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Apoptosis

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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey Apr 2019

Mechanisms Of Oriented Cell Division And Their Roles In Tissue Development, Evan Blake Dewey

Biology ETDs

Properly executed cell division is crucial to development, maintenance, and longevity of multicellular organisms. Defects in both symmetric and asymmetric divisions can lead to improper developmental patterning, as well as genomic instability, disruption of tissue homeostasis, and cancer. Our research focuses on how regulators orchestrate proper cell divisions. Mushroom Body Defect (Mud) is one such regulator, and here we describe how Mud is regulated via the Hippo signaling pathway kinase Warts (Wts), showing Wts phosphorylates Mud to enhance interaction with the polarity protein Partner of Inscuteable, promoting spindle orientation activity. We next focus on another regulator, Shortstop (Shot), describing a ...


Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers Mar 2019

Induction Of Ampk Activation By N,N'-Diarylurea Fnd-4b Decreases Growth And Increases Apoptosis In Triple Negative And Estrogen-Receptor Positive Breast Cancers, Jeremy Johnson, Piotr G. Rychahou, Vitaliy M. Sviripa, Heidi L. Weiss, Chunming Liu, David S. Watt, B. Mark Evers

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Purpose

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most lethal and aggressive subtype of breast cancer. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major energy regulator that suppresses tumor growth, and 1-(3-chloro-4-((trifluoromethyl)thio)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea (FND-4b) is a novel AMPK activator that inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in colon cancer. The purpose of this project was to test the effects of FND-4b on AMPK activation, proliferation, and apoptosis in breast cancer with a particular emphasis on TNBC.

Materials and methods

(i) Estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer (ER+BC; MCF-7, and T-47D), TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and HCC-1806), and ...


Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera Nov 2018

Pyronaridine Exerts Potent Cytotoxicity On Human Breast And Hematological Cancer Cells Through Induction Of Apoptosis, Alberto Martinez, Paulina J. Villanueva, Sarah T. Baca, Rebecca E. Dejesus, Manuel Larragoity, Lisett Contreras, Denisse A. Gutierrez, Armando Varela-Ramirez, Renato J. Aguilera

Publications and Research

The potent antimalarial drug pyronaridine (PND) was tested for its potential as an anticancer drug. After exposing cancerous (17) and non-cancerous (2) cells to PND for 72 hr, PND was found to exhibit consistent and potent cytotoxic activity at low micromolar (μM) concentrations that ranged from 1.6 μM to 9.4 μM. Moreover, PND exerted a significant selective cytotoxicity index (SCI) on five out of seven breast cancer cell lines tested, with favorable values of 2.5 to 4.4, as compared with the non-cancerous breast MCF-10A cell line. By using the same comparison, PND exhibited a significant SCI ...


The Cjun Nh2-Terminal Kinase Pathway In Mammary Gland Biology And Carcinogenesis, Nomeda A. Girnius Mar 2018

The Cjun Nh2-Terminal Kinase Pathway In Mammary Gland Biology And Carcinogenesis, Nomeda A. Girnius

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The cJUN NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway responds to environmental stresses and participates in many cellular processes, including cell death, survival, proliferation, migration, and genome maintenance. Importantly, genes that encode components of the JNK signaling pathway are frequently mutated in human breast cancer, but the functional consequence of these mutations in mammary carcinogenesis is unclear.

Anoikis – suspension-induced apoptosis – has been implicated in oncogenic transformation and tumor cell metastasis. Anoikis also contributes to lumen formation during mammary gland development and epithelial cell clearance during post-lactational involution. JNK is known to contribute to certain forms of cell death, but the role of JNK ...


