert J. Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

In the 25 years since temozolomide entered phase I clinical trials, few new primary or adjuvant therapies have been developed for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Our laboratory has been exploring novel methods for the treatment of GBMs. Recent studies indicate that the expression of the hormone leptin and its receptor (OBR) increases in gliomas and positively correlates with the malignancy of the tumor. Interestingly, ß3-adrenergic receptor agonists are known to decrease leptin expression in adipocytes but have not been examined in GBM cells. We hypothesized that b3-adrenergic agonists downregulate the expression of leptin and its receptor. In ...


Regulation Of Hgf Expression By Δegfr-Mediated C-Met Activation In Glioblastoma Cells, Jeannine Garnett Dec 2011

Regulation Of Hgf Expression By Δegfr-Mediated C-Met Activation In Glioblastoma Cells, Jeannine Garnett

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Overexpression of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and its ligand, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and a constitutively active mutant of the epidermal growth factor receptor (∆EGFR/EGFRvIII), occur frequently in glioblastoma. c-Met is activated in a ligand-dependent manner by HGF or in a ligand-independent manner by ∆EGFR. Dysregulated c-Met signaling contributes to the aggressive phenotype of glioblastoma, yet the mechanisms underlying the production of HGF in glioblastoma are poorly understood. We found a positive correlation between HGF and c-Met expression in glioblastoma, suggesting that they are coregulated. This is supported by the finding that in a c-Met/HGF ...


Β3-Adrenergic Agonists Mimic Eustress Response And Reduce Leptin-Mediated Proliferation In A Gbm Cell Line, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Nicholas J. Cook, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Winn Dec 2010

Β3-Adrenergic Agonists Mimic Eustress Response And Reduce Leptin-Mediated Proliferation In A Gbm Cell Line, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Nicholas J. Cook, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

A great deal of mental stress, depression, and anxiety often overwhelm cancer patients; those diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are no exception. Different types of stress invariably impact what has been termed “the brain-adipocyte BDNF/leptin axis” (Dr. Cao and colleagues of the Comprehensive Cancer Center at The Ohio State University). For example, eustress (good stress) and distress (bad stress) both lead to increased sympathetic activity and adrenal gland stimulation, yet eustress reduces leptin levels and attenuates tumor growth while distress increases leptin levels and augments tumor growth. Complicating matters in GBM is that leptin and its receptor are expressed ...


Glioblastoma Derived Exosomes Contribute To Tumor Immune Evasion, Keith Z. Sabin, Danny Lebert, Vanessa Thibado, Richard A. Rovin, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Robert J. Winn Dec 2010

Glioblastoma Derived Exosomes Contribute To Tumor Immune Evasion, Keith Z. Sabin, Danny Lebert, Vanessa Thibado, Richard A. Rovin, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Robert J. Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequent and lethal primary brain tumor in adults. Despite intense biomedical research, the median survival after diagnosis is 15 months. One factor contributing to this poor prognosis is the immune protection afforded by the tumor microenvironment. Tumors have a diverse repertoire of immune-evasive techniques. One method of evasion not well explored is the release of tumor-derived exosomes. Exosomes are tiny membrane-bound vesicles of endocytic origin that contain viable mRNA and functional proteins that can affect the physiology of recipient cells. Exosome release has been reported for numerous cancer types, including GBM. Exosomes from colon ...


Release Of Hmgb1 In Response To Pro-Apoptotic Glioma Killing Strategies: Efficacy And Neurotoxicity, Marianela Candolfi, Kader Yagiz, David Foulad, Gabrielle Alzadeh, Matthew Tesarfreund, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mariana Puntel, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Sharon Lee, James Curtin, Gwendalyn D. King, Jonathan Lerner, Katsuaki Sato, Yohei Mineharu, Weidong Xiong, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria Castro Jul 2010

Release Of Hmgb1 In Response To Pro-Apoptotic Glioma Killing Strategies: Efficacy And Neurotoxicity, Marianela Candolfi, Kader Yagiz, David Foulad, Gabrielle Alzadeh, Matthew Tesarfreund, Akm Ghulam Muhammad, Mariana Puntel, Kurt Kroeger, Chunyan Liu, Sharon Lee, James Curtin, Gwendalyn D. King, Jonathan Lerner, Katsuaki Sato, Yohei Mineharu, Weidong Xiong, Pedro R. Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Purpose In preparation for a Phase I clinical trial utilizing a combined cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic strategy using adenoviruses expressing Flt3L (Ad-Flt3L) and thymidine kinase (Ad-TK) to treat glioblastoma (GBM), we tested the hypothesis that Ad-TK+GCV would be the optimal tumor killing agent in relation to efficacy and safety when compared to other pro-apoptotic approaches. Experimental Design and Results The efficacy and neurotoxicity of Ad-TK+GCV was compared with Ads encoding the pro-apoptotic cytokines (TNF-α, TRAIL, FasL), alone or in combination with Ad-Flt3L. In rats bearing small GBMs (day 4), only Ad-TK+GCV or Ad-FasL improved survival. In rats bearing large ...


Clinically Relevant Doses Of Chemotherapy Drugs Selectively And Reversibly Block Glioblastoma Neurosphere Proliferation In Vitro: A Dissertation, Alicia M. Mihaliak Jun 2010

Clinically Relevant Doses Of Chemotherapy Drugs Selectively And Reversibly Block Glioblastoma Neurosphere Proliferation In Vitro: A Dissertation, Alicia M. Mihaliak

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

My thesis research began with a project in which we were trying to determine the function of embryonic stem cell (ESC)-specific miRNAs. Using luciferase constructs containing miRNA binding sites, luciferase expression was inhibited by endogenous miRNAs in ESCs, and by exogenous miRNAs in HeLa cells. Inhibition of luciferase expression by miRNAs was inhibited in HeLa cells using 2’O-methyl-oligonucleotides. In ESCs, 2’O-methyl-oligonucleotides were only effective in partially inhibiting miR290 function. Partial inhibition of miR290 did not result in any obvious phenotypic changes in mESCs. Later studies using 2’O-methyl-oligonucleotides in ESCs were also unsuccessful. The function of ESC-specific ...


Expression Of Hcmv Ie1 In The U87mg Cell Line Augments Resistance To Temozolomide, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Justin Segula, Robert Winn Dec 2009

Expression Of Hcmv Ie1 In The U87mg Cell Line Augments Resistance To Temozolomide, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Justin Segula, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

INTRODUCTION: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA and protein are found in gliomas but not in normal brain or other primary brain tumors. The role of HCMV infection in glioma biology is unclear. While it is unlikely that HCMV infection causes glioma, viral proteins might impart a proliferative and antiapoptotic phenotype that confers a survival advantage. Does this oncomodulation translate into a clinically relevant effect in glioma cells? To answer this question, we compared the response of the U87IE1 and U87MG malignant glioma cell lines to temozolomide. U87IE1 cells are U87MG cells that have been genetically engineered to produce HCMV IE1 protein ...