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Cancer Biology Commons

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2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 185

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Phosphorylation Of The Mdm2 Oncoprotein By The C-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates P53 Tumor Suppression And The Radiosensitivity Of Mice, Michael I. Carr, Justine E. Roderick, Hong Zhang, Bruce A. Woda, Michelle A. Kelliher, Stephen N. Jones Dec 2016

Phosphorylation Of The Mdm2 Oncoprotein By The C-Abl Tyrosine Kinase Regulates P53 Tumor Suppression And The Radiosensitivity Of Mice, Michael I. Carr, Justine E. Roderick, Hong Zhang, Bruce A. Woda, Michelle A. Kelliher, Stephen N. Jones

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The p53 tumor suppressor acts as a guardian of the genome by preventing the propagation of DNA damage-induced breaks and mutations to subsequent generations of cells. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of the Mdm2 oncoprotein at Ser394 by the ATM kinase is required for robust p53 stabilization and activation in cells treated with ionizing radiation, and that loss of Mdm2 Ser394 phosphorylation leads to spontaneous tumorigenesis and radioresistance in Mdm2S394A mice. Previous in vitro data indicate that the c-Abl kinase phosphorylates Mdm2 at the neighboring residue (Tyr393) in response to DNA damage to regulate p53-dependent apoptosis. In this present ...


Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle Dec 2016

Genomic Landscape Of Colorectal Cancer In Japan: Clinical Implications Of Comprehensive Genomic Sequencing For Precision Medicine, Masayuki Nagahashi, Toshifumi Wakai, Stephen R. Lyle

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genomic sequencing (CGS) has the potential to revolutionize precision medicine for cancer patients across the globe. However, to date large-scale genomic sequencing of cancer patients has been limited to Western populations. In order to understand possible ethnic and geographic differences and to explore the broader application of CGS to other populations, we sequenced a panel of 415 important cancer genes to characterize clinically actionable genomic driver events in 201 Japanese patients with colorectal cancer (CRC).

METHODS: Using next-generation sequencing methods, we examined all exons of 415 known cancer genes in Japanese CRC patients (n = 201) and evaluated for ...


Comparative Genetic Screens In Human Cells Reveal New Regulatory Mechanisms In Wnt Signaling, Andres M. Lebensohn, Ramin Dubey, Leif Neitzel, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites Dec 2016

Comparative Genetic Screens In Human Cells Reveal New Regulatory Mechanisms In Wnt Signaling, Andres M. Lebensohn, Ramin Dubey, Leif Neitzel, Ofelia Tacchelly-Benites

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The comprehensive understanding of cellular signaling pathways remains a challenge due to multiple layers of regulation that may become evident only when the pathway is probed at different levels or critical nodes are eliminated. To discover regulatory mechanisms in canonical WNT signaling, we conducted a systematic forward genetic analysis through reporter-based screens in haploid human cells. Comparison of screens for negative, attenuating and positive regulators of WNT signaling, mediators of R-spondin-dependent signaling and suppressors of constitutive signaling induced by loss of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli or casein kinase 1α uncovered new regulatory features at most levels of the ...


Mechanism Of Action Of Id4 As A Tumor Suppressor, Shravan Kumar Komaragiri Dec 2016

Mechanism Of Action Of Id4 As A Tumor Suppressor, Shravan Kumar Komaragiri

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

Initial studies demonstrated that Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation protein 4 (Id4) acts as a tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). To further confirm and investigate the mechanism by which ID4 acts as a tumor suppressor, herein we concentrated on two different approaches. In the first approach we investigated ID4 role as a tumor suppressor by regulating AKT/PI3K pathway. In the second approach, we examined the role of Id4 in blocking the tumorogenic properties of metastatic PC3 cells. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Protein kinase B (PI3/AKT) pathway regulates multiple biological processes leading to cell survival, proliferation and growth in cancerous ...


Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi Dec 2016

Id4 And Fkbp52 Interaction Regulates Androgen Receptor Activity: Mechanistic Insight, Jugal Bharat Joshi

Electronic Theses & Dissertations Collection for Atlanta University & Clark Atlanta University

The inhibitor of DNA binding protein 4 (ID4) is a dominant negative regulator of basic helix loop helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors.1 Recently, Patel et al., demonstrated that inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as a tumor suppressor and its loss, frequently observed in prostate cancer, promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) through constitutive androgen receptor (AR) activation.2 However, the mechanism by which loss of ID4 promotes constitutively active AR signaling in the CRPC conditions is unknown. The rationale of the present study was to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms through which loss of ID4 potentiates AR signaling ...


Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava Dec 2016

Regulation Of Alteration/Deficiency In Activation 3 (Ada3) By Acetylation And Its Role In Cell Cycle Regulation And Oncogenesis, Shashank Srivastava

Theses & Dissertations

The ADA3 (Alteration/Deficiency in Activation 3) protein is a transcriptional adaptor protein that was initially discovered as a component of several HAT (Histone Acetyltransferase) complexes, the enzyme complex responsible for histone acetylation, which is a prerequisite for transcription. Earlier the studies from Dr. Band’s laboratory and that of others’ have deciphered a crucial role of ADA3 in cell cycle regulation (both through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions) and in maintaining the genomic stability.

While our laboratory investigated the mechanism behind the role of ADA3 in G1/S transition, the same remained unknown for ...


Role Of Cbl-Family Ubiquitin Ligases As Critical Negative Regulators Of T Cell Activation And Functions, Benjamin Goetz Dec 2016

Role Of Cbl-Family Ubiquitin Ligases As Critical Negative Regulators Of T Cell Activation And Functions, Benjamin Goetz

Theses & Dissertations

Adaptive T cell immunity is essential for defense against foreign antigens and immune surveillance against cancer. Tight regulation of T cell activation is required to avoid autoimmunity to self-antigens or protracted inflammation after foreign antigens are cleared. Incomplete or inappropriate stimulation leads to an active shutdown of T cell activation called anergy. The Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma (CBL)-family of ubiquitin ligases (E3s) are essential negative regulators of T cell activation that impinge on thymic selection as well as anergy induction programs. Single gene studies show that CBL is critical during T cell development while CBL-B plays an essential role in ...


Fibroblast Growth Requires Ct10 Regulator Of Kinase (Crk) And Crk-Like (Crkl)., Taeju Park, Mateusz Koptyra, Tom Curran Dec 2016

Fibroblast Growth Requires Ct10 Regulator Of Kinase (Crk) And Crk-Like (Crkl)., Taeju Park, Mateusz Koptyra, Tom Curran

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

CT10 regulator of kinase (Crk) and Crk-like (CrkL) are the cellular counterparts of the viral oncogene v-Crk Elevated levels of Crk and CrkL have been observed in many human cancers; inhibition of Crk and CrkL expression reduced the tumor-forming potential of cancer cell lines. Despite a close relationship between the Crk family proteins and tumorigenesis, how Crk and CrkL contribute to cell growth is unclear. We ablated endogenous Crk and CrkL from cultured fibroblasts carrying floxed alleles of Crk and CrkL by transfection with synthetic Cre mRNA (synCre). Loss of Crk and CrkL induced by synCre transfection blocked cell proliferation ...


Developing A Cr281 Peptide Specific T Lymphocyte Immune Response To Target Pancreatic Cancer Cck2i4sv Receptor, Taylor Hook Dec 2016

Developing A Cr281 Peptide Specific T Lymphocyte Immune Response To Target Pancreatic Cancer Cck2i4sv Receptor, Taylor Hook

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Pancreatic cancer is a debilitating disease with a poor survival rate. There are no effective treatments for pancreatic cancer necessitating research to find new targets for treatment. The basis of this research is to determine whether a novel target located inside of pancreatic cancer cells can be utilized to control or eradicate pancreatic tumors by T cell-based immunity. Gastrin and Cholecystokinin (CCK) are hormones that regulate activity of the gastrointestinal tract.Each can signal via CCK-BR, which normally acts as an on/off switch for pancreatic cells to secrete enzymes and bicarbonate. An altered form of the CCK-B receptor, CCK2i4sv ...