Loss Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Induces Glycolysis And Promotes Apoptosis Resistance Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells: An Important Role In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Carcinogenesis, Jin Dai, Yanli Ji, Wei Wang, Donghern Kim, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Lei Wang, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang Sep 2017

Loss Of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase Induces Glycolysis And Promotes Apoptosis Resistance Of Cancer Stem-Like Cells: An Important Role In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Carcinogenesis, Jin Dai, Yanli Ji, Wei Wang, Donghern Kim, Leonard Yenwong Fai, Lei Wang, Jia Luo, Zhuo Zhang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) compounds are confirmed human carcinogens for lung cancer. Our previous studies has demonstrated that chronic exposure of human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells to low dose of Cr(VI) causes malignant cell transformation. The acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties is involved in the initiation of cancers. The present study has observed that a small population of cancer stem-like cells (BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC) exists in the Cr(VI)-transformed cells (BEAS-2B-Cr). Those BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC exhibit extremely reduced capability of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis resistance. BEAS-2B-Cr-CSC are metabolic inactive as evidenced by reductions in oxygen consumption, glucose uptake ...


Tumor-Promoting Function Of Apoptotic Caspases By An Amplification Loop Involving Ros, Macrophages And Jnk In Drosophila, Ernesto Perez, Jillian L. Lindblad, Andreas Bergmann Aug 2017

Tumor-Promoting Function Of Apoptotic Caspases By An Amplification Loop Involving Ros, Macrophages And Jnk In Drosophila, Ernesto Perez, Jillian L. Lindblad, Andreas Bergmann

Open Access Articles

Apoptosis and its molecular mediators, the caspases, have long been regarded as tumor suppressors and one hallmark of cancer is 'Evading Apoptosis'. However, recent work has suggested that apoptotic caspases can also promote proliferation and tumor growth under certain conditions. How caspases promote proliferation and how cells are protected from the potentially harmful action of apoptotic caspases is largely unknown. Here, we show that although caspases are activated in a well-studied neoplastic tumor model in Drosophila, oncogenic mutations of the proto-oncogene Ras (Ras(V12)) maintain tumorous cells in an 'undead'-like condition and transform caspases from tumor suppressors into tumor ...


Oxidative Stress-Induced Jnk/Ap-1 Signaling Is A Major Pathway Involved In Selective Apoptosis Of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Cells By Withaferin-A, Karine Z. Oben, Sara S. Alhakeem, Mary Kathryn Mckenna, Jason A. Brandon, Rajeswaran Mani, Sunil K. Noothi, Jinpeng Liu, Shailaja Akunuru, Sanjit Kumar Dhar, Inder P. Singh, Ying Liang, Chi Wang, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Harold F. Stills Jr., Daret K. St Clair, Hartmut Geiger, Natarajan Muthusamy, Kaoru Tohyama, Ramesh C. Gupta, Subbarao Bondada Aug 2017

Oxidative Stress-Induced Jnk/Ap-1 Signaling Is A Major Pathway Involved In Selective Apoptosis Of Myelodysplastic Syndrome Cells By Withaferin-A, Karine Z. Oben, Sara S. Alhakeem, Mary Kathryn Mckenna, Jason A. Brandon, Rajeswaran Mani, Sunil K. Noothi, Jinpeng Liu, Shailaja Akunuru, Sanjit Kumar Dhar, Inder P. Singh, Ying Liang, Chi Wang, Ahmed Abdel-Latif, Harold F. Stills Jr., Daret K. St Clair, Hartmut Geiger, Natarajan Muthusamy, Kaoru Tohyama, Ramesh C. Gupta, Subbarao Bondada

Markey Cancer Center Faculty Publications

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a diverse group of malignant clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplastic cell morphology in one or more hematopoietic lineages, and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Approximately 50% of MDS patients respond to current FDA-approved drug therapies but a majority of responders relapse within 2-3 years. There is therefore a compelling need to identify potential new therapies for MDS treatment. We utilized the MDS-L cell line to investigate the anticancer potential and mechanisms of action of a plant-derived compound, Withaferin A (WFA), in MDS. WFA was potently cytotoxic to ...


