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Cancer Biology Commons

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2015

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Articles 1 - 30 of 144

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Lung Cancer And Mesothelioma, Jeffrey A. Gordon, Elizabeth Kurian, Arash Bedayat, Ali Akalin, Karl Uy, Richard S. Pieters Dec 2015

Lung Cancer And Mesothelioma, Jeffrey A. Gordon, Elizabeth Kurian, Arash Bedayat, Ali Akalin, Karl Uy, Richard S. Pieters

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist presents an overview of lung cancer and mesothelioma, including epidemiology, etiology, screening, pathology, staging, and treatment.


Pvt1 Exon 9: A Potential Biomarker Of Aggressive Prostate Cancer?, Adeodat Ilboudo, Jyoti Chouhan, Brian K. Mcneil, Joseph R. Osborne, Olorunseun O. Ogunwobi Dec 2015

Pvt1 Exon 9: A Potential Biomarker Of Aggressive Prostate Cancer?, Adeodat Ilboudo, Jyoti Chouhan, Brian K. Mcneil, Joseph R. Osborne, Olorunseun O. Ogunwobi

Publications and Research

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer as well as the greatest source of cancer-related mortality in males of African ancestry (MoAA). Interestingly, this has been shown to be associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms around regions 2 and 3 of the 8q24 human chromosomal region. The non-protein coding gene locus Plasmacytoma Variant Translocation 1 (PVT1) is located at 8q24 and is overexpressed in PCa and, therefore, is also a candidate biomarker to explain the well-known disparity in this group. PVT1 has at least 12 exons that make separate transcripts which may have different functions, all of which are ...


The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan Dec 2015

The Role Of Tumor Suppressor Co-Chaperone Chip/Stub1 In Erbb2-Mediated Oncogenesis, Haitao Luan

Theses & Dissertations

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ErbB2 (Her2) is overexpressed in 20 -30% of invasive breast cancers and this overexpression correlates with poor prognosis and shorter overall as well as disease-free survival. Aberrant expression of ErbB2 through gene amplification, transcriptional deregulation and/or altered endocytic trafficking results in overexpression of ErbB2 at the plasma membrane and biases ErbB2 from primarily ligand-driven hetero-dimerization under normal expression conditions to increased ligand-independent homo-dimer and hetero-dimer formation and consequent activation. C-terminus of HSC70-Inteeracting protein (CHIP)/STIP1-homologous U-Box containing protein 1 (STUB1) is an HSP90/HSC70 interacting negative co-chaperone known to promote ubiquitination ...


The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit Dec 2015

The Role Of Cxcr2 In Pancreatic Cancer Development And Progression, Abhilasha Purohit

Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation examines the role of CXCR2, a seven transmembrane G- protein coupled receptor, in mediating autocrine as well as paracrine mechanisms during pancreatic cancer progression. Data presented in the initial section demonstrates the aberrant expression of the CXCR2 biological axis in human pancreatic cancer tissue specimens. A study performed within the first section of this dissertation investigates the contribution of CXCR2 signaling in pancreatic cancer initiation. These studies have identified a novel role of CXCR2 in mediating KRAS(G12D) -induced autocrine growth transformation of pancreatic cancer cells. The upregulation of the CXCR2 biological axis was found to be directly ...


Erbeta Regulation Of Nf-Kb Activation In Prostate Cancer Is Mediated By Hif-1, Paul Mak, Jiarong Li, Sanjoy Samanta, Arthur M. Mercurio Dec 2015

Erbeta Regulation Of Nf-Kb Activation In Prostate Cancer Is Mediated By Hif-1, Paul Mak, Jiarong Li, Sanjoy Samanta, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We examined the regulation of NF-kappaB in prostate cancer by estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) based on the inverse correlation between p65 and ERbeta expression that exists in prostate carcinomas and reports that ERbeta can inhibit NF-kappaB activation, although the mechanism is not known. We demonstrate that ERbeta functions as a gate-keeper for NF-kappaB p65 signaling by repressing its expression and nuclear translocation. ERbeta regulation of NF-kappaB signaling is mediated by HIF-1. Loss of ERbeta or hypoxia stabilizes HIF-1alpha, which we found to be a direct driver of IKKbeta transcription through a hypoxia response element present in the promoter of the ...


