Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cancer Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Cancer

Discipline
Institution
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 31 - 60 of 141

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Effectiveness And Mechanicanism Of Action Of Modified Porphyrins For Photodynamic Therapy Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Alex Abbott Jan 2018

Effectiveness And Mechanicanism Of Action Of Modified Porphyrins For Photodynamic Therapy Of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells, Alex Abbott

Honors Theses

Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive family of cancers that are extremely difficult to treat. Therefore, the prognosis for most patients with TNBC is poor. The goal of this research is to determine if photodynamic therapy could be a possible option for TNBC in the future using MDA-MB231 cells. MDA-MB231 cells were originally isolated from a patient with triple negative breast cancer and have been used for many studies, so they would work well for this study. Photodynamic therapy uses compounds called photosensitizing agents which are taken up by all tissues in the body and then activated by light ...


Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach Jan 2018

Studies Of Norspermidine Uptake In Drosophila Suggest The Existence Of Multiple Polyamine Transport Pathways, Michael Dieffenbach

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Polyamines are a class of essential nutrients involved in many basic cellular processes such as gene expression, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Without polyamines, cell growth is delayed or halted. Cancerous cells require an abundance of polyamines through a combination of synthesis and transport from the extracellular environment. An FDA-approved drug, D,L-α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), blocks polyamine synthesis but is ineffective at inhibiting cell growth due to polyamine transport. Thus, there is a need to develop drugs that inhibit polyamine transport to use in combination with DFMO. Surprisingly, little is known about the polyamine transport system in humans and other eukaryotes. Understanding ...


Metabolic Dysregulation And Cancer Mortality In A National Cohort Of Blacks And Whites, Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne Judd, Susan Lakoski, Michael Goodman, Monika M. Safford, Maria Pisu Dec 2017

Metabolic Dysregulation And Cancer Mortality In A National Cohort Of Blacks And Whites, Tomi Akinyemiju, Justin Xavier Moore, Suzanne Judd, Susan Lakoski, Michael Goodman, Monika M. Safford, Maria Pisu

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

Background: We examined the association between metabolic dysregulation and cancer mortality in a prospective cohort of Black and White adults.

Methods: A total of 25,038 Black and White adults were included in the analysis. Metabolic dysregulation was defined in two ways: 1) using the joint harmonized criteria for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 2) based on factor analysis of 15 variables characterizing metabolic dysregulation. We estimated hazards ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of MetS and metabolic dysregulation with cancer mortality during follow-up using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: About 46% of Black and 39% of ...


Comparative Oncogenomics Identifies Novel Regulators And Clinical Relevance Of Neural Crest Identities In Melanoma, Arvind M. Venkatesan Dec 2017

Comparative Oncogenomics Identifies Novel Regulators And Clinical Relevance Of Neural Crest Identities In Melanoma, Arvind M. Venkatesan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cancers often resurrect embryonic molecular programs to promote disease progression. In melanomas, which are tumors of the neural crest (NC) lineage, a molecular signature of the embryonic NC is often reactivated. These NC factors have been implicated in promoting pro-tumorigenic features like proliferation, migration and therapy resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain NC identities in melanomas are largely unknown. Additionally, whether the presence of a NC identity has any clinical relevance for patient melanomas is also unclear. Here, using comparative genomic approaches, I have a) identified a novel role for GDF6-activated BMP signaling in reawakening a NC ...


Bivalent Epigenetic Control Of Oncofetal Gene Expression In Cancer, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Seth E. Frietze, Jonathan A. Gordon, Jessica L. Heath, Terri Messier, Deli Hong, Joseph R. Boyd, Mingu Kang, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein Nov 2017

Bivalent Epigenetic Control Of Oncofetal Gene Expression In Cancer, Sayyed K. Zaidi, Seth E. Frietze, Jonathan A. Gordon, Jessica L. Heath, Terri Messier, Deli Hong, Joseph R. Boyd, Mingu Kang, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Gary S. Stein

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

Multiple mechanisms of epigenetic control that include DNA methylation, histone modification, noncoding RNAs, and mitotic gene bookmarking play pivotal roles in stringent gene regulation during lineage commitment and maintenance. Experimental evidence indicates that bivalent chromatin domains, i.e., genome regions that are marked by both H3K4me3 (activating) and H3K27me3 (repressive) histone modifications, are a key property of pluripotent stem cells. Bivalency of developmental genes during the G1 phase of the pluripotent stem cell cycle contributes to cell fate decisions. Recently, some cancer types have been shown to exhibit partial recapitulation of bivalent chromatin modifications that are lost along with pluripotency ...


Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau Nov 2017

Tox Regulates Growth, Dna Repair, And Genomic Instability In T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, Riadh Lobbardi, Jordan Pinder, Barbara Martinez-Pastor, Marina Theodorou, Jessica S. Blackburn, Brian J. Abraham, Yuka Namiki, Marc Mansour, Nouran S. Abdelfattah, Aleksey Molodtsov, Gabriela Alexe, Debra Toiber, Manon De Waard, Esha Jain, Myriam Boukhali, Mattia Lion, Deepak Bhere, Khalid Shah, Alejandro Gutierrez, Kimberly Stegmaier, Lewis B. Silverman, Ruslan I. Sadreyev, John M. Asara, Marjorie A. Oettinger, Wilhelm Haas, A. Thomas Look, Richard A. Young, Raul Mostoslavsky, Graham Dellaire, David M. Langenau

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy of thymocytes. Using a transgenic screen in zebrafish, thymocyte selection–associated high mobility group box protein (TOX) was uncovered as a collaborating oncogenic driver that accelerated T-ALL onset by expanding the initiating pool of transformed clones and elevating genomic instability. TOX is highly expressed in a majority of human T-ALL and is required for proliferation and continued xenograft growth in mice. Using a wide array of functional analyses, we uncovered that TOX binds directly to KU70/80 and suppresses recruitment of this complex to DNA breaks to inhibit nonhomologous end joining ...


Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds Oct 2017

Diverse Amide Analogs Of Sulindac For Cancer Treatment And Prevention, Bini Mathew, Judith V. Hobrath, Michele C. Connelly, R. Kiplin Guy, Robert C. Reynolds

Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty Publications

Sulindac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has shown significant anticancer activity. Sulindac sulfide amide (1) possessing greatly reduced COX-related inhibition relative to sulindac displayed in vivoantitumor activity that was comparable to sulindac in a human colon tumorxenograft model. Inspired by these observations, a panel of diverse sulindac amide derivatives have been synthesized and their activity probed against three cancer cell lines (prostate, colon and breast). A neutral analog, compound 79 was identified with comparable potency relative to lead 1 and activity against a panel of lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Several new series also show good activity relative ...


Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils Oct 2017

Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs) are the most common cancers globally. Ultraviolet light is the key risk factor for these cancers but sunscreen has proven ineffective in their prevention, indicating a need for new prophylactic agents. Chronic elevation of high molecular weight (HMW) tissue hyaluronan (HA) in skin is linked to tumor resistance in the naked mole rat. To directly assess the role of this polysaccharide in resistance to keratinocyte tumors, a HMW HA phosphatidylethanolamine (HA-PE) formulation that penetrates skin and accumulates as coats around keratinocytes was prepared. The tumor resistance properties of the HA-PE formulation were tested in a mouse model ...


Glycolytic Reprogramming Through Pck2 Regulates Tumor Initiation Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W.M. Fan, Steven X. Hou Oct 2017

Glycolytic Reprogramming Through Pck2 Regulates Tumor Initiation Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W.M. Fan, Steven X. Hou

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Identifying the factors regulating TICs may open new avenues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that TIC-enriched prostate cancer cell clones use more glucose and secrete more lactate than TIC-low clones. We determined that elevated levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase isoform 2 (PCK2) are critical for the metabolic switch and the maintenance of TICs in prostate cancer. Information from prostate cancer patient databases revealed that higher PCK2 levels correlated with more aggressive tumors and lower survival rates. PCK2 knockdown resulted in low TIC numbers, increased cytosolic acetyl-CoA and cellular protein ...


Lim Protein Ajuba Directly Interacts With Replication Protein A To Prevent Atr Dna Damage Response, Sandy Wan Shan Fowler Sep 2017

Lim Protein Ajuba Directly Interacts With Replication Protein A To Prevent Atr Dna Damage Response, Sandy Wan Shan Fowler

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Integrity of the human genome is essential for viability and proliferation of human cells. Intrinsic (endogenous replication stress) or extrinsic (UV, chemotherapy drugs) agents threaten the stability of the genome by generation of single stranded (ss) DNA or double stranded (ds) DNA breaks. The DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are conserved in evolution and constitute systems that perform the surveillance, signaling, and repair of the damage in the nucleus. Unchecked and accumulation of DNA damage can lead to deleterious effects such as replication fork collapse, chromosome fusion and breakage. The dysregulations of DNA damage response pathways are hallmarks of tumorigenesis ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala Sep 2017