A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar Aug 2017

A Naturally Generated Decoy Of The Prostate Apoptosis Response-4 Protein Overcomes Therapy Resistance In Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nidhi Shukla, Shirley Qiu, Yanming Zhao, Kojo S. J. Elenitoba-Johnson, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

Primary tumors are often heterogeneous, composed of therapy-sensitive and emerging therapy-resistant cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of therapy-sensitive tumors in heterogeneous tumor microenvironments results in apoptosis of therapy-resistant tumors. In this study, we identify a prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4) amino-terminal fragment (PAF) that is released by diverse therapy-sensitive cancer cells following therapy-induced caspase cleavage of the tumor suppressor Par-4 protein. PAF caused apoptosis in cancer cells resistant to therapy and inhibited tumor growth. A VASA segment of Par-4 mediated its binding and degradation by the ubiquitin ligase Fbxo45, resulting in loss of Par-4 proapoptotic function. Conversely, PAF, which contains this VASA ...


Defining A Therapeutic Window For Kinase Inhibitors In Leukemia To Avoid Neutropenia, Kate Mcarthur, Akshay A. D'Cruz, David Segal, Kurt Lackovic, Andrew F. Wilks, Joanne A. O'Donnell, Cameron J. Nowell, Motti Gerlic, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns, Ben A. Croker Jul 2017

Defining A Therapeutic Window For Kinase Inhibitors In Leukemia To Avoid Neutropenia, Kate Mcarthur, Akshay A. D'Cruz, David Segal, Kurt Lackovic, Andrew F. Wilks, Joanne A. O'Donnell, Cameron J. Nowell, Motti Gerlic, David C. S. Huang, Christopher J. Burns, Ben A. Croker

Open Access Articles

Neutropenia represents one of the major dose-limiting toxicities of many current cancer therapies. To circumvent the off-target effects of cytotoxic chemotherapeutics, kinase inhibitors are increasingly being used as an adjunct therapy to target leukemia. In this study, we conducted a screen of leukemic cell lines in parallel with primary neutrophils to identify kinase inhibitors with the capacity to induce apoptosis of myeloid and lymphoid cell lines whilst sparing primary mouse and human neutrophils. We have utilized a high-throughput live cell imaging platform to demonstrate that cytotoxic drugs have limited effects on neutrophil viability but are toxic to hematopoietic progenitor cells ...


Differential Involvement Of The Microtubule Cytoskeleton In Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Signaling To Akt Determines The Response To Microtubule Disruption In Breast Carcinoma Cells, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jennifer L. Clark, Andrew J. Piper, Jenny Janusis, Leslie M. Shaw May 2017

Differential Involvement Of The Microtubule Cytoskeleton In Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Signaling To Akt Determines The Response To Microtubule Disruption In Breast Carcinoma Cells, Jose Mercado-Matos, Jennifer L. Clark, Andrew J. Piper, Jenny Janusis, Leslie M. Shaw

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins serve as essential signaling intermediates for the activation of PI3K by both the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and its close family member, the insulin receptor (IR). Although IRS-1 and IRS-2 share significant homology, they regulate distinct cellular responses downstream of these receptors and play divergent roles in breast cancer. To investigate the mechanism by which signaling through IRS-1 and IRS-2 results in differential outcomes, we assessed the involvement of the microtubule cytoskeleton in IRS-dependent signaling. Treatment with drugs that either stabilize or disrupt microtubules reveal that an intact microtubule cytoskeleton contributes to ...


Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson May 2017

Identifying The Signaling Mechanisms Of Egfr-Mediated Apoptosis., Nicole Marion Jackson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is a 170-kilodalton transmembrane protein that belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. Upon ligand-mediated activation, the EGFR is responsible for cell growth, proliferation, and tissue homeostasis; however, the EGFR is overexpressed in many human malignancies, including MDA-MB-468 cells, a metastatic breast epithelial cell line. Studies within this cell line, and other cell lines characterized with high EGFR levels, have shown that EGF stimulation results in the induction of apoptosis. However, the mechanisms and signaling effectors implicated in this process have yet to be elucidated. The overarching research goal of this dissertation ...