Cd4+ T Cell Regulation Of Immune Responses To The Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen Is Complex And Involves Multiple Layers Of Coordination Dependent On Immune Conditions, Arielle Raugh, Lawrence Mylin Dec 2016

Cd4+ T Cell Regulation Of Immune Responses To The Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen Is Complex And Involves Multiple Layers Of Coordination Dependent On Immune Conditions, Arielle Raugh, Lawrence Mylin

Honors Projects and Presentations: Undergraduate

Cytotoxic (CD8+) and Helper (CD4+) T lymphocytes play an important role in the immune detection and destruction of tumors. The induction of Cytotoxic T cell responses by multiple CD8 epitopes located within the Simian Virus 40 Large Tumor Antigen (SV40 T ag) oncoprotein has been well characterized, and we have begun to characterize the role(s) of CD4+ Helper T cells in controlling cellular immune responses to the SV40 T ag. The goal of this study was to characterize the cytokines produced by activated SV40T ag-specific Helper T cells in order to identify subset(s) of Helper T cells that ...


Microenvironment-Induced Pten Loss By Exosomal Microrna Primes Brain Metastasis Outgrowth, Lin Zhang Dec 2016

Microenvironment-Induced Pten Loss By Exosomal Microrna Primes Brain Metastasis Outgrowth, Lin Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Development of life-threatening cancer metastases at distant organs requires disseminated tumor cells’ adaptation to and co-evolution with the drastically different microenvironments of metastatic sites. Cancer cells of common origin manifest distinct gene expression patterns after metastasizing to different organs. Clearly, the dynamic interplay between metastatic tumor cells and extrinsic signals at individual metastatic organ sites critically impacts the subsequent metastatic outgrowth. Yet, it is unclear when and how disseminated tumor cells acquire the essential traits from the microenvironment of metastatic organs that prime their subsequent outgrowth. Here we show that primary tumor cells with normal expression of PTEN, an important ...


Concomitant Targeting Of The Mtor/Mapk Pathways: Novel Therapeutic Strategy In Subsets Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Dennis Ruder Dec 2016

Concomitant Targeting Of The Mtor/Mapk Pathways: Novel Therapeutic Strategy In Subsets Of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Dennis Ruder

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Over the last decade, a paradigm-shift in lung cancer therapy has evolved into targeted-driven medicinal approaches. However, patients frequently relapse and develop resistance to available therapies. Herein, we utilized genomic mutation data from advanced chemorefractory non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients enrolled in the Biomarker-Integrated Approaches of Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer Elimination (BATTLE-2) clinical trial to characterize novel actionable genomic alterations potentially of clinical relevance. We identified RICTOR alterations (mutations, amplifications) in 17% of lung adenocarcinomas and found RICTOR expression correlates to worse overall survival. There was enrichment of MAPK pathway genetic aberrations in key oncogenes (e.g. KRAS ...


Discrete Mutations In Colorectal Cancer Correlate With Defined Microbial Communities In The Tumor Microenvironment, Michael B. Burns, Emmanuel Montassier, Juan Abrahante, Timothy K. Starr, Dan Knights, Ran Blekhman Dec 2016

Discrete Mutations In Colorectal Cancer Correlate With Defined Microbial Communities In The Tumor Microenvironment, Michael B. Burns, Emmanuel Montassier, Juan Abrahante, Timothy K. Starr, Dan Knights, Ran Blekhman

Biology: Faculty Publications and Other Works

Variation in the gut microbiome has been linked to colorectal cancer (CRC), as well as to host genetics. However, we do not know whether genetic mutations in CRC tumors interact with the structure and composition of the microbial communities surrounding the tumors, and if so, whether changes in the microbiome can be used as a predictor for tumor mutational status. Here, we characterized the association between CRC tumor mutational landscape and its proximal microbial communities by performing whole exome sequencing and microbiome profiling in tumors and normal colorectal tissue samples from the same patient. We find a significant association between ...