The Msi Family Of Rna-Binding Proteins Function Redundantly As Intestinal Oncoproteins, Ning Li, Maryam Yousefi, Angela Nakauka-Ddamba, Fan Li, Lee Vandivier, Kimberly Parada, Dong-Hun Woo, Shan Wang, Ammar S. Naqvi, Shilpa Rao, John Tobias, Ryan J. Cedeno, Gerard Minuesa, Katz Y, Trevor S. Barlowe, Alexander James Valvezan, Sheila Shankar, Raquel R. Deering, Peter S. Klein, Shane T. Jensen, Michael G. Kharas, Brian D. Gregory, Zhengquan Yu, Christopher J. Lengner Dec 2015

The Msi Family Of Rna-Binding Proteins Function Redundantly As Intestinal Oncoproteins, Ning Li, Maryam Yousefi, Angela Nakauka-Ddamba, Fan Li, Lee Vandivier, Kimberly Parada, Dong-Hun Woo, Shan Wang, Ammar S. Naqvi, Shilpa Rao, John Tobias, Ryan J. Cedeno, Gerard Minuesa, Katz Y, Trevor S. Barlowe, Alexander James Valvezan, Sheila Shankar, Raquel R. Deering, Peter S. Klein, Shane T. Jensen, Michael G. Kharas, Brian D. Gregory, Zhengquan Yu, Christopher J. Lengner

Departmental Papers (Biology)

Members of the Msi family of RNA-binding proteins have recently emerged as potent oncoproteins in a range of malignancies. MSI2 is highly expressed in hematopoietic cancers, where it is required for disease maintenance. In contrast to the hematopoietic system, colorectal cancers can express both Msi family members, MSI1 and MSI2. Here, we demonstrate that, in the intestinal epithelium, Msi1 and Msi2 have analogous oncogenic effects. Further, comparison of Msi1/2-induced gene expression programs and transcriptome-wide analyses of Msi1/2-RNA-binding targets reveal significant functional overlap, including induction of the PDK-Akt-mTORC1 axis. Ultimately, we demonstrate that concomitant loss of function of both ...


The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy Dec 2015

The Tumor Suppressor Notch Inhibits Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Hnscc) Tumor Growth And Progression By Modulating Proto-Oncogenes Axl And Ctnnal1 (Α-Catulin), Shhyam Moorthy, Shhyam Moorthy

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Background: Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with roughly 300,000 cancer related deaths occurring globally each year. The survival of patients with HNSCC has not changed significantly over the past decade, leading investigators to search for promising molecular targets. To identify new treatment targets and biomarkers that could better guide therapy, we previously characterized the genomic alterations from primary HNSCC patient samples. We were among the first to discover that NOTCH1 is one of the most frequently mutated genes in this cancer type. The spectrum of inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in HNSCC ...


Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd Dec 2015

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity Is Critical For Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1a Activity And Provides Novel Targets For Inhibiting Tumor Growth, Geoffrey Grandjean Phd

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Normal Glycolytic Enzyme Activity is Critical for Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Activity and Provides Novel Targets for Inhibiting Tumor Growth

By Geoffrey Grandjean

Advisory Professor: Garth Powis, D. Phil

Unique to proliferating cancer cells is the observation that their increased need for energy is provided by a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation in a process known as the Warburg Effect, a process many times less efficient than oxidative phosphorylation employed by normal cells to satisfy a similar energy demand [1]. This high rate of glycolysis occurs regardless of the concentration of oxygen in the cell and is ...


Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews Dec 2015

Identifying Protein Kinase Tbk1 As A Novel Inhibitor Of Intestinal Tumorigenesis, Amber L. Mathews

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in women and men, causing almost 600,000 annual deaths worldwide. There is a clear need to understand how CRC forms and progresses in order to improve the strategies of CRC prevention and therapy. A major factor that drives the development of CRC is genetic mutations that lead to activation of oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). In addition, the initiation and progression of CRC involve environmental and immunological factors. In particular, chronic inflammatory conditions are known as an important risk factor for CRC ...


Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud Dec 2015

Regulation Of The Retinoblastoma Tumor Suppressor By The Novel Ras Effector Nore1a., Thibaut François Barnoud

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers. It acts as a critical branch point in signal transduction, regulating numerous downstream effectors involved in cell growth and differentiation. While Ras can activate many growth promoting pathways, it can paradoxically regulate growth inhibitory pathways leading to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. One of the ways Ras can inhibit the growth of cells is via a family of effectors called the RASSF proteins. RASSF5 (NORE1A) is a tumor suppressor that is frequently inactivated in human tumors by epigenetic mechanisms. NORE1A binds directly to Ras and promotes Ras-induced senescence. We have ...


The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson Dec 2015

The Ras Effector Nore1a Forms A Tumor Suppressor Complex With Brca1., Nicholas C Nelson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ras proteins function as molecular signaling switches that can stimulate multiple mitogenic pathways in response to extracellular signaling. Oncogenic activation of Ras by structural mutation is a highly transforming event in ~1/3 of human cancers. However, aberrant Ras activation can also promote oncogene-induced senescence. This Ras-induced irreversible growth arrest is a physiological process that acts as a barrier to malignancy. The mechanisms by which Ras drives senescence and how this process is bypassed during Ras-driven transformation remains poorly understood.

Although mutations in the RAS gene are extremely rare in human breast cancer, the Ras signaling pathway is constitutively activated ...


Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper Dec 2015

Homozygous Knockout Of The Piezo1 Gene In The Zebrafish Is Not Associated With Anemia, Boris E. Shmukler, Nicholas C. Huston, Jonathan N. Thon, Chih-Wen Ni, George Kourkoulis, Nathan D. Lawson, Barry H. Paw, Seth L. Alper

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

We have now examined the erythroid phenotype in this zebrafish strain carrying a ZFN genomic knockout of piezo1. Genotyping was performed as previously described. In contrast to the anemic phenotype observed in zebrafish subjected to morpholino knockdown of piezo, the genomic ZFN knockout of piezo1 did not segregate either with anemia in the 3-dpf embryo or with dysmorphic erythrocyte morphology in the adult fish.


Suboptimal Cytoreduction In Ovarian Carcinoma Is Associated With Molecular Pathways Characteristic Of Increased Stromal Activation, Zhenqiu Liu, Jessica A. Beach, Hasmik Agadjanian, Dongyu Jia, Paul-Joseph Aspuria, Beth Y. Karlan, Sandra Orsulic Nov 2015

Suboptimal Cytoreduction In Ovarian Carcinoma Is Associated With Molecular Pathways Characteristic Of Increased Stromal Activation, Zhenqiu Liu, Jessica A. Beach, Hasmik Agadjanian, Dongyu Jia, Paul-Joseph Aspuria, Beth Y. Karlan, Sandra Orsulic

Dongyu Jia

Objective: Suboptimal cytoreductive surgery in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is associated with poor survival but it is unknown if poor outcome is due to the intrinsic biology of unresectable tumors or insufficient surgical effort resulting in residual tumor-sustaining clones. Our objective was to identify the potential molecular pathway(s) and cell type(s) that may be responsible for suboptimal surgical resection.
Methods: By comparing gene expression in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, we identified a gene network associated with suboptimal cytoreduction and explored the biological processes and cell types associated with this gene network.
Results: We show that primary ...


Environmental And Infectious Causes Of Malignancy, Mary Linton Peters, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann Nov 2015

Environmental And Infectious Causes Of Malignancy, Mary Linton Peters, Richard S. Pieters, James Liebmann

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist presents a summary of the most relevant causative agents of cancer. Exposure to many environmental agents is associated with an increased incidence of certain malignancies, although causation is usually difficult to prove. Certain chemicals, infections (parasitic, viral, and bacterial) and ionizing radiation are known carcinogens. Variable genetic susceptibility to carcinogenesis is apparent. Up to 2/3 of human cancers are believed to have an environmental component.


