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Articles 1 - 11 of 11

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Phosphorylation Impairs Dicer1 Function To Accelerate Aging And Tumorigenesis In Vivo, Neeraj Aryal May 2018

Phosphorylation Impairs Dicer1 Function To Accelerate Aging And Tumorigenesis In Vivo, Neeraj Aryal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Altered DICER1 protein levels are associated with developmental disorders, infertility, macular degenerative blindness, aging, and cancer in humans. Recently, post-translational regulation of Dicer1 via phosphorylation has been described in C. elegans. Oscillation of Dicer1 phosphorylation to regulate its activity is essential for germ cell development and embryogenesis in worms. These observations led us to posit that Dicer1 protein levels and activity are under tight regulation for normal mammalian homeostasis. To test whether phosphorylation of Dicer1 regulates its activity in mammals, I generated phospho-mimetic knock-in mouse models by replacing Serines 1712 and 1836 with Aspartic acids individually or together (dual phosphorylation ...


Comparative Oncogenomics Identifies Novel Regulators And Clinical Relevance Of Neural Crest Identities In Melanoma, Arvind M. Venkatesan Dec 2017

Comparative Oncogenomics Identifies Novel Regulators And Clinical Relevance Of Neural Crest Identities In Melanoma, Arvind M. Venkatesan

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Cancers often resurrect embryonic molecular programs to promote disease progression. In melanomas, which are tumors of the neural crest (NC) lineage, a molecular signature of the embryonic NC is often reactivated. These NC factors have been implicated in promoting pro-tumorigenic features like proliferation, migration and therapy resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms that establish and maintain NC identities in melanomas are largely unknown. Additionally, whether the presence of a NC identity has any clinical relevance for patient melanomas is also unclear. Here, using comparative genomic approaches, I have a) identified a novel role for GDF6-activated BMP signaling in reawakening a NC ...


The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala Sep 2017

The Role Of T-Box Proteins In Vertebrate Germ Layer Formation And Patterning, Sushma Teegala

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

All of the tissues in triploblastic organisms, with the exception of the germ cells, arise from the three germ layers, ectoderm, mesoderm and the endoderm. The identification of the genes that underlie the differentiation of these layers is crucial to our understanding of development. T-box family proteins are DNA-binding transcriptional regulators that play important roles during germ layer formation in the early vertebrate embryo. Well-characterized members of this family, including the transcriptional activators Brachyury and VegT, are essential for the proper formation of mesoderm and endoderm, respectively. To date, T-box proteins have not been shown to play a role in ...


The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers Aug 2017

The Dlk1-Meg3 Locus In Malignant Cells Of Proposed Primordial Germ Cell Origins., Zachariah Payne Sellers

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are hypothesized to deposit hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) along their migration route through the embryo during the early stages of embryogenesis. PGCs also undergo global chromatin remodeling, including the erasure and reestablishment of genomic imprints, during this migration. While PGCs do not spontaneously form teratomas, their malignant development into germ cell tumors (GCTs) in vivo is often accompanied by the retention of hypomethylation at the IGF2-H19 imprinting control differentially methylated region (DMR). Previous studies in bimaternal embryos determined that proper genomic imprinting at two paternally imprinted loci was necessary for their growth and development: Igf2-H19 and ...


Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee Jan 2017

Investigating The Essential Roles Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, Alex Lee

Summer Research

Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) proteins regulate a number of important cellular processes, including cell growth and division. Humans have three PRL proteins: PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3. An accumulation of evidence has shown that elevated levels of PRLs are strongly correlated with uncontrollable growth and metastasis of tumors. However, contradictory findings have arisen indicating that PRLs instead function to halt cell division thereby preventing uncontrollable tumor growth. In light of these results, the underlying mechanisms regarding how PRLs function within cellular processes remains unclear. To investigate the functions of PRLs, we will create transgenic fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) with knockout ...


