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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils Oct 2017

Role Of High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan In Ultraviolet B Light-Induced Transformation, Katelyn Cousteils

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Keratinocyte carcinomas (KCs) are the most common cancers globally. Ultraviolet light is the key risk factor for these cancers but sunscreen has proven ineffective in their prevention, indicating a need for new prophylactic agents. Chronic elevation of high molecular weight (HMW) tissue hyaluronan (HA) in skin is linked to tumor resistance in the naked mole rat. To directly assess the role of this polysaccharide in resistance to keratinocyte tumors, a HMW HA phosphatidylethanolamine (HA-PE) formulation that penetrates skin and accumulates as coats around keratinocytes was prepared. The tumor resistance properties of the HA-PE formulation were tested in a mouse model ...


Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux Sep 2016

Characterization Of The Catalytic Ck2 Subunits With Substitutions At Residues Involved In Inhibitor Binding, Paul Desormeaux

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

CK2 is a constitutively active, ubiquitously expressed and pleiotropic serine/threonine protein kinase that is implicated in many cellular functions including tumorigenesis. CK2 has two catalytic subunits, CK2a and CK2a’, that carry out its function in the cell. Previous studies have indicated that inhibitor-refractory mutants have been effective in recovering residual CK2 activity, in the presence of inhibitors, when compared to wild type CK2. Based on these observations, inhibitor-refractory mutants were created for both CK2a and CK2a’ and tested with various concentrations with two CK2-specific inhibitors, CX-4945 and inhibitor VIII. The CK2a triple mutant (V66A/I174A/H160D) was tested in ...


Characterization Of Numb As A Regulator Of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Ran Wei Jun 2016

Characterization Of Numb As A Regulator Of Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase, Ran Wei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular events rely on protein-protein interactions that are often mediated by modular domains which recognize particular sequence motifs in binding partners. The NUMB protein is the first described cell fate determinant and multifaceted adaptor that is involved in a wide variety of cellular events. NUMB mainly mediates protein interactions via its modular PTB domain. Here we present a systematic investigation of the NUMB-PTB interactome by employing an integrative strategy combining both protein and peptide arrays. We profiled NUMB-PTB binding specificity and interacting proteins genome-wide. The receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are found highly enriched in the interactome, raising the possibility that ...


Atrx Loss-Of-Function In Mouse Neuroprogenitor Cells As A Model Of Early Events In Gliomagenesis, Hannah E. Goldberg Feb 2015

Atrx Loss-Of-Function In Mouse Neuroprogenitor Cells As A Model Of Early Events In Gliomagenesis, Hannah E. Goldberg

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

ATRX is a chromatin remodeling protein important for neural development, and ATRX inactivation leads to genomic instability, mitotic defects and TP53-mediated apoptosis. In the last few years, ATRX mutations were identified in a large proportion of paediatric and adult gliomas that often coincide with mutations in the tumor suppressor TP53. The present work shows that combinatorial loss of ATRX and TP53 function in vitro causes genomic instability while improving cell viability, identifying potential early events in gliomagenesis. Furthermore, several gene transcripts associated with glioma development and known oncogenic pathways were significantly upregulated in the Atrx-null neonatal mouse forebrain. Finally ...


Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce Apr 2014

Sirna Targeting Of Thymidylate Synthase, Thymidine Kinase 1 And Thymidine Kinase 2 As An Anticancer Therapy: A Combinatorial Rnai Approach, Christine Di Cresce

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Thymidylate synthase (TS) is the only de novo source of thymidylate (dTMP) for DNA synthesis and repair. Drugs targeting TS protein are a mainstay in cancer treatment but off-target effects and toxicity limit their use. Cytosolic thymidine kinase (TK1) and mitochondrial thymidine kinase (TK2) contribute to an alternative dTMP-producing pathway, by salvaging thymidine from the tumour milieu, and may modulate resistance to TS-targeting drugs. We have previously shown that TS antisense molecules (oligodeoxynucleotides, ODNs, and small interfering siRNA, siRNA) sensitize tumour cells, both in vitro and in vivo, to TS targeting drugs. As both TS and TKs contribute to cellular ...


Characterization Of A Tumour Suppressor Function Of Ranbpm, Elnaz Atabakhsh Nov 2012

Characterization Of A Tumour Suppressor Function Of Ranbpm, Elnaz Atabakhsh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Ran-binding protein M (RanBPM) is an evolutionarily conserved nucleocytosolic protein that has been proposed to regulate various cellular processes, including protein stability, gene expression, receptor-mediated signalling pathways, cell adhesion, development, and apoptosis. Despite the multitude of functions attributed to RanBPM however, little is known regarding the precise mechanisms by which RanBPM executes these cellular roles. In this work, we seek to address this matter by describing functions for RanBPM in the regulation of apoptotic and pro-survival signalling pathways, and in cellular transformation.

We first identify RanBPM as a pro-apoptotic protein that regulates the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic signalling pathway ...