Erbeta Regulation Of Nf-Kb Activation In Prostate Cancer Is Mediated By Hif-1, Paul Mak, Jiarong Li, Sanjoy Samanta, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2015

Erbeta Regulation Of Nf-Kb Activation In Prostate Cancer Is Mediated By Hif-1, Paul Mak, Jiarong Li, Sanjoy Samanta, Arthur M. Mercurio

Open Access Articles

We examined the regulation of NF-kappaB in prostate cancer by estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) based on the inverse correlation between p65 and ERbeta expression that exists in prostate carcinomas and reports that ERbeta can inhibit NF-kappaB activation, although the mechanism is not known. We demonstrate that ERbeta functions as a gate-keeper for NF-kappaB p65 signaling by repressing its expression and nuclear translocation. ERbeta regulation of NF-kappaB signaling is mediated by HIF-1. Loss of ERbeta or hypoxia stabilizes HIF-1alpha, which we found to be a direct driver of IKKbeta transcription through a hypoxia response element present in the promoter of the ...


Cellular Life Beyond An Individual’S Death, Emily Schmitt Nov 2015

Cellular Life Beyond An Individual’S Death, Emily Schmitt

Emily F Schmitt Lavin

One of the most famous examples of cell lines surviving long after a person has died comes from a tumor found in the body of Henrietta Lacks, who died of cervical cancer in 1950. The study of approximately 50 million tons of her cells, which would conservatively equal the amount of cells in one billion people, has resulted in nearly 11,000 patents, including the polio vaccine. These cells have become a focus of public attention since Rebecca Skloot’s 2010 book, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. This talk will discuss what happens to cells once they leave our ...


The Role Of Endothelin 3 In Melanoma Progression And Metastasis, Nikeisha L. Chin Nov 2015

The Role Of Endothelin 3 In Melanoma Progression And Metastasis, Nikeisha L. Chin

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Endothelin receptor b (Ednrb) and its ligand Endothelin 3 (Edn3) have been implicated in melanoma. Several studies have shown an upregulation of EDNRB and EDN3 at both the protein and mRNA levels, as melanoma becomes more aggressive. This study investigated the putative role played by Edn3 over-expression in melanoma progression and angiogenesis in vivo. We crossed Tg(Grm1)Epv transgenic mice that aberrantly express metabotropic glutamate receptor1 under the Dopachrome tautomerase promoter, leading to spontaneous melanocytic lesions in the ears and tails that do not metastasize, with transgenics that overexpress Edn3 under the Keratin 5 promoter (K5-Edn3) or overexpress Ednrb ...


Nemo Prevents Steatohepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma By Inhibiting Ripk1 Kinase Activity-Mediated Hepatocyte Apoptosis, Vangelis Kondylis, Apostolos Polykratis, Hanno Ehlken, Laura Ochoa-Callejero, Beate Katharina Straub, Santosh Krishna-Subramanian, Trieu-My Van, Harald-Morten Curth, Nicole Heise, Falk Weih, Ulf Klein, Peter Schirmacher, Michelle A. Kelliher, Manolis Pasparakis Nov 2015

Nemo Prevents Steatohepatitis And Hepatocellular Carcinoma By Inhibiting Ripk1 Kinase Activity-Mediated Hepatocyte Apoptosis, Vangelis Kondylis, Apostolos Polykratis, Hanno Ehlken, Laura Ochoa-Callejero, Beate Katharina Straub, Santosh Krishna-Subramanian, Trieu-My Van, Harald-Morten Curth, Nicole Heise, Falk Weih, Ulf Klein, Peter Schirmacher, Michelle A. Kelliher, Manolis Pasparakis