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


Temporal Resolution Of Cell Death Signaling Events Induced By Cold Atmospheric Plasma And Electroporation In Human Cancer Cells, Danielle M. Krug, Prasoon K. Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein Aug 2017

Temporal Resolution Of Cell Death Signaling Events Induced By Cold Atmospheric Plasma And Electroporation In Human Cancer Cells, Danielle M. Krug, Prasoon K. Diwakar, Ahmed Hassanein

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Cancer treatment resistance and their invasive and expensive nature is propelling research towards developing alternate approaches to eradicate cancer in patients. Non-thermal, i.e., cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) and electroporation (EP) applied to the surface of cancerous tissue are new methods that are minimally invasive, safe, and selective. These approaches, both independently and synergistically, have been shown to deplete cancer cell populations, but the signaling mechanisms of death and their timelines of action are still widely unknown. To better understand the timeframe of signaling events occurring upon treatment, human cancer cell lines were treated with CAP, EP, and combined CAP ...


Basigin-2 Mediated Activation Of Erk1/2 Signaling In Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Erik R. Peterson Aug 2017

Basigin-2 Mediated Activation Of Erk1/2 Signaling In Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Erik R. Peterson

All NMU Master's Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant form of human brain cancer. GBM tumor cells overexpress the protein Basigin (Bsg) at the cell surface where it contributes to malignancy via stimulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression in surrounding normal tissues, resulting in the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding tumors, promoting remodeling of the tumor borders, stimulating growth. In work by Belton et al. (2008), human uterine endometrial cells treated with a recombinant form of human basigin possessing the extracellular domain of the Bsg protein (rBsg-ECD) showed activation of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway proteins, ERK1 ...


Rna Sequencing In The Development Of Cancer-Cachexia, Thomas Allen Blackwell Aug 2017

Rna Sequencing In The Development Of Cancer-Cachexia, Thomas Allen Blackwell

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Cancer is a major public health problem in the U.S. and the world. In 2013 there were an estimated 1,660,290 new cases of cancer in the U.S. Cancer-Cachexia (CC) is a common effect of many cancers, and is directly responsible for 20-40% of cancer-related deaths. The mechanisms that control the development of CC are not well understood. Most investigations of CC focus on the post-cachectic state and do not examine the progression of the condition. The purpose of this study was to utilize RNA sequencing to analyze transcriptomic alterations throughout the progression of CC. Methods ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Cisplatin And Two Curcuminoid Compounds On Cancer, Denis Hodzic Jun 2017

Investigating The Synergistic Effects Of Cisplatin And Two Curcuminoid Compounds On Cancer, Denis Hodzic

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Cisplatin is an anti-cancer drug effective against several cancers which can produce the serious side-effect of hearing loss. Curcumin, a natural plant compound, can increase the activity of cisplatin against cancer and counteract cisplatin’s effect against hearing. Because curcumin exhibits poor bioavailability, there is considerable interest in developing synthetic curcumin analogs (curcuminoids) that are more soluble and which retain anti-cancer activity and otoprotective function. This study investigated whether two curcuminoids, EF-24 and CLEFMA, increase the cytotoxic and ototoxic effects of cisplatin against the lung cancer cell line, A549, and the colorectal cancer cell line, Caco2. Cytotoxicity was measured by ...


Exploring Cancer Metabolism Using Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (Sirm), Ronald C. Bruntz, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi, Teresa W. -M. Fan Jun 2017

Exploring Cancer Metabolism Using Stable Isotope-Resolved Metabolomics (Sirm), Ronald C. Bruntz, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi, Teresa W. -M. Fan

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. The changes in metabolism are adaptive to permit proliferation, survival, and eventually metastasis in a harsh environment. Stable isotope-resolved metabolomics (SIRM) is an approach that uses advanced approaches of NMR and mass spectrometry to analyze the fate of individual atoms from stable isotope-enriched precursors to products to deduce metabolic pathways and networks. The approach can be applied to a wide range of biological systems, including human subjects. This review focuses on the applications of SIRM to cancer metabolism and its use in understanding drug actions.