The Role Of Streptococcus Gallolyticus Subspecies Gallolyticus In Colon Cancer Development, Jennifer L. Herold Dec 2016

The Role Of Streptococcus Gallolyticus Subspecies Gallolyticus In Colon Cancer Development, Jennifer L. Herold

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and women and is also the third most common cause of cancer death. A large body of evidence points towards the possibility that bacteria can have a significant impact on the development of cancer. It has been suggested that Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, a group D streptococci, may play a role in the development of CRC. Sg, formerly S. bovis biotype I, has been shown to be highly associated with CRC. In observing patients with either Sg bacteremia or endocarditis it was found that 25-80% of patients with Sg ...


Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted Dec 2016

Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, Synergistic Activity, And Antitumor Activity Of Two Isomeric Flavones, Crystal L. Whitted

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary metabolites found in plants that have bioactive properties including antiviral, antioxidant, and anticancer. Two isomeric flavone were extracted from Gnaphalium elegans and Achyrocline bogotensis, plants used by the people from the Andean region of South America as remedies for cancer. 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (5, 7–dihydroxy- 3, 6, 8 trimethoxy flavone/ flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one (3, 5–dihydroxy-6, 7, 8–trimethoxy flavone/ flavone B) have shown antineoplastic activity against colon cancer cell lines dependent upon their differentiation status. Pharmacokinetic studies reported herein were used to determine dosing for antitumor assays, as ...


Cancer Metabolism: Fueling More Than Just Growth, Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim Dec 2016

Cancer Metabolism: Fueling More Than Just Growth, Namgyu Lee, Dohoon Kim

UMass Metabolic Network Publications

The early landmark discoveries in cancer metabolism research have uncovered metabolic processes that support rapid proliferation, such as aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect), glutaminolysis, and increased nucleotide biosynthesis. However, there are limitations to the effectiveness of specifically targeting the metabolic processes which support rapid proliferation. First, as other normal proliferative tissues also share similar metabolic features, they may also be affected by such treatments. Secondly, targeting proliferative metabolism may only target the highly proliferating "bulk tumor" cells and not the slower-growing, clinically relevant cancer stem cell subpopulations which may be required for an effective cure. An emerging body of research indicates ...


Analysis Of Rna Expression Of Normal And Cancer Tissues Reveals High Correlation Of Cop9 Gene Expression With Respiratory Chain Complex Components, Christina A. Wicker, Tadahide Izumi Dec 2016

Analysis Of Rna Expression Of Normal And Cancer Tissues Reveals High Correlation Of Cop9 Gene Expression With Respiratory Chain Complex Components, Christina A. Wicker, Tadahide Izumi

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome, composed of eight subunits, is implicated in cancer genetics with its deneddylase activity to modulate cellular concentration of oncogenic proteins such as IkB and TGFβ. However, its function in the normal cell physiology remains elusive. Primarily focusing on gene expression data of the normal tissues of the head and neck, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify groups of genes that were expressed synergistically with the COP9 genes, particularly with the COPS5 (CSN5), which possesses the catalytic activity of COP9.

RESULTS: Expressions of seven of the COP9 genes (COPS2, COPS3, COPS4, COPS5, COPS6 ...


