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Breast Cancer

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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Immediate-Early Genes And Delayed Primary Response Genes Regulated By Nmu In Skbr3 Her-2 Positive Breast Cancer Cell Line, Jessica Murphy, Sweta Rani Sep 2019

Immediate-Early Genes And Delayed Primary Response Genes Regulated By Nmu In Skbr3 Her-2 Positive Breast Cancer Cell Line, Jessica Murphy, Sweta Rani

Sure-J: Science Undergraduate Research Journal

Background
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that consists of varying genetic, cellular and molecular subtypes with unique characteristics. Due to the multiple subtypes and molecular markers of breast cancer, successful clinical treatment is hampered by the lack of reliable biomarkers. HER2-positive breast cancer is an aggressive subtype associated with poor patient prognosis. Although survival rates have dramatically increased due to the development of Trastuzumab in 1997, many patients develop a resistance to this therapeutic treatment and relapse over time. Rani et al. (2014), have associated the acquirement of resistance to HER2-treatment with Neuromedin U, but the mechanisms by which ...


Targeting Aberrant Transcription In Invasive Lobular Carcinoma Breast Cancer, Louise Walsh Jul 2018

Targeting Aberrant Transcription In Invasive Lobular Carcinoma Breast Cancer, Louise Walsh

PhD theses

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is an understudied breast cancer subtype comprising 8-14% of breast tumours. The majority of ILC (90%) are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and candidates for endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, de novo resistance to endocrine therapies occurs in 33% of women and a further 40% will relapse on treatment. Therefore, novel therapeutic targets are required for ILC. Deregulated transcription is a recurring theme in cancer, which can be due to epigenetic events. The bromodomain & extra-terminal domain (BET) family of proteins (BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, BRDT) function as chromatin readers that bind acetylated lysine residues on histones and regulate transcription. RNA ...


Runx1 Control Of Mammary Epithelial And Breast Cancer Cell Phenotypes, Deli Hong Dec 2017

Runx1 Control Of Mammary Epithelial And Breast Cancer Cell Phenotypes, Deli Hong

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Breast cancer remains the most common malignant disease in women worldwide. Despite the advantages of early detection and improved treatments, studies into the mechanisms that initiate and drive breast cancer progression are still required. Recent studies have identified RUNX1, which is an essential transcription factor for hematopoiesis, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in breast cancer patients. However, the role of RUNX1 in the mammary gland is understudied.

In this dissertation, we examined the role of RUNX1 in both normal mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that RUNX1 inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition ...


Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad Aug 2017

Molecular And Biochemical Studies Of Several Novel Estrogen Receptor Alpha-Interacting Proteins In Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmed Edan Dhamad

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in women, and approximately 70% of incidences are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. ERα and its interacting proteins play a key role in the development and progression of breast cancer. However, how ERα regulates its target gene expression and hence cell proliferation is not fully understood. To enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanism by which ERα regulates gene expression, we used a quantitative proteomic method to identify cellular proteins that interact with ERα. The first group of proteins that were identified to associate with ERα are heat shock ...


The Role Of Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein -2 (Cpeb-2) In Human Breast Cancer, Joshua Tordjman Jun 2017

The Role Of Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein -2 (Cpeb-2) In Human Breast Cancer, Joshua Tordjman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in 40-50% of breast cancers, and promotes tumour progression through increased proliferation, migration, invasion, Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), and induction of therapy-resistant Stem-Like-Cells (SLCs). COX-2 stimulates expression of two oncogenic and SLC-promoting microRNAs (miR-526b, miR-655), which simultaneously target one gene, Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding Protein-2 (CPEB-2). Hypothesis: CPEB-2 is a tumour- and SLC-suppressing gene in breast cancer. Results: CPEB-2 knockout in a non-tumourigenic mammary epithelial cell line MCF10A demonstrated increases in proliferation, migration, invasion, EMT markers, SLC content, and VEGF-D expression. CPEB-2, an mRNA-binding translation-regulating protein, was found to regulate the translation of tumour suppressor p53. When ...


Regulation Of Breast Cancer Initiation And Progression By 14-3-3zeta, Chia-Chi Chang Aug 2016

Regulation Of Breast Cancer Initiation And Progression By 14-3-3zeta, Chia-Chi Chang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

14-3-3ζ is a ubiquitously expressed family member of proteins that have been implicated to have oncogenic potential through its interactions and involvement in cancer initiation and progression. 14-3-3ζ belongs to the highly conserved 14-3-3ζ protein family and modulates numerous pathways in cancer. Overexpression of 14-3-3ζ is an early event, occurs in more than 40% of human breast cancer cases, and is associated with disease recurrence and poor prognosis. Metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer. Cancer cells elevate aerobic glycolysis to produce metabolic intermediates and reducing equivalents, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation to the adverse environment and sustaining fast proliferation. Interestingly ...