Genetic Disruption Of Oncogenic Kras Sensitizes Lung Cancer Cells To Fas Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis, Haiwei Mou, Jill Moore, Sunil K. Malonia, Yingxiang Li, Deniz M. Ozata, Soren Hough, Chun-Qing Song, Jordan L. Smith, Andrew H. Fischer, Zhiping Weng, Michael R. Green, Wen Xue Apr 2017

Genetic Disruption Of Oncogenic Kras Sensitizes Lung Cancer Cells To Fas Receptor-Mediated Apoptosis, Haiwei Mou, Jill Moore, Sunil K. Malonia, Yingxiang Li, Deniz M. Ozata, Soren Hough, Chun-Qing Song, Jordan L. Smith, Andrew H. Fischer, Zhiping Weng, Michael R. Green, Wen Xue

Program in Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology Publications and Presentations

Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for approximately 30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form ...


Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair Mar 2017

Relb Expression Determines The Differential Effects Of Ascorbic Acid In Normal And Cancer Cells, Xiaowei Wei, Yong Xu, Fang Fang Xu, Luksana Chaiswing, David M. Schnell, Teresa Noel, Chi Wang, Jinfei Chen, Daret K. St. Clair, William H. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Cancer cells typically experience higher oxidative stress than normal cells, such that elevating pro-oxidant levels can trigger cancer cell death. Although pre-exposure to mild oxidative agents will sensitize cancer cells to radiation, this pre-exposure may also activate the adaptive stress defense system in normal cells. Ascorbic acid is a prototype redox modulator that when infused intravenously appears to kill cancers without injury to normal tissues; however, the mechanisms involved remain elusive. In this study, we show how ascorbic acid kills cancer cells and sensitizes prostate cancer to radiation therapy while also conferring protection upon normal prostate epithelial cells against radiation-induced ...


Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar Jan 2017

Chloroquine-Inducible Par-4 Secretion Is Essential For Tumor Cell Apoptosis And Inhibition Of Metastasis, Ravshan Burikhanov, Nikhil Hebbar, Sunil K. Noothi, Nidhi Shukla, James Sledziona, Nathália Araujo, Meghana Kudrimoti, Qing Jun Wang, David S. Watt, Danny R. Welch, Jodi Maranchie, Akihiro Harada, Vivek M. Rangnekar

Radiation Medicine Faculty Publications

The induction of tumor suppressor proteins capable of cancer cell apoptosis represents an attractive option for the re-purposing of existing drugs. We report that the anti-malarial drug, chloroquine (CQ), is a robust inducer of Par-4 secretion from normal cells in mice and cancer patients in a clinical trial. CQ-inducible Par-4 secretion triggers paracrine apoptosis of cancer cells and also inhibits metastatic tumor growth. CQ induces Par-4 secretion via the classical secretory pathway that requires the activation of p53. Mechanistically, p53 directly induces Rab8b, a GTPase essential for vesicle transport of Par-4 to the plasma membrane prior to secretion. Our findings ...


Kruppel-Like Factor 2 In Cholangiocarcinoma, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Justin L. Mott Jan 2017

Kruppel-Like Factor 2 In Cholangiocarcinoma, Cody J. Wehrkamp, Justin L. Mott

Hepatobiliary Cancers: Pathobiology and Translational Advances

No abstract provided.


Homothorax Is A Modifier Of Radiation Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster Bantam Mutants, Geoffrey Meyerhof Jan 2017

Homothorax Is A Modifier Of Radiation Sensitivity In Drosophila Melanogaster Bantam Mutants, Geoffrey Meyerhof

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Radiation resistance in human cancers represents a massive impediment for successful tumor treatment. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for human radiation resistance because of its largely conserved apoptotic pathways and malleable genome. This thesis investigates the genetic regulatory mechanisms for bantam (ban), an anti-apoptotic microRNA. To first identify genes that interact with ban, a forward genetic screen was conducted. This screen looked for genes that yielded radiation dependent pupal lethality in a ban deficient background. From this screen the transcription factor, homothorax, was identified as displaying radiation dependent synthetic lethality with ban. To investigate the mechanism ...