Activation Of Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Enhances Pancreatic Cancer Development And The Malignant Potential Via Up-Regulation Of Cyr61, Makoto Sano, David R. Driscoll, Wilfredo E. De Jesus-Monge, Brian J. Quattrochi, Victoria A. Appleman, Jianhong Ou, Lihua (Julie) Zhu, Brian C. Lewis Nov 2016

Activation Of Wnt/Beta-Catenin Signaling Enhances Pancreatic Cancer Development And The Malignant Potential Via Up-Regulation Of Cyr61, Makoto Sano, David R. Driscoll, Wilfredo E. De Jesus-Monge, Brian J. Quattrochi, Victoria A. Appleman, Jianhong Ou, Lihua (Julie) Zhu, Brian C. Lewis

Open Access Articles

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a poor prognostic cancer, commonly develops following activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene. Activation of WNT signaling is also commonly observed in PDAC. To ascertain the impact of postnatal activation of WNT-stimulated signaling pathways in PDAC development, we combined the Elastase-tva-based RCAS-TVA pancreatic cancer model with the established LSL-KrasG12D, Ptf1a-cre model. Delivery of RCAS viruses encoding beta-cateninS37A and WNT1 stimulated the progression of premalignant pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanIN) and PDAC development. Moreover, mice injected with RCAS-beta-cateninS37A or RCAS-Wnt1 had reduced survival relative to RCAS-GFP-injected controls (P < .05). Ectopic expression of active beta-catenin, or its DNA-binding partner TCF4, enhanced transformation associated phenotypes in PDAC cells. In contrast, these phenotypes were significantly impaired by the introduction of ICAT, an inhibitor of the beta-catenin/TCF4 interaction. By gene expression profiling, we identified Cyr61 as a target molecule of the WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer cells. Nuclear beta-catenin and CYR61 expression were predominantly detected in moderately to poorly differentiated murine and human PDAC. Indeed, nuclear beta-catenin- and CYR61-positive PDAC patients demonstrated poor prognosis (P < .01). Knockdown of CYR61 in a beta-catenin-activated pancreatic cancer cell line reduced soft agar, migration and invasion activity. Together, these data suggest that the WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway enhances pancreatic cancer development and malignancy in part via up-regulation of CYR61.


High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Nov 2016

High-Resolution Proteomic And Lipidomic Analysis Of Exosomes And Microvesicles From Different Cell Sources, Reka A. Haraszti, Marie-Cecile Didiot, Ellen Sapp, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Hannah E. Rockwell, Fei Gao, Niven R. Narain, Marian Difiglia, Michael A. Kiebish, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

Open Access Articles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), are explored for use in diagnostics, therapeutics and drug delivery. However, little is known about the relationship of protein and lipid composition of EVs and their source cells. Here, we report high-resolution lipidomic and proteomic analyses of exosomes and MVs derived by differential ultracentrifugation from 3 different cell types: U87 glioblastoma cells, Huh7 hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We identified 3,532 proteins and 1,961 lipid species in the screen. Exosomes differed from MVs in several different areas: (a) The protein patterns of exosomes were ...


Braf And Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Challenging The Roles Of Snail And E-Cadherin, Brendon Mitchell, Dominick Leone, Shi Yang, Ashraf Khan, Meera Mahalingam, Jagdish Dhingra Nov 2016

Braf And Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma - Challenging The Roles Of Snail And E-Cadherin, Brendon Mitchell, Dominick Leone, Shi Yang, Ashraf Khan, Meera Mahalingam, Jagdish Dhingra

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: In papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), while the role of BRAF is well established, the contribution of BRAF to epithelial-mesenchymal transition is not.

STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: To elucidate the relationship between BRAF, surrogates of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (Snail, E-cadherin) and established histopathologic prognosticators in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: In this IRB approved cross-sectional study, 50 cases of archived annotated PTC samples were retrieved and immunohistochemically stained for Snail and E-cadherin protein. A semi-quantitative scoring system (incorporating proportion and intensity) was utilized.

RESULTS: Snail and E-cadherin expression were noted in 44% and 84% of BRAF mutant and, in 29% and 95 ...


One-Step Immortalization Of Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells Capable Of Oncogenic Transformation, Jordan L. Smith, Liam C. Lee, Abigail Read, Qiuning Li, Bing Yu, Chih-Shia Lee, Ji Luo Nov 2016

One-Step Immortalization Of Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells Capable Of Oncogenic Transformation, Jordan L. Smith, Liam C. Lee, Abigail Read, Qiuning Li, Bing Yu, Chih-Shia Lee, Ji Luo

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The ability to transform normal human cells into cancer cells with the introduction of defined genetic alterations is a valuable method for understanding the mechanisms of oncogenesis. Easy establishment of immortalized but non-transformed human cells from various tissues would facilitate these genetic analyses.