The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan May 2016

The Roles Of Malt1 In Nf-Κb Activation And Solid Tumor Progression, Deng Pan

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The transcription factor NF-κB plays a central role in many aspects of biological processes and diseases, such as inflammation and cancer. Although it has been suggested thatNF-κB is critical in tumorigenesis and tumor progression, the molecular mechanism by which NF-κB is activated in solid tumor remains largely unknown. In the current work, we focus on growth factor receptor-induced NF-κB activation and tumor progression, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-induced NF-κB in lung cancer and heregulin receptor (HER2)-induced NF-κB in breast cancer. We found that Mucosa-associated lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), also known as paracaspase, is required for EGFR-induced ...


Functional Regulation Of Yap By Aurora A Kinase In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Shih-Shin Chang May 2016

Functional Regulation Of Yap By Aurora A Kinase In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, Shih-Shin Chang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Yes-associated protein (YAP) is an effector that transduces the output of the Hippo pathway to transcriptional modulation. Considering the role of YAP in cancers, this protein has emerged as a key node in malignancy development. In this study, we determined that Aurora A kinase acts as a positive regulator for YAP-mediated transcriptional machinery. Specifically, YAP associates with Aurora A predominantly in the nucleus. Activation of Aurora A can impinge on YAP activity through direct phosphorylation. Moreover, aberrant expression of YAP and Aurora A signaling is highly correlated with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). We herein provide evidence to establish the ...


Function Of The Β4 Integrin In Cancer Stem Cells And Tumor Formation In Breast Cancer: A Masters Thesis, Huayan Sun Jan 2016

Function Of The Β4 Integrin In Cancer Stem Cells And Tumor Formation In Breast Cancer: A Masters Thesis, Huayan Sun

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The integrin α6β4 (referred to as β4) is expressed in epithelial cells where it functions as a laminin receptor. Integrin β4 is important for the organization and maintenance of epithelial architecture in normal cells. Particularly, β4 is shown to be essential for mammary gland development during embryogenesis. Integrin β4 also plays important roles in tumor formation, invasion and metastasis in breast cancer. However, the mechanism of how integrin β4 mediates breast tumor formation has not been settled. A few studies suggest that integrin β4 is involved in cancer stem cells (CSCs), but the mechanism is not clear. To address this ...


Uncovering New Roles For The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) In Breast Cancer, Justin Kirk Tomblin Jan 2016

Uncovering New Roles For The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (Ahr) In Breast Cancer, Justin Kirk Tomblin

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is responsive to many exogenous and endogenous ligands. AHR is of particular interest in cancer, and has been shown to play roles in tumor progression. As such, it has received growing attention as a possible chemotherapeutic target. Obesity increases the risk of breast cancer, complicates treatment of breast cancer, and stimulates the growth of larger, more aggressive mammary tumors. Many breast tumors in obese women are estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and, while targeting hormone receptors like ER is beneficial, many obese women see a recurrence of their cancer after ...


Effect Of Cmvil-10 On Exosome Production By Human Breast Cancer Cells, Susanna N. Basappa May 2015

Effect Of Cmvil-10 On Exosome Production By Human Breast Cancer Cells, Susanna N. Basappa

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous virus that infects 70-90% of the general population, primarily the immunocompromised, but has been implicated in several forms of cancer, including breast cancer. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths in women in North America, usually from metastasis. Exosomes are 30-100nm vesicles produced by most cells which carry protein and RNA to cells in their microenvironment. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of HCMV-infection of a secreted viral cytokine, cmvIL-10, on exosome production by highly metastatic breast cancer cells.

MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in vitro, and ...


Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne Jan 2015

Immunotherapy Of Cancer: Reprogramming Tumor/Immune Cellular Crosstalk To Improve Anti-Tumor Efficacy, Kyle K. Payne

Theses and Dissertations

Immunotherapy of cancer has been shown to be promising in prolonging patient survival. However, complete elimination of cancer and life-long relapse-free survival remain to be major challenge for anti-cancer therapeutics. We have previously reported that ex vivo reprogramming of tumor-sensitized immune cells by bryostatin 1/ionomycin (B/I) and the gamma-chain (γ-c) cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 resulted in the generation of memory T cells as well as CD25+ NKT cells and CD25+ NK cells. Adoptive cellular therapy (ACT) utilizing these reprogrammed immune cells protected FVBN202 mice from tumor challenge, and overcame the suppressive functions of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs ...