Fibroblast Growth Requires Ct10 Regulator Of Kinase (Crk) And Crk-Like (Crkl)., Taeju Park, Mateusz Koptyra, Tom Curran Dec 2016

Fibroblast Growth Requires Ct10 Regulator Of Kinase (Crk) And Crk-Like (Crkl)., Taeju Park, Mateusz Koptyra, Tom Curran

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

CT10 regulator of kinase (Crk) and Crk-like (CrkL) are the cellular counterparts of the viral oncogene v-Crk Elevated levels of Crk and CrkL have been observed in many human cancers; inhibition of Crk and CrkL expression reduced the tumor-forming potential of cancer cell lines. Despite a close relationship between the Crk family proteins and tumorigenesis, how Crk and CrkL contribute to cell growth is unclear. We ablated endogenous Crk and CrkL from cultured fibroblasts carrying floxed alleles of Crk and CrkL by transfection with synthetic Cre mRNA (synCre). Loss of Crk and CrkL induced by synCre transfection blocked cell proliferation ...


The Beneficial Role Of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species In Apoptosis-Induced Compensatory Proliferation, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann Aug 2016

The Beneficial Role Of Extracellular Reactive Oxygen Species In Apoptosis-Induced Compensatory Proliferation, Neha Diwanji, Andreas Bergmann

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) maintains tissue homeostasis following massive stress-induced cell death. During this phenomenon, dying cells induce proliferation of the surviving cells to compensate for the tissue loss, and thus restore organ size. Along with wound healing and tissue regeneration, AiP also contributes to tumor repopulation following radiation or chemotherapy. There are several models of AiP. Using an "undead" AiP model that causes hyperplastic overgrowth of Drosophila epithelial tissue, we recently demonstrated that extracellular reactive oxygen species (eROS) are produced by undead epithelial cells, and are necessary for inducing AiP and overgrowth. Furthermore, hemocytes, the Drosophila blood cells, are seen ...


Exploiting Dna Repair And Er Stress Response Pathways To Induce Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Dissertation, Jessica L. Weatherbee Aug 2016

Exploiting Dna Repair And Er Stress Response Pathways To Induce Apoptosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Dissertation, Jessica L. Weatherbee

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly grade IV brain tumor characterized by a heterogeneous population of cells that are drug resistant, aggressive, and infiltrative. The current standard of care, which has not changed in over a decade, only provides GBM patients with 12-14 months survival post diagnosis. We asked if the addition of a novel endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducing agent, JLK1486, to the standard chemotherapy, temozolomide (TMZ), which induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), would enhance TMZ’s efficacy. Because GBMs rely on the ER to mitigate their hypoxic environment and DNA repair to fix TMZ induced DSBs, we ...


Er Stress In Temozolomide-Treated Glioblastomas Interferes With Dna Repair And Induces Apoptosis, Jessica L. Weatherbee, Jean-Louis Kraus, Alonzo H. Ross Jun 2016

Er Stress In Temozolomide-Treated Glioblastomas Interferes With Dna Repair And Induces Apoptosis, Jessica L. Weatherbee, Jean-Louis Kraus, Alonzo H. Ross

Open Access Articles

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly grade IV brain tumor. Radiation in combination with temozolomide (TMZ), the current chemotherapeutic for GBMs, only provides 12-14 months survival post diagnosis. Because GBMs are dependent on both activation of the DNA damage pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, we asked if a novel ER stress inducing agent, JLK1486, increases the efficacy of TMZ. We found that the combination of TMZ+JLK1486 resulted in decreased proliferation in a panel of adherent GBM cells lines and reduced secondary sphere formation in non-adherent and primary lines. Decreased proliferation correlated with increased cell death due ...


