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Cancer Biology Commons

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Cancer

2019

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Articles 1 - 10 of 10

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren Sep 2019

Anti-Cancer Effects Of Oleocanthal And Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Limor Goren

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Oleocanthal is a phenolic compound found in varying concentrations in extra virgin olive oil. Oleocanthal has been shown to be active physiologically, benefiting several diseased states by conferring anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective benefits. Recently, we and other groups have demonstrated its specific and selective toxicity toward cancer cells; however, the mechanism leading to cancer cell death is still disputed. The current study demonstrates that oleocanthal induced damage to cancer cells’ lysosomes leading to cellular toxicity in vitro. Non-cancer cells were significantly less affected. Lysosomal membrane permeabilization following oleocanthal treatment in various cell lines was assayed via three complementary methods. Additionally, we ...


Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Jun 2019

Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible cellular process, characterized by changes in gene expression and activation of proteins, favoring the trans-differentiation of the epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype. This process increases cell migration and invasion of tumor cells, progression of the cell cycle, and resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy, all of which support tumor progression. One of the signaling pathways involved in tumor progression is the MAPK pathway. Within this family, the ERK subfamily of proteins is known for its contributions to EMT. The ERK subfamily is divided into typical (ERK 1/2/5), and atypical (ERK 3/4 ...


Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore May 2019

Establishment Of Crispr/Cas-9 Aided Knockout Of The Zic2 Gene In The African-American Prostate Cancer Cell Line E006aa-Pr, Janelle Moore

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The largest U.S. cancer health disparity exists in prostate cancer, with African American men having the highest incidence and mortality rates. The present study evaluated the effects of ZIC2 and the underlying mechanisms in the E006 parental African-American cell line that produces tumors at accelerated growth rates because of the increase of ZIC2 genes in African-American males. We analyzed the experimental research that the overexpression of ZIC2 contributes to progression of prostate cancer. E006AA cells with overexpressed or suppressed ZIC2 were analyzed to determine phenotypic differences, PCR, cell proliferation and immunoblot assays. The expression levels of ZIC2 were analyzed ...


Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin May 2019

Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women, with metastasis the principle cause of mortality. New non-invasive prognostic markers are needed for the early detection of metastasis, facilitating treatment decision optimisation. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression and involved in many cellular processes, including metastasis. As biomarkers, circulating miRNAs (in blood) hold great promise for informing diagnosis or monitoring treatment responses.

METHODS: Plasma extracted RNA from age matched local Luminal A (n = 4) or metastatic disease (n = 4) were profiled using Next Generation Sequencing. Selected differentially expressed miRNA were validated on a ...


Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost May 2019

Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost

Honors Program Projects

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is a very common mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research ...


The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud May 2019

The Molecular Mechanisms Underlying The Cancer Killing Effect Of Interleukin-24, Leah Eshanie Persaud

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Interleukin-24 (IL-24) is an immunomodulatory cytokine that also displays specific anti-tumor effects across many cancer cell types. The tumor suppressor activities of IL-24 include inhibition of angiogenesis, metastasis, toxic autophagy, cancer-specific apoptosis, and sensitization to traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy and radiation. Overexpression of IL-24 can selectively induce apoptosis in various cancer cells while having no adverse effects on normal cells. Due to this favorable killing effect, IL-24 is currently in phase II clinical trials. There is accumulating evidence that IL-24’s anti-cancer activity is primarily through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway but other pathways leading to cell death ...


Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt May 2019

Paraoxonase 2 Is Critical For Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Proliferation., Aaron Whitt

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) comprises 85% of lung cancer diagnoses and is plagued by drug resistance. Thus, elucidating the underlying mechanisms of NSCLC is paramount to expand future treatment options. Paraoxonase 2 (PON2), an intracellular enzyme with arylesterase and lactonase functions, has well-established anti-atherosclerotic activity. Recent studies show PON2 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and confers drug resistance, although these interactions have not been thoroughly examined in NSCLC. Thus, we sought to investigate the role of PON2 in cellular proliferation using PON2-knockout mice, primary mouse cells, and NSCLC cell lines. Using these approaches, we demonstrate that PON2 ...


Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost Apr 2019

Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway For Breast Cancer, Vanessa Van Oost

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths yearly worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is an almost universal mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research. Alpha ...


Evaluating Lactobacillus Acidophilus As A Model Organism For Co-Culture Cancer Studies, Samuel A. Mikhail Jan 2019

Evaluating Lactobacillus Acidophilus As A Model Organism For Co-Culture Cancer Studies, Samuel A. Mikhail

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The causality dilemma between dysbiosis and cancer has given rise to numerous studies both exploring the mechanisms behind cancer progression and the associative shifts in the microbiota upon carcinogenesis. Aside from the hallmark study of Dr. Barry Marshall in establishing the true causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori and gastric adenocarcinoma, studies have only been successful in adding associative links of carcinogenesis mediated by bacteria to the literature. The current field is limited in its ability to establish causative relationships, and further work is needed to construct a reference community whose physiological responses reflect global community responses. In this thesis, the ...