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

IkappaB kinase/necrosis factor kappaB (IKK/NF-kappaB) signaling exhibits important yet opposing functions in hepatocarcinogenesis. Mice lacking NEMO in liver parenchymal cells (LPC) spontaneously develop steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) suggesting that NF-kappaB prevents liver disease and cancer. Here, we show that complete NF-kappaB inhibition by combined LPC-specific ablation of RelA, c-Rel, and RelB did not phenocopy NEMO deficiency, but constitutively active IKK2-mediated NF-kappaB activation prevented hepatocellular damage and HCC in NEMO(LPC-KO) mice. Knock-in expression of kinase inactive receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) prevented hepatocyte apoptosis and HCC, while RIPK1 ablation induced TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD)-dependent hepatocyte ...


Comprehensive Analysis Of Cancer-Associated Somatic Mutations In Class I Hla Genes, Sachet A. Shukla, Michael S. Rooney, Mohini Rajasagi, Grace Tiao, Philip M. Dixon, Michael S. Lawrence, Jonathan Stevens, William J. Lane, Jamie L. Dellagatta, Scott Steelman, Carrie Sougnez, Kristian Cibulskis, Adam Kiezun, Vladimir Brusic, Catherine J. Wu, Gad Getz Nov 2015

Comprehensive Analysis Of Cancer-Associated Somatic Mutations In Class I Hla Genes, Sachet A. Shukla, Michael S. Rooney, Mohini Rajasagi, Grace Tiao, Philip M. Dixon, Michael S. Lawrence, Jonathan Stevens, William J. Lane, Jamie L. Dellagatta, Scott Steelman, Carrie Sougnez, Kristian Cibulskis, Adam Kiezun, Vladimir Brusic, Catherine J. Wu, Gad Getz

Statistics Publications

Detection of somatic mutations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes using whole-exome sequencing (WES) is hampered by the high polymorphism of the HLA loci, which prevents alignment of sequencing reads to the human reference genome. We describe a computational pipeline that enables accurate inference of germline alleles of class I HLA-A, B and C genes and subsequent detection of mutations in these genes using the inferred alleles as a reference. Analysis of WES data from 7,930 pairs of tumor and healthy tissue from the same patient revealed 298 nonsilent HLA mutations in tumors from 266 patients. These 298 mutations ...


Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara Oct 2015

Mcnamara 201412 Nih Scap Innocentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-Cells And Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – Plus Supplement Plus Posters - 20151027 - Please Download "75" Instead, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

McNamara 201412 NIH SCAP InnoCentive Challenge Solution - T-Bow Rainbow T-cells and Tumor Cells Spatial Multiplexing Gene Expression Reporter System – plus supplement plus posters - 20151027.

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Please download the current 20151027 (October 27, 2015) Tattletales and T-Bow update from

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/75/

The bepress web site is not letting me replace the old pdf here at "65" with the additional 10 pages update.

///

The download is my/Cooper lab solution (submission) to the 2014 NIH Single Cell Analysis Program (SCAP) InnoCentive Challenge, "Follow That Cell". I submitted the Solution on 20141215Mon (with 20 minutes to spare). The Challenge web ...


Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20151027tue, George Mcnamara Oct 2015

Tattletales And T-Bow Update 20151027tue, George Mcnamara

George McNamara

20151027Tue this "75"

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/75

is my update of "65" posting

See text at

http://0-works.bepress.com.library.simmons.edu/gmcnamara/65/

for text summary. The PDf here in "75" supersedes "65".

The PDF here has 10 pages added to the end from the "65" version (pages 40-49 of PDF when including the bepress cover page)..

here is the text in my cover page (bepress may add its own cover):

20151027Tue: added 10 page e-poster at bottom explaining Binary Tattletales and T-Bow. That is, binary with respect to protein components. For one color (number of repeats, epitope tags ...


