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Colorectal cancer

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator-Like (Arntl/Bmal1) Is Associated With Bevacizumab Resistance In Colorectal Cancer Via Regulation Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A., Elke Burgermeister, Francesca Battaglin, Fagr Eladly, Wen Wu, Frank Herweck, Nadine Schulte, Johannes Betge, Nicolai Härtel, Jakob N. Kather, Cleo-Aron Weis, Timo Gaiser, Alexander Marx, Christel Weiss, Ralf Hofheinz, Ian S. Miller, Fotios Loupakis, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Annette T. Byrne, Matthias P. Ebert Jul 2019

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator-Like (Arntl/Bmal1) Is Associated With Bevacizumab Resistance In Colorectal Cancer Via Regulation Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A., Elke Burgermeister, Francesca Battaglin, Fagr Eladly, Wen Wu, Frank Herweck, Nadine Schulte, Johannes Betge, Nicolai Härtel, Jakob N. Kather, Cleo-Aron Weis, Timo Gaiser, Alexander Marx, Christel Weiss, Ralf Hofheinz, Ian S. Miller, Fotios Loupakis, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Annette T. Byrne, Matthias P. Ebert

Physiology and Medical Physics Articles

BACKGROUND: The identification of new biomarkers and the development of novel, targetable contexts of vulnerability are of urgent clinical need in drug-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Aryl-Hydrocarbon-Receptor-Nuclear-Translocator-Like (ARNTL/BMAL1) is a circadian clock-regulated transcription factor promoting expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and tumour progression. We hypothesised that BMAL1 increases expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor A VEGFA gene and, thereby, confers resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab (Beva), a clinically used antibody for neutralization of VEGFA.

METHODS: PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to assess BMAL1 expression in mice (C57BL/6 J

FINDINGS: In murine CRCs, high BMAL1 expression ...


Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang Jun 2018

Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

There is a definite relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We investigated effect of alcohol consumption on CRC patients’ progression and prognosis by utilizing epidemiological data and found patients with alcohol consumption increased risks of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), organ metastasis and poorer prognosis. Because their tumor tissues displayed increased expression of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), we hypothesized CCL5 might participate in cancer progression in such patients. Ethanol increased the secretion of CCL5 in two CRC cell lines, HT29 and DLD-1. Treatment with CCL5 directly increased migratory ability of these cells, whereas neutralization or knockdown of CCL5 can ...


Preclinical Evaluation Of Novel Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors In Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells And A Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Of Colorectal Cancer, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Piotr G. Rychahou, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L. Scott, Robert M. Flight, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer Harris, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Andrew J. Morris, Theru A. Sivakumaran, Teresa Fan, Hunter Moseley, Tianyan Gao, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, Timothy S. Heuer, George Kemble, B. Mark Evers May 2018

Preclinical Evaluation Of Novel Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors In Primary Colorectal Cancer Cells And A Patient-Derived Xenograft Model Of Colorectal Cancer, Yekaterina Y. Zaytseva, Piotr G. Rychahou, Anh-Thu Le, Timothy L. Scott, Robert M. Flight, Ji Tae Kim, Jennifer Harris, Jinpeng Liu, Chi Wang, Andrew J. Morris, Theru A. Sivakumaran, Teresa Fan, Hunter Moseley, Tianyan Gao, Eun Young Lee, Heidi L. Weiss, Timothy S. Heuer, George Kemble, B. Mark Evers

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Fatty Acid Synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is upregulated in many cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC); increased FASN expression is associated with poor prognosis. Potent FASN inhibitors (TVBs) developed by 3-V Biosciences demonstrate anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo and a favorable tolerability profile in a Phase I clinical trial.

However, CRC characteristics associated with responsiveness to FASN inhibition are not fully understood. We evaluated the effect of TVB-3664 on tumor growth in nine CRC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) and investigated molecular and metabolic changes associated with CRC responsiveness to FASN inhibition.

CRC cells and PDXs ...


Expression Of Wnt-Signaling Pathway Genes And Their Associations With Mirnas In Colorectal Cancer, Martha L. Slattery, Lila E. Mullany, Lori C. Sakoda, Wade S. Samowitz, Roger K. Wolff, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick Dec 2017

Expression Of Wnt-Signaling Pathway Genes And Their Associations With Mirnas In Colorectal Cancer, Martha L. Slattery, Lila E. Mullany, Lori C. Sakoda, Wade S. Samowitz, Roger K. Wolff, John R. Stevens, Jennifer S. Herrick

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications

The Wnt-signaling pathway functions in regulating cell growth and thus is involved in the carcinogenic process of several cancers, including colorectal cancer. We tested the hypothesis that multiple genes in this signaling pathway are dysregulated and that miRNAs are associated with these dysregulated genes. We used data from 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases to evaluate differences in Wnt-signaling pathway gene expression between paired CRC and normal mucosa and identify miRNAs that are associated with these genes. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were analyzed. We focused on genes most strongly ...


Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing Detects Important Genetic Differences Between Right-Sided And Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai Aug 2017

Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing Detects Important Genetic Differences Between Right-Sided And Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai

Open Access Articles

Objectives: Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy has been found to be more effective against left-sided colorectal cancer (LCRC) than right-sided colorectal cancer (RCRC). We hypothesized that RCRC is more likely to harbor genetic alterations associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy and tested this using comprehensive genomic sequencing.

Materials and methods: A total of 201 patients with either primary RCRC or LCRC were analyzed. We investigated tumors for genetic alterations using a 415-gene panel, which included alterations associated with resistance to anti-EGFR therapy: TK receptors (ERBB2, MET, EGFR, FGFR1, and PDGFRA), RAS pathway (KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, BRAF, and MAPK2K1), and ...


Stromal Fibroblasts Restrain The Rate Of Colon Cancer Progression And Metastasis By Suppressing Regulatory T Cells And Colon Cancer Stem Cells, Changsoo Kwak May 2017

Stromal Fibroblasts Restrain The Rate Of Colon Cancer Progression And Metastasis By Suppressing Regulatory T Cells And Colon Cancer Stem Cells, Changsoo Kwak

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The initiation, progression, and metastasis of tumors involve not only cancer cells, but also the tumor microenvironment, which consists of immune or inflammatory cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and extracellular matrix components (ECM). Fibroblasts are ubiquitous stromal cells that can influence other neighboring cell types through the secretion of chemokines, cytokines, ECM, ECM remodeling enzymes, and other metabolites. Myofibroblasts are a distinct subtype of fibroblasts characterized by expression α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA). These cells are a dominant component of the microenvironment, and a FSP1 and FAP could be a different clone of fibroblasts. Myofibroblasts also have been known to contribute to ...


Fluorinated N,N'-Diarylureas As Novel Therapeutic Agents Against Cancer Stem Cells, Dasha E. Kenlan, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers May 2017

Fluorinated N,N'-Diarylureas As Novel Therapeutic Agents Against Cancer Stem Cells, Dasha E. Kenlan, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Colorectal cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. More than 50% of patients with colorectal cancer will develop local recurrence or distant organ metastasis. Cancer stem cells play a major role in the survival and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study, we examined the effects of novel AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activating compounds on colorectal cancer metastatic and stem cell lines as potential candidates for chemotherapy. We found that activation of AMPK by all fluorinated N,N-diarylureas (FND) compounds at micromolar levels significantly inhibited the cell-cycle progression and subsequent cellular proliferation. In addition, we ...


Utility Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Detecting Her2-Positive Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Toshifumi Wakai Feb 2017

Utility Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Detecting Her2-Positive Colorectal Cancer, Yoshifumi Shimada, Stephen Lyle, Toshifumi Wakai

Open Access Articles

HER2-targeted therapy is considered effective for KRAS codon 12/13 wild-type, HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In general, HER2 status is determined by the use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) enables the detection of gene mutations and copy number alterations including KRAS mutation and HER2 amplification; however, little is known about the utility of CGS for detecting HER2-positive CRC. To assess its utility, we retrospectively investigated 201 patients with stage I-IV CRC. The HER2 status of the primary site was assessed using IHC and FISH, and HER2 amplification of the primary site ...


The Association Of Dcc Mrna Alternative Splicing With Colorectal Cancer, Natalie Graham Jan 2017

The Association Of Dcc Mrna Alternative Splicing With Colorectal Cancer, Natalie Graham

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In as many as 70% of colorectal cancer cell (CRC) lines, there is a deletion of a chromosomal region, 18q21, which contains the Deleted in Colorectal Carcinoma (DCC) gene (Mehlen & Fearon, 2004). In adult cells, this single transmembrane receptor plays a role in both cell proliferation and cell death, thereby making it a promising candidate gene for the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. It has been observed that alternative splicing of the DCC can affect its activity and that alternative splicing of DCC can be disrupted in cancer (Leggere et al., 2016; Reale et al., 1994). In this experiment, we sought to determine the association of alternative splicing of the DCC with colorectal cancer in cells without the deletion of the 18q21 region. By extracting RNA from 35 CRC cell lines and performing RT-PCR, we observed levels of the two DCC isoforms compared to normal adult colon cells. In this way, we determined that 29 of 35 CRC cell lines had altered ...


Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle Dec 2016

Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) has the potential to revolutionize precision medicine for cancer patients across the globe. However, to date large-scale genomic sequencing of cancer patients has been limited to Western populations. In order to understand possible ethnic and geographic differences and to explore the broader application of CGS to other populations, we sequenced a panel of 415 important cancer genes to characterize clinically actionable genomic driver events in 201 Japanese patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing methods, we examined all exons of 415 known cancer genes in Japanese CRC patients (n = 201) and evaluated for ...