Characterization Of Tumor Protein P63 Regulated 1-Like Function In Xenopus Laevis, Julia Mo Jan 2017

Characterization Of Tumor Protein P63 Regulated 1-Like Function In Xenopus Laevis, Julia Mo

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Of the approximately 20,000 genes in the human genome, about 6,000 have unknown or poorly characterized function. Tumor protein p63 regulated 1-like (TPRG1l) is one of those genes with no functional data. TPRG1L is expressed during embryonic development and adulthood with strongest expression in the brain. It is implicated in carcinogenesis because its gene expression is activated by tumor regulators p63/73. To elucidate TPRG1L function during embryogenesis, CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system was utilized to induce Tprg1l mutations in Xenopus laevis. Embryos injected with Tprg1l sgRNA and Cas9 mRNA displayed axis formation and convergent extension defects suggesting that ...


Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez Aug 2016

Investigating The Roles Of Δnp63 As A Suppressor Of Migration, Invasion, And Metastasis, Ramon E. Flores Gonzalez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death and disease in the world. Considerable resources are spent to study and understand cancer, with the hope of developing new treatments and eventually cures that will help millions of people. Efforts to understand cancer are hindered by its inherent complexity and instability. Nonetheless, understanding the basics of tumor development and progression are the key to focused on studying the role of ΔNp63 in cancer, a p53 family member known to be involved in epithelial development, microRNA biogenesis, and stem cell maintenance. Using the strength of in vivo mouse models, we found ...


Detection Of Ubiquitination On Syk And Documenting Syk Stability, Izabela Mazur, Wen Horng Wang, Robert J. Geahlen Aug 2015

Detection Of Ubiquitination On Syk And Documenting Syk Stability, Izabela Mazur, Wen Horng Wang, Robert J. Geahlen

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Post-translational modifications regulate the activities of proteins important to numerous diseases. Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (Syk) is particularly interesting to researchers because it modifies many targets and plays multiple roles in regulating cells in our bodies and its abnormal modifications may contribute to cancer, Alzheimer’s disease and allergies. In an attempt to study these modifications of Syk, we first looked at detecting ubiquitination on Syk protein. Ubiquitin, a small 8 kDa molecule, attaches to lysine residues on protein. The attachment of ubiquitin to Syk may cause Syk to either propagate signals onwards to activate other proteins or signal it to ...


Death Is Not The End: The Role Of Reactive Oxygen Species In Driving Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation, Caitlin E. Fogarty Jun 2015

Death Is Not The End: The Role Of Reactive Oxygen Species In Driving Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation, Caitlin E. Fogarty

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) is a compensatory mechanism to maintain tissue size and morphology following unexpected cell loss during normal development, and may also be a contributing factor to cancer growth and drug resistance. In apoptotic cells, caspase-initiated signaling cascades lead to the downstream production of mitogenic factors and the proliferation of neighboring surviving cells. In epithelial Drosophila tissues, the Caspase-9 homolog Dronc drives AiP via activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); however, the specific mechanisms of JNK activation remain unknown. Using a model of sustained AiP that produces a hyperplastic phenotype in Drosophila eye and head tissue, I have found ...


Examining The Functional Role Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Valenzuela Jan 2013

Examining The Functional Role Of Dprl-1 In Drosophila Melanogaster, John Valenzuela

Summer Research

The Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) family of proteins control cell growth, motility and proliferation. They have been shown to elevate the levels of these functions, leading to an increase in cancer metastasis (“malignancy”), when they are overexpressed. The goal of this experiment is to knockout PRL gene expression to examine the general function of PRL proteins. Drosophila melanogaster have only one copy of the PRL gene (dPRL-1), as opposed to humans and other mammals, which have 3. Thus, using P-element imprecise excision to create mutant strains either fully lacking or with decreased function of the dPRL-1 protein, I propose ...


Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang Aug 2011

Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is second leading cause of death in the United States. Improving cancer care through patient care, research, education and prevention not only saves lives, but reduces health care cost as well. Breast cancer is the most leading cause of cancer incidence and cancer related death in women of the United States. 14-3-3s are a family of conserved proteins ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic organisms. They form complexes with hundreds of proteins by binding to specific phospho-serine/threonine containing motifs. In this way they regulate a variety of cellular processes and are involved in many human diseases especially cancer to ...