RESULTS: We report here a simple, one-step immortalization method that involves retroviral vector mediated co-expression of the human telomerase protein and a shRNA targeting the CDKN2A gene locus. We demonstrate that this method could successfully immortalize human small airway epithelial cells while maintaining their chromosomal stability. We further showed that these cells retain p53 activity and ...


Regulation Of E2f1 In Keratinocytes During Uv-Damage And Differentiation, Randeep K. Singh Nov 2016

Regulation Of E2f1 In Keratinocytes During Uv-Damage And Differentiation, Randeep K. Singh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The E2F1 transcription factor regulates the expression of key genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation to maintain skin homeostasis. The expression of E2F1 is tightly regulated during cell cycle progression and when cells are committed to differentiate, as well as in response to DNA damage. In keratinocytes, E2F1 protein and transcript levels increase following UV-induced DNA damage, whereas, in response to Ca2+-induced differentiation, both E2F1 protein and transcript levels decrease. In this thesis, I examined in detail the mechanism that modulates E2F1 stability following DNA damage and during keratinocyte differentiation. I show that E2F1 associates with hHR23 and ...


Pt-Mal-Lhrh Mediates Breast Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Through Increased Apoptosis, Kendall E. Collins Nov 2016

Pt-Mal-Lhrh Mediates Breast Cancer Cell Cytotoxicity Through Increased Apoptosis, Kendall E. Collins

Posters-at-the-Capitol

In the United States one in eight women will be afflicted with breast cancer. It is estimated that in 2016 there will be approximately 246,600 new invasive breast cancer cases and 61,000 new non-invasive cases. Triple negative breast cancers account for 15% of all breast cancers and are significantly more aggressive than other subtypes. Treatment options for triple negative breast cancer are limited due to the cancers not expressing the estrogen, progestogen, or herceptin receptors making them unresponsive to hormonal therapy. Our recent work centers around developing a novel chemotherapeutic agent that will direct therapy selectively to triple ...


Targeted And Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery And Release With Magnetoelectric Nanoparticles, Alexandra Rodzinski Nov 2016

Targeted And Controlled Anticancer Drug Delivery And Release With Magnetoelectric Nanoparticles, Alexandra Rodzinski

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A major challenge of cancer treatment is successful discrimination of cancer cells from healthy cells. Nanotechnology offers multiple venues for efficient cancer targeting. Magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) are a novel, multifaceted, physics-based cancer treatment platform that enables high specificity cancer targeting and externally controlled loaded drug release. The unique magnetoelectric coupling of MENs allows them to convert externally applied magnetic fields into intrinsic electric signals, which allows MENs to both be drawn magnetically towards the cancer site and to electrically interface with cancer cells. Once internalized, the MEN payload release can be externally triggered with a magnetic field. MENs uniquely allow ...


A Col11a1-Correlated Pan-Cancer Gene Signature Of Activated Fibroblasts For The Prioritization Of Therapeutic Targets, Dongyu Jia, Zhengqiu Liu, Nan Deng, Tuan Zea Tan, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang, Barbie Taylor-Harding, Dong-Joo Cheon, Kate Lawrenson, Wolf R. Wiedemeyer, Ann E. Walts, Beth Y. Karlan, Sandra Orsulic Oct 2016

A Col11a1-Correlated Pan-Cancer Gene Signature Of Activated Fibroblasts For The Prioritization Of Therapeutic Targets, Dongyu Jia, Zhengqiu Liu, Nan Deng, Tuan Zea Tan, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang, Barbie Taylor-Harding, Dong-Joo Cheon, Kate Lawrenson, Wolf R. Wiedemeyer, Ann E. Walts, Beth Y. Karlan, Sandra Orsulic