The Influence Of Matrix Stiffness On Extracellular Matrix Protein Expression In 3d Encapsulated Mammary Fibroblasts, Kathryn Woods Jan 2015

The Influence Of Matrix Stiffness On Extracellular Matrix Protein Expression In 3d Encapsulated Mammary Fibroblasts, Kathryn Woods

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

A disease that transcends all races is breast cancer, the second leading cause of death among women with cancer. One factor, which participates in breast tumor progression, is the extracellular matrix (ECM), an acellular, protein-rich entity, which drives several cell, processes shown to promote tumorigenesis. Specifically, abnormal expression patterns and cross-linking of matrix fibers induces a more dense tissue structure, which has been reported to drive breast cancer progression. Alterations in ECM expression and cross-linking are in part due to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), activated fibroblasts which deposit copious ECM in the breast tumor environment. The goal of this study is ...


Toxicity And Cosmesis Outcomes For Single Fraction Intra-Operative Electron Radiotherapy (Ioert) For Breast Cancer, Monica Hanna, Robert Ash, Wesley Babaran, Michele M. Carpenter, Afshin Forouzannia, Jay K. Harness, Brian Kaltenecker, Snehith Maddula, Venita Williams, Lawrence Wagman Dec 2014

Toxicity And Cosmesis Outcomes For Single Fraction Intra-Operative Electron Radiotherapy (Ioert) For Breast Cancer, Monica Hanna, Robert Ash, Wesley Babaran, Michele M. Carpenter, Afshin Forouzannia, Jay K. Harness, Brian Kaltenecker, Snehith Maddula, Venita Williams, Lawrence Wagman

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Background: Adjuvant radiation therapy is proven to reduce local recurrence in patients with early stage breast cancer. To reduce toxicity, improve geographic accuracy, and reduce treatment time, IOERT can be utilized as an alternative to external beam radiation therapy. The study’s objective was to determine the short term toxicity and cosmesis profile of single fraction IOERT given as definitive treatment in a community setting. Materials and Methods: From Mar 2012 to Jul 2014, 84 patients (3 bilateral), ages 45-91 y.o. with stage 0-II were treated with IOERT (Mobetron, IntraOp Medical, Sunnyvale, CA). A single 21 Gy fraction was ...


Imbalance Between Neutrophil Elastase And Elafin Promotes Breast Cancer Growth And Progression, Joseph Anthony Caruso May 2014

Imbalance Between Neutrophil Elastase And Elafin Promotes Breast Cancer Growth And Progression, Joseph Anthony Caruso

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Elafin, an endogenous serine protease inhibitor, is a critical component of the epithelial barrier against neutrophil elastase (NE) activity. The central hypothesis examined in this dissertation was that elafin has tumor suppressive properties in breast cancer. In support of this hypothesis, immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed that elafin was downregulated in the majority of invasive breast tumors and a subset of pre-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) compared to elafin expression in the normal mammary epithelium. To understand the role of elafin in the mammary epithelium and the impetus for its downregulation during breast tumorigenesis, primary and immortalized human mammary epithelial ...


Nuclear Organization In Breast Cancer: A Dissertation, Jason R. Dobson Apr 2013

Nuclear Organization In Breast Cancer: A Dissertation, Jason R. Dobson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The nuclear matrix (NM) is a fibrogranular network of ribonucleoproteins upon which transcriptional complexes and regulatory genomic sequences are organized. A hallmark of cancer is the disorganization of nuclear architecture; however, the extent to which the NM is involved in malignancy is not well studied.

The RUNX1 and RUNX2 proteins form complexes within the NM to promote hematopoiesis and osteoblastogenesis, respectively at the transcriptional level. RUNX1 and RUNX2 are both expressed in breast cancer cells (BrCCs); however, their genome-wide BrCC functions are unknown. RUNX1 and RUNX2 activate many tumor suppressor pathways in blood and bone lineages, respectively, including attenuation of ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Feb 2012

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Kusum Rathore MS, PhD, College of Veterinary Medicine

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Dec 2011

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Doctoral Dissertations

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...


Metastatic Disease: Interactions Between Tumor Cells And Host Environment During Cancer Cell Spread, Jennifer M. Maclean Jul 2011

Metastatic Disease: Interactions Between Tumor Cells And Host Environment During Cancer Cell Spread, Jennifer M. Maclean

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tumor and metastasis formation are not cell autonomous phenomena, but rather an evolution of disease within and responding to the host environment. Metastatic spread from a primary tumor occurs as a result of a complex interplay between tumor cells and the host, wherein tumor cells must escape the primary tumor, enter the host vasculature, travel to and arrest in a distant tissue and survive and grow in that new organ. It is known that cells that progress through these stages must both escape and exploit host systems, yet the mechanisms used are not fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this ...