Epidemiology And The Cancer Problem, Shakeeb Yunus Oct 2015

Epidemiology And The Cancer Problem, Shakeeb Yunus

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

Epidemiology is the study of populations using defined research methods to confirm the patterns and causes of disease and applying this information to improve the health of the populations. This branch of science is the basis for understanding the spread of diseases in a defined area or group of people. Epidemiologic studies have been instrumental in improving outcomes by establishing preventive and therapeutic measures for the incidence, prevalence and mortality from cancers. The incidence of malignancy in a country or in our world defines the magnitude of the cancer problem. This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist ...


Insights Into Melanocyte Regeneration And Melanoma Initiation Using The Zebrafish Model System: A Dissertation, Sharanya Iyengar Oct 2015

Insights Into Melanocyte Regeneration And Melanoma Initiation Using The Zebrafish Model System: A Dissertation, Sharanya Iyengar

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

During regeneration, cells must coordinate proliferation and differentiation to rebuild tissues that are lost. Understanding how source cells execute the regeneration process has been a longstanding goal in regenerative biology with implications in wound healing and cell replacement therapies. Melanocytes are pigment-producing cells in the skin of vertebrates that can be lost during hair graying, injury and disease-related depigmentation. Melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer that develops from melanocytes, and it is hypothesized that melanoma cells have properties that are similar to melanocyte stem cells.

To gain insight into melanocyte regeneration we set out to identify the source of regeneration ...


Real-Time Detection Of Breast Cancer Cells Using Peptidefunctionalized Microcantilever Arrays, Hashem Etayash, Keren Jiang, Sarfuddin Azmi, Thomas Thundat, Kamaljit Kaur Oct 2015

Real-Time Detection Of Breast Cancer Cells Using Peptidefunctionalized Microcantilever Arrays, Hashem Etayash, Keren Jiang, Sarfuddin Azmi, Thomas Thundat, Kamaljit Kaur

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Ligand-directed targeting and capturing of cancer cells is a new approach for detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs). Ligands such as antibodies have been successfully used for capturing cancer cells and an antibody based system (CellSearch®) is currently used clinically to enumerate CTCs. Here we report the use of a peptide moiety in conjunction with a microcantilever array system to selectively detect CTCs resulting from cancer, specifically breast cancer. A sensing microcantilever, functionalized with a breast cancer specific peptide 18-4 (WxEAAYQrFL), showed significant deflection on cancer cell (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) binding compared to when exposed to noncancerous (MCF10A and HUVEC) cells ...


Chromatin Interaction Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Chromosome And Telomere Clustering Between Epithelial And Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmet Rasim Barutcu, Bryan R. Lajoie, Rachel Patton Mccord, Coralee E. Tye, Deli Hong, Terri L. Messier, Gillian Browne, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Job Dekker, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Gary S. Stein Sep 2015

Chromatin Interaction Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Chromosome And Telomere Clustering Between Epithelial And Breast Cancer Cells, Ahmet Rasim Barutcu, Bryan R. Lajoie, Rachel Patton Mccord, Coralee E. Tye, Deli Hong, Terri L. Messier, Gillian Browne, Andre J. Van Wijnen, Jane B. Lian, Janet L. Stein, Job Dekker, Anthony N. Imbalzano, Gary S. Stein

Program in Systems Biology Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Higher-order chromatin structure is often perturbed in cancer and other pathological states. Although several genetic and epigenetic differences have been charted between normal and breast cancer tissues, changes in higher-order chromatin organization during tumorigenesis have not been fully explored. To probe the differences in higher-order chromatin structure between mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells, we performed Hi-C analysis on MCF-10A mammary epithelial and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines.

RESULTS: Our studies reveal that the small, gene-rich chromosomes chr16 through chr22 in the MCF-7 breast cancer genome display decreased interaction frequency with each other compared to the inter-chromosomal interaction frequency ...


Pediatric Oncology Principles, Christopher P. Keuker Sep 2015

Pediatric Oncology Principles, Christopher P. Keuker

Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist

This chapter in Cancer Concepts: A Guidebook for the Non-Oncologist presents an overview of childhood cancer, including the incidence, distribution, diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship.


Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen Sep 2015

Characterizing The C-Terminal Region Of Human Adenovirus E1a: An Undiscovered Country, Michael J. Cohen