Dongyu Jia

Although cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are viewed as a promising therapeutic target, the design of rational therapy has been hampered by two key obstacles. First, attempts to ablate CAFs have resulted in significant toxicity because currently used biomarkers cannot effectively distinguish activated CAFs from non-cancer associated fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Second, it is unclear whether CAFs in different organs have different molecular and functional properties that necessitate organ-specific therapeutic designs. Our analyses uncovered COL11A1 as a highly specific biomarker of activated CAFs. Using COL11A1 as a ‘seed’, we identified co-expressed genes in 13 types of primary carcinoma in The Cancer ...


A Microrna/Runx1/Runx2 Network Regulates Prostate Tumor Progression From Onset To Adenocarcinoma In Tramp Mice, Nicholas H. Farina, Areg Zingiryan, Jacqueline Akech, Cody J. Callahan, Huimin Lu, Janet L. Stein, Lucia R. Languino, Gary S. Stein, Jane B. Lian Oct 2016

A Microrna/Runx1/Runx2 Network Regulates Prostate Tumor Progression From Onset To Adenocarcinoma In Tramp Mice, Nicholas H. Farina, Areg Zingiryan, Jacqueline Akech, Cody J. Callahan, Huimin Lu, Janet L. Stein, Lucia R. Languino, Gary S. Stein, Jane B. Lian

Open Access Articles

While decades of research have identified molecular pathways inducing and promoting stages of prostate cancer malignancy, studies addressing dynamic changes of cancer-related regulatory factors in a prostate tumor progression model are limited. Using the TRAMP mouse model of human prostate cancer, we address mechanisms of deregulation for the cancer-associated transcription factors, Runx1 and Runx2 by identifying microRNAs with reciprocal expression changes at six time points during 33 weeks of tumorigenesis. We molecularly define transition stages from PIN lesions to hyperplasia/neoplasia and progression to adenocarcinoma by temporal changes in expression of human prostate cancer markers, including the androgen receptor and ...


Native And Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Mosaicism In Gastric Carcinoma In H. Pylori-Infected P27-Deficient Mice, Songhua Zhang, Woojin Kim, Tu T. Pham, Arlin B. Rogers, Jeanmarie Houghton, Steven F. Moss Oct 2016

Native And Bone Marrow-Derived Cell Mosaicism In Gastric Carcinoma In H. Pylori-Infected P27-Deficient Mice, Songhua Zhang, Woojin Kim, Tu T. Pham, Arlin B. Rogers, Jeanmarie Houghton, Steven F. Moss

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: Chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection promotes non-cardia gastric cancer. Some mouse models suggest that bone marrow derived cells (BMDC) contribute to Helicobacter-associated gastric carcinogenesis. We determined whether this increased susceptibility to Helicobacter-induced gastric carcinogenesis of p27-deficient mice is dependent upon their p27-null BMDC or their p27-null gastric epithelial cells.

DESIGN: Female mice (recipients) were irradiated and transplanted with BMDC from male donors. Wild type (WT) mice in group 1 (control) received BMDC from male GFP-transgenic mice. Female WT and p27 KO mice were engrafted with male p27KO mice BMDC (Group 2) or GFP-transgenic WT BMDC (Group 3). Recipients ...


The Principal Genetic Determinants For Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma In China Involve The Hla Class I Antigen Recognition Groove, Minzhong Tang, J. A. Lautenberger, Xiaojiang Gao, Efe Sezgin, Sher L. Hendrickson, Jennifer L. Troyer, Victor A. David, Li Guan, Carl Mcintosh, Xiuchan Guo, Yuming Zheng, Jian Liao, Hong Deng, Michael Malasky, Bailey Kessing, Cheryl Winkler, Mary Carrington, Guy De The, Yi Zeng, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