Progression Of Breast Cancer Metastatic Disease And Subsequent Osteolytic Bone Degradation Mediated By Oncostatin M, Ken Tawara May 2011

Progression Of Breast Cancer Metastatic Disease And Subsequent Osteolytic Bone Degradation Mediated By Oncostatin M, Ken Tawara

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in women and is the second most common cancer-related death for women worldwide. While the primary tumor itself is not lethal, the metastases that disrupt vital organ functions pose a significant clinical challenge. Seventy percent of women with metastatic breast cancer have metastases to the bone, which is the most significant cause of morbidity for these patients. Oncostatin M (OSM) is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a role in the immune system, wound repair, and haematopoiesis. OSM was previously considered for anticancer therapy due to its anti-proliferative effects against breast cancer cells in ...


Investigating The Effects Of Silencing Epha2 In Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells, Stephanie Erzinger May 2011

Investigating The Effects Of Silencing Epha2 In Metastatic Breast Cancer Cells, Stephanie Erzinger

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

EphA2, also known as ECK (epithelial cell kinase), is a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase that is commonly over-expressed in cancers such as those of the prostate, colon, lung, and breast. For breast cancers, EphA2 overexpression is most prominent in the ER-negative subtype, and is associated with a higher rate of lung metastasis. Studies conducted to demonstrate the role of EphA2 in a non-cancerous environment have shown that it is very important in developmental processes, but not in normal adult tissues. These results make EphA2 a prospective therapeutic target since new therapies are needed for the more aggressive ER-negative breast cancers ...


Cell Cycle Regulatory Roles Of Estrogen Receptor Alpha (Erα) In Breast Cancer Cells, Sonia Javanmoghaddam May 2011

Cell Cycle Regulatory Roles Of Estrogen Receptor Alpha (Erα) In Breast Cancer Cells, Sonia Javanmoghaddam

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Previous studies have shown that Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) is an important indicator for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of breast cancers. However, the question remains as to the role of ERα in the cell in the presence versus absence of 17-β estradiol In this dissertation the role of ERα in both its unliganded and liganded state, with respect to the cell cycle will be explored. The cell line models used in this project are ER-positive MCF-7 cells with and without siRNA to ERα and ER-positive MDA-MB-231 cells that have been engineered to express ERα. Cells were synchronized and the cell ...


A Novel Function For Aurora B Kinase In The Regulation Of P53 By Phosphorylation, Chris P. Gully May 2011

A Novel Function For Aurora B Kinase In The Regulation Of P53 By Phosphorylation, Chris P. Gully

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The mitotic kinase Aurora B plays a pivotal role in mitosis and cytokinesis and governs the spindle assembly checkpoint which ensures correct chromosome segregation and normal progression through mitosis. Aurora B is overexpressed in breast and other cancers and may be an important molecular target for chemotherapy. Tumor suppressor p53 is the guardian of the genome and an important negative regulator of the cell cycle. Previously, it was unknown whether Aurora B and p53 had mutual regulation during the cell cycle. A small molecule specific inhibitor of Aurora B, AZD1152, gave us an indication that Aurora B negatively impacted p53 ...


Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. Mcdonald Jan 2010

Chemosensitization Of Cancer Cells By Sirna Using Targeted Nanogel Delivery, Erin B. Dickerson, William H. Blackburn, Michael H. Smith, Laura B. Kapa, L. Andrew Lyon, John F. Mcdonald

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Background: Chemoresistance is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. Targeted therapies that enhance cancer cell sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents have the potential to increase drug efficacy while reducing toxic effects on untargeted cells. Targeted cancer therapy by RNA interference (RNAi) is a relatively new approach that can be used to reversibly silence genes in vivo by selectively targeting genes such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which has been shown to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to taxane chemotherapy. However, delivery represents the main hurdle for the broad development of RNAi therapeutics.

Methods: We report here the use ...


Genistein Affects Her2 Protein Concentration, Activation And Promoter Regulation Via Estrogen Receptor-And Non-Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms, Mary S. Sakla, Pete J. Ansell, Nader S. Shenouda, Dennis B. Lubahn, Ruth S. Macdonald Oct 2007

Genistein Affects Her2 Protein Concentration, Activation And Promoter Regulation Via Estrogen Receptor-And Non-Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Mechanisms, Mary S. Sakla, Pete J. Ansell, Nader S. Shenouda, Dennis B. Lubahn, Ruth S. Macdonald

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

The HER2 proto-oncogene, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family, is overexpressed in 20–30% of breast cancers. Genistein, the main soy isoflavone, interacts with estrogen receptors (ER) and it is also a potent tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Previously, our laboratory found that genistein delayed mammary tumor onset in transgenic mice that overexpress HER2 gene. Our goal was to define the mechanism through which genistein affects mammary tumorigenesis inHER2 overexpressing mice. We hypothesized that genistein inhibits HER2 activation and expression through ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Genistein inhibited total HER2 protein expression and tyrosine phosphorylation in BT-474, an ERα ...