The Role Of Streptococcus Gallolyticus Subspecies Gallolyticus In Colon Cancer Development, Jennifer L. Herold Dec 2016

The Role Of Streptococcus Gallolyticus Subspecies Gallolyticus In Colon Cancer Development, Jennifer L. Herold

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women and is also the third most common cause of cancer death. A large body of evidence points towards the possibility that bacteria can have a significant impact on the development of cancer. It has been suggested that Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a group D streptococci, may play a role in the development of CRC. Sg, formerly S. bovis biotype I, has been shown to be highly associated with CRC. In observing patients with either Sg bacteremia or endocarditis it was found that 25-80% of patients with Sg ...


Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews Dec 2015

Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in women and men, causing almost 600,000 annual deaths worldwide. There is a clear need to understand how CRC forms and progresses in order to improve the strategies of CRC prevention and therapy. A major factor that drives the development of CRC is genetic mutations that lead to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In addition, the initiation and progression of CRC involve environmental and immunological factors. In particular, chronic inflammatory conditions are known as an important risk factor for CRC ...


A Kras-Directed Transcriptional Silencing Pathway That Mediates The Cpg Island Methylator Phenotype, Ryan W. Serra, Minggang Fang, Sung Mi Park, Lloyd Hutchinson, Michael R. Green Mar 2014

A Kras-Directed Transcriptional Silencing Pathway That Mediates The Cpg Island Methylator Phenotype, Ryan W. Serra, Minggang Fang, Sung Mi Park, Lloyd Hutchinson, Michael R. Green

Program in Molecular Medicine Publications and Presentations

Approximately 70% of KRAS-positive colorectal cancers (CRCs) have a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) characterized by aberrant DNA hypermethylation and transcriptional silencing of many genes. The factors involved in, and the mechanistic basis of, CIMP is not understood. Among the CIMP genes are the tumor suppressors p14(ARF), p15(INK4B), and p16(INK4A), encoded by the INK4-ARF locus. In this study, we perform an RNA interference screen and identify ZNF304, a zinc-finger DNA-binding protein, as the pivotal factor required for INK4-ARF silencing and CIMP in CRCs containing activated KRAS. In KRAS-positive human CRC cell lines and tumors, ZNF304 is bound ...


Modeling Colorectal Cancer As A 3-Dimensional Disease In A Dish: The Case For Drug Screening Using Organoids, Zebrafish, And Fruit Flies, Michele Markstein Jan 2013

Modeling Colorectal Cancer As A 3-Dimensional Disease In A Dish: The Case For Drug Screening Using Organoids, Zebrafish, And Fruit Flies, Michele Markstein

Michele Markstein

This review discusses recent shifts in the understanding of colorectal cancer as a stem cell based disease, based on findings that tie patient prognosis to the presence of cancer stem cells in colorectal tumors. Currently no drugs specifically target CSCs in colorectal tumors. However, recent advances in the culturing of colorectal stem cells using mammalian organoids, zebrafish, and Drosophila offer promising avenues for anti-CSC drug discovery.


Effect Of Chlorogenic Acid And Neochlorogenic Acid On Human Colon Cancer Cells, Taylor Thurow, Sun-Ok Lee Jan 2012

Effect Of Chlorogenic Acid And Neochlorogenic Acid On Human Colon Cancer Cells, Taylor Thurow, Sun-Ok Lee

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Prune consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of colon cancer; yet there has been confusion as to which chemical component(s) of the prune are responsible for its anticarcinogenic properties. Previous studies have evaluated chlorogenic acid as a chemotherapeutic agent; however, only a limited amount of studies have investigated neochlorogenic acid, the predominant phenolic compound found in the prune. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects that chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid have as anticarcinogenics on the human adenocarcinoma, Caco-2 cell line. The anti-colon cancer effects of chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid were analyzed by ...


Alternative Splicing In Human Colorectal Cancer, Jae Hoon Bahn Dec 2010

Alternative Splicing In Human Colorectal Cancer, Jae Hoon Bahn

Doctoral Dissertations

Most human genes undergo alternative splicing, and many abnormal splicing processes are associated with human diseases. However, the molecular relationship between alternative splicing and tumorigenesis is not well understood. Here, we identified novel Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) splicing variants produced by exon skipping in human cancer cell lines as well as colon tumor tissues. To elucidate the mechanism involved in KLF4 alternative splicing, we developed KLF4 minigene system and found that RNA binding motif protein 5 (RBM5) plays an important role in KLF4 splicing, as assessed by gain and loss of functional studies. Several anti-tumorigenic compounds were also tested for ...


Nherf1 – New Modifier Of Colorectal Cancer Progression, Yuho Hayashi Aug 2010

Nherf1 – New Modifier Of Colorectal Cancer Progression, Yuho Hayashi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops from multiple progressive modifications of normal intestinal epithelium into adenocarcinoma. Loss of cell polarity has been implicated as an early event in this process, but the molecular players involved are not well known. NHERF1 (Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1) is an adaptor protein with apical membrane localization in polarized epithelia. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that NHERF1 plays a role in CRC. We examined surgical CRC resection specimens for changes in NHERF1 expression, and modeled these changes in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) Caco-2 CRC cell systems. NHERF1 had significant alterations from ...