The Apoptotic And Inhibitory Effects Of Phylloquinone In The U937 Cell Line, Tesha E. Blair May 2016

The Apoptotic And Inhibitory Effects Of Phylloquinone In The U937 Cell Line, Tesha E. Blair

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Phylloquinone is a natural analog of vitamin K that has been shown to both inhibit cancer cell growth and induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. This study examined these effects in a non-Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, known as U937. Cell growth inhibition and apoptosis were assessed through the quantification of cell density and area, following treatment with several concentrations of phylloquinone. In addition, apoptosis was detected and quantified using immunofluorescent markers of apoptosis (i.e. annexin V, APO-BrdU). Treatment with phylloquinone resulted in reduced overall cell density, increased overall cell area, and an increased frequency of apoptosis in U937 ...


Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton May 2016

Investigation Of Novel Functions For Dna Damage Response And Repair Proteins In Escherichia Coli And Humans, Benjamin A. Hilton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endogenous and exogenous agents that can damage DNA are a constant threat to genome stability in all living cells. In response, cells have evolved an array of mechanisms to repair DNA damage or to eliminate the cells damaged beyond repair. One of these mechanisms is nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway responsible for removing a wide variety of bulky DNA lesions. Deficiency, or mutation, in one or several of the NER repair proteins is responsible for many diseases, including cancer. Prokaryotic NER involves only three proteins to recognize and incise a damaged site, while eukaryotic NER ...


Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely May 2016

Modulation Of Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation By The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Previous ...


Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma Induces Ros-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioma Cells And Augments The Cytotoxicity Of Temozolomide, Gillian Conway, Alan Casey, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Yupeng Liu, Orla L. Howe, Patrick Cullen, James Curtin Feb 2016

Non-Thermal Atmospheric Plasma Induces Ros-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioma Cells And Augments The Cytotoxicity Of Temozolomide, Gillian Conway, Alan Casey, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Yupeng Liu, Orla L. Howe, Patrick Cullen, James Curtin

Articles

Non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) is an ionised gas produced under high voltage that can generate short-lived chemically active species and induce a cytotoxic insult in cancer cells. Cell-specific resistance to NTAP-mediated cytotoxicity has been reported in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance against NTAP could be overcome using the human glioma cell line U373MG.

Methods:

Non-thermal atmospheric plasma was generated using a Dielectric Barrier Device (DBD) system with a maximum voltage output of 120 kV at 50 Hz. The viability of U373MG GBM cells and HeLa cervical carcinoma cells was determined using morphology, flow ...


Overcoming Treatment Resistance In Heterogeneous Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar Jan 2016

Overcoming Treatment Resistance In Heterogeneous Tumors, Nikhil Hebbar

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Most primary tumors are heterogeneous and are often composed of therapy-sensitive and emerging therapy-resistant cancer cells. Rather unexpectedly, treatment of therapy-sensitive tumor cells in heterogeneous tumor microenvironments resulted in apoptosis of the therapy-resistant cancer cells. We identified a novel Par-4 amino-terminal fragment (PAF, which includes amino acids 1-131 of Par-4) that is produced and released by therapy-sensitive cancer cells following therapy-induced caspase-dependent cleavage of the tumor suppressor Par-4. PAF caused paracrine apoptosis in therapy-resistant cancer cells. Unlike Par-4-inducible apoptosis, which is dependent on the cell surface GRP78 receptor, PAF produced cancer-selective apoptosis independent of cell surface GRP78 function. Par-4 contains ...


Direct Regulation Of Apoptosis By Linear Ubiqutin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac) And Feedback Regulation Of Lubac Function By Caspases, Donghyun Joo Aug 2015

Direct Regulation Of Apoptosis By Linear Ubiqutin Chain Assembly Complex (Lubac) And Feedback Regulation Of Lubac Function By Caspases, Donghyun Joo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine that plays a role in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation (mainly through NF-κB signaling) and death (via apoptosis signaling). Recently, linear ubiquitination by LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) was reported to have a regulatory function in TNF-α mediated NF-κB activation. Although LUBAC is suggested to control not only NF-kB signaling but also the apoptosis pathway, the precise mechanism of apoptosis regulation remains unknown. Moreover, NF-κB and apoptosis pathways have opposed but fundamental functions for various cellular processes. Although these two pathways actively interplay to balance the death and survival, the ...