Characterization Of Zic2 As An Oncoprotein In Prostate Cancer, Keira C. Davis May 2017

Characterization Of Zic2 As An Oncoprotein In Prostate Cancer, Keira C. Davis

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The field of prostate cancer research is in need of biological markers that predict which cancers do not need treatment, those that can be treated successfully with a localized treatment and more specific cases in which patients are likely to have an aggressive form of cancer that will require more aggressive surgical and chemotherapeutic treatments. ZIC2 is one of five members of a family of proteins that play critical roles in neural crest and mesoderm growth in normal embryonic brain development and in the adult cerebellum of vertebrates. Found throughout the animal kingdom, ZIC1-5 genes encode five distinct ZIC proteins ...


Cannabinoid Receptor 2 And C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 Interact To Abrogate Cxcl12-Mediated Cellular Response, Christopher James Coke May 2017

Cannabinoid Receptor 2 And C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 Interact To Abrogate Cxcl12-Mediated Cellular Response, Christopher James Coke

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The expression of C-X-C Chemokine Receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been correlated with increased metastatic potential of cancer cells. CXCR4 increases tumor malignancy by encouraging tumors cells to migrate to distal organs expressing its cognate ligand, CXCL12, facilitating metastasis. Thus, targeting the CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling axis provides a good strategy to inhibit the metastatic spread of tumor cells and slow cancer progression. Various studies suggest that cannabis may have anti-proliferative as well as anti-metastatic properties, though a biochemical mechanism describing how this occurs has yet to be discovered. Our lab has confirmed that agonist-bound CXCR4 and agonist-bound Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2 ...


Cancer As A Metabolic Disease, Javaria Haseeb Apr 2017

Cancer As A Metabolic Disease, Javaria Haseeb

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

Despite decades of intensive scientific and medical efforts to develop efficient and effective treatments for cancer, it remains one of the prime causes of death today. For example, in 2016, there will be an estimated 1,685,210 new cases of cancer and 595,690 deaths due to cancer in the United States alone (National Cancer Institute). Worldwide in 2012, there were an estimated 14 million new cases of cancer and 8.2 million deaths due to cancer. In order to come up with better methods of detection and more successful modes of treatment, it is crucial that scientists understand ...


Can A Nanoparticle That Mimics Salmonella Effectively Combat Tumor Chemotherapy Resistance, Regino Mercado-Lubo, Beth A. Mccormick Apr 2017

Can A Nanoparticle That Mimics Salmonella Effectively Combat Tumor Chemotherapy Resistance, Regino Mercado-Lubo, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Engineering of this semisynthetic Salmonella nanoparticle mimic introduces a new platform technology that has the capacity to be applied to various chemotherapeutic drugs to overcome multi-drug resistance in tumors.


A Machine Learning Classifier Trained On Cancer Transcriptomes Detects Nf1 Inactivation Signal In Glioblastoma, Gregory P. Way, Robert J. Allaway, Stephanie J. J. Bouley, Camilo E. Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey Greene Feb 2017

A Machine Learning Classifier Trained On Cancer Transcriptomes Detects Nf1 Inactivation Signal In Glioblastoma, Gregory P. Way, Robert J. Allaway, Stephanie J. J. Bouley, Camilo E. Fadul, Yolanda Sanchez, Casey Greene

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

We have identified molecules that exhibit synthetic lethality in cells with loss of the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor gene. However, recognizing tumors that have inactivation of the NF1 tumor suppressor function is challenging because the loss may occur via mechanisms that do not involve mutation of the genomic locus. Degradation of the NF1 protein, independent of NF1 mutation status, phenocopies inactivating mutations to drive tumors in human glioma cell lines. NF1 inactivation may alter the transcriptional landscape of a tumor and allow a machine learning classifier to detect which tumors will benefit from synthetic lethal molecules. We developed a ...


The Role Of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 In Receptor Trafficking And Disease, Kaia K. Hampton Jan 2017

The Role Of Progesterone Receptor Membrane Component 1 In Receptor Trafficking And Disease, Kaia K. Hampton

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

The progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is a multifunctional protein with a heme-binding domain that promotes cellular signaling via receptor trafficking, and is essential for some elements of tumor growth and metastasis. PGRMC1 is upregulated in breast, colon, lung and thyroid tumors. We expanded the analysis of PGRMC1 in the clinical setting, and report the first analysis of PGRMC1 in human oral cavity and ovarian tumors and found PGRMC1 to correlate with lung and ovarian cancer patient survival. Furthermore, we discovered a specific role for PGRMC1 in cancer stem cell viability. PGRMC1 directly associates with the epidermal growth factor ...


Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee Jan 2017

Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) proteins regulate a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth and division. Humans have three PRL proteins: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. An accumulation of evidence has shown that elevated levels of PRLs are strongly correlated with uncontrollable growth and metastasis of tumors. However, contradictory findings have arisen indicating that PRLs instead function to halt cell division thereby preventing uncontrollable tumor growth. In light of these results, the underlying mechanisms regarding how PRLs function within cellular processes remains unclear. To investigate the functions of PRLs, we will create transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with knockout ...


The E. Coli Protein Ybgl: A Novel Dna Repair Enzyme?, Mason H. Conen, Brooke D. Martin, Kent Sugden, Savannah Whitfield Jan 2017

The E. Coli Protein Ybgl: A Novel Dna Repair Enzyme?, Mason H. Conen, Brooke D. Martin, Kent Sugden, Savannah Whitfield

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Cr(V) is a carcinogen that oxidizes guanine aggressively to form spiroiminodihydantion (Sp) and guanidinohydantoin (Gh), both of which contain an unusual hydantoin moiety that cause G→T transversion mutations at a high rate. Endonuclease VIII (nei) can recognize and excise these oxidation products from DNA and is translated as one of five protein products of the Nei operon in Escherichia coli (E. coli). However, the functions of the other four proteins remain unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we focused on one of the four that immediately precedes nei, the ybgL protein. Previous work by our group has ...


Characterization Of Tumor Protein P63 Regulated 1-Like Function In Xenopus Laevis, Julia Mo Jan 2017

Characterization Of Tumor Protein P63 Regulated 1-Like Function In Xenopus Laevis, Julia Mo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Of the approximately 20,000 genes in the human genome, about 6,000 have unknown or poorly characterized function. Tumor protein p63 regulated 1-like (TPRG1l) is one of those genes with no functional data. TPRG1L is expressed during embryonic development and adulthood with strongest expression in the brain. It is implicated in carcinogenesis because its gene expression is activated by tumor regulators p63/73. To elucidate TPRG1L function during embryogenesis, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system was utilized to induce Tprg1l mutations in Xenopus laevis. Embryos injected with Tprg1l sgRNA and Cas9 mRNA displayed axis formation and convergent extension defects suggesting that ...


Homothorax Is A Modifier Of Radiation Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster Bantam Mutants, Geoffrey Meyerhof Jan 2017

Homothorax Is A Modifier Of Radiation Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster Bantam Mutants, Geoffrey Meyerhof

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Radiation resistance in human cancers represents a massive impediment for successful tumor treatment. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for human radiation resistance because of its largely conserved apoptotic pathways and malleable genome. This thesis investigates the genetic regulatory mechanisms for bantam (ban), an anti-apoptotic microRNA. To first identify genes that interact with ban, a forward genetic screen was conducted. This screen looked for genes that yielded radiation dependent pupal lethality in a ban deficient background. From this screen the transcription factor, homothorax, was identified as displaying radiation dependent synthetic lethality with ban. To investigate the mechanism ...


Cancer Metabolism: Fueling More Than Just Growth, Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim Dec 2016

Cancer Metabolism: Fueling More Than Just Growth, Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The early landmark discoveries in cancer metabolism research have uncovered metabolic processes that support rapid proliferation, such as aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), glutaminolysis, and increased nucleotide biosynthesis. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of specifically targeting the metabolic processes which support rapid proliferation. First, as other normal proliferative tissues also share similar metabolic features, they may also be affected by such treatments. Secondly, targeting proliferative metabolism may only target the highly proliferating "bulk tumor" cells and not the slower-growing, clinically relevant cancer stem cell subpopulations which may be required for an effective cure. An emerging body of research indicates ...


High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Nov 2016

High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were ...


Targeted And Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery And Release With Magnetoelectric Nanoparticles, Alexandra Rodzinski Nov 2016

Targeted And Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery And Release With Magnetoelectric Nanoparticles, Alexandra Rodzinski

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A major challenge of cancer treatment is successful discrimination of cancer cells from healthy cells. Nanotechnology offers multiple venues for efficient cancer targeting. Magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) are a novel, multifaceted, physics-based cancer treatment platform that enables high specificity cancer targeting and externally controlled loaded drug release. The unique magnetoelectric coupling of MENs allows them to convert externally applied magnetic fields into intrinsic electric signals, which allows MENs to both be drawn magnetically towards the cancer site and to electrically interface with cancer cells. Once internalized, the MEN payload release can be externally triggered with a magnetic field. MENs uniquely allow ...