The Principal Genetic Determinants For Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma In China Involve The Hla Class I Antigen Recognition Groove, Minzhong Tang, J. A. Lautenberger, Xiaojiang Gao, Efe Sezgin, Sher L. Hendrickson, Jennifer L. Troyer, Victor A. David, Li Guan, Carl Mcintosh, Xiuchan Guo, Yuming Zheng, Jian Liao, Hong Deng, Michael Malasky, Bailey Kessing, Cheryl Winkler, Mary Carrington, Guy De The, Yi Zeng, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an epithelial malignancy facilitated by Epstein-Barr Virus infection. Here we resolve the major genetic influences for NPC incidence using a genome-wide association study (GWAS), independent cohort replication, and high-resolution molecular HLA class I gene typing including 4,055 study participants from the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Guangdong province of southern China. We detect and replicate strong association signals involving SNPs, HLA alleles, and amino acid (aa) variants across the major histocompatibility complex-HLA-A, HLA –B, and HLA -C class I genes (PHLA-A-aa-site-62 = 7.4×10−29; P HLA-B-aa-site-116 = 6.5×10−19; P HLA-C-aa-site-156 = 6.8 ...


Genetic Polymorphisms Of Cyp2e1, Gstp1, Nqo1 And Mpo And The Risk Of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma In A Han Chinese Population Of Southern China, Xiuchan Guo, Yi Zeng, Hong Deng, Jian Liao, Yuming Zheng, Ji Li, Bailey Kessing, Stephen J. O'Brien Oct 2016

Genetic Polymorphisms Of Cyp2e1, Gstp1, Nqo1 And Mpo And The Risk Of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma In A Han Chinese Population Of Southern China, Xiuchan Guo, Yi Zeng, Hong Deng, Jian Liao, Yuming Zheng, Ji Li, Bailey Kessing, Stephen J. O'Brien

Stephen O'Brien

Background Southern China is a major area for endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Genetic factors as well as environmental factors play a role in development of NPC. To investigate the roles of previously described carcinogen metabolism gene variants for NPC susceptibility in a Han Chinese population, we conducted a case-control study in two independent study population groups afflicted with NPC in Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces of southern China. Methods Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP2E1-rs2031920, CYP2E1-rs6413432, GSTP1-rs947894, MPO-rs2333227 and NQO1-rs1800566 were genotyped by PCR-based RFLP, sequencing and TaqMan assay in 358 NPC cases and 629 controls (phase I cohort). Logistic ...


Genetic Factors Leading To Chronic Epstein–Barr Virus Infection And Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma In South East China: Study Design, Methods And Feasibility, Xiu Chan Guo, Kevin Scott, Yan Liu, Michael Dean, Victor David, George W. Nelson, Randall C. Johnson, Holli H. Dilks, J. A. Lautenberger, Bailey Kessing, Janice S. Martenson, Li Guan, Shan Sun, Hong Deng, Yuming Zheng, Guy De The, Jian Liao, Yi Zeng, Stephen J. O'Brien, Cheryl Winkler Oct 2016

Genetic Factors Leading To Chronic Epstein–Barr Virus Infection And Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma In South East China: Study Design, Methods And Feasibility, Xiu Chan Guo, Kevin Scott, Yan Liu, Michael Dean, Victor David, George W. Nelson, Randall C. Johnson, Holli H. Dilks, J. A. Lautenberger, Bailey Kessing, Janice S. Martenson, Li Guan, Shan Sun, Hong Deng, Yuming Zheng, Guy De The, Jian Liao, Yi Zeng, Stephen J. O'Brien, Cheryl Winkler

Stephen O'Brien

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a complex disease caused by a combination of Epstein-Barr virus chronic infection, the environment and host genes in a multi-step process of carcinogenesis. The identity of genetic factors involved in the development of chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection and NPC remains elusive, however. Here, we describe a two-phase, population-based, case-control study of Han Chinese from Guangxi province, where the NPC incidence rate rises to a high of 25-50 per 100,000 individuals. Phase I, powered to detect single gene associations, enrolled 984 subjects to determine feasibility, to develop infrastructure and logistics and to determine error rates in ...