Progression Of Large Lymphoma Is Significantly Impeded With A Combination Of Gemcitabine Chemotherapy And Dendritic Cells Intra-Tumor Vaccination, Xue-Jun Zhu, Zhongfa Yang, Jin-Yong Zhou, Li Liu, Xue-Mei Sun, Zhen-Fang Fan, Shou-You Hu, Yu-Chao Chen, Wei-Xia Li, Meng Cao, Li-Xin Wang Jul 2015

Progression Of Large Lymphoma Is Significantly Impeded With A Combination Of Gemcitabine Chemotherapy And Dendritic Cells Intra-Tumor Vaccination, Xue-Jun Zhu, Zhongfa Yang, Jin-Yong Zhou, Li Liu, Xue-Mei Sun, Zhen-Fang Fan, Shou-You Hu, Yu-Chao Chen, Wei-Xia Li, Meng Cao, Li-Xin Wang

Open Access Articles

Relapsed, refractory lymphoma remains to be a challenge and lacks efficient treatment. Some tumor cells escape from treatment, become resistant to chemotherapeutic agents, and rapidly regenerate into large tumors. Lymphoma cells induce accumulation of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lymphatic organs and their vicinity. MDSCs enable tumor cells to escape from immune cells mediated surveillance and attack. Gemcitabine is a chemotherapeutic agent that eliminates both tumor cells and MDSCs, improving the immune environment favorable for subsequent treatment. We evaluated the effects of low dose gemcitabine combined with intra-tumorally delivered dendritic cells (DCs) for the treatment of A20 ...


Death Is Not The End: The Role Of Reactive Oxygen Species In Driving Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation, Caitlin E. Fogarty Jun 2015

Death Is Not The End: The Role Of Reactive Oxygen Species In Driving Apoptosis-Induced Proliferation, Caitlin E. Fogarty

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Apoptosis-induced proliferation (AiP) is a compensatory mechanism to maintain tissue size and morphology following unexpected cell loss during normal development, and may also be a contributing factor to cancer growth and drug resistance. In apoptotic cells, caspase-initiated signaling cascades lead to the downstream production of mitogenic factors and the proliferation of neighboring surviving cells. In epithelial Drosophila tissues, the Caspase-9 homolog Dronc drives AiP via activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK); however, the specific mechanisms of JNK activation remain unknown. Using a model of sustained AiP that produces a hyperplastic phenotype in Drosophila eye and head tissue, I have found ...


Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane May 2015

Chronic Inflammation As A Result Of Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review Of The Literature, Samantha L. Lane

DePaul Discoveries

Approximately 170 million people are infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide5,6. It is estimated that roughly 80% of those infected suffer from persistent infection with the virus; this persistence of infection is progressive, and over time can lead to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma7. Chronic inflammation and apoptotic deregulation are both hallmarks of chronic HCV infection, and many molecular pathways are initiated in both the innate and adaptive immune responses during infection with this viral pathogen. The aim of this review was to survey some of the major molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of chronic ...


Induction Of Caspase-Dependent Death By Proteasome Targeted Therapy In Glioblastoma, Christa A. Manton May 2015

Induction Of Caspase-Dependent Death By Proteasome Targeted Therapy In Glioblastoma, Christa A. Manton

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

New therapeutic options are needed for glioblastoma, a deadly disease with a median survival of only 14 months with current treatment. The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (BTZ) shows efficacy in cancers like myeloma, but its clinical utility in other cancer types has been more limited. Newer proteasome inhibitors such as marizomib (MRZ) have unique inhibitory and death inducing properties that have not been well examined in GBM. Additionally, targeting other components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is possible, but has not been explored in GBM. Questions also still remain about the ability of BTZ and MRZ to be delivered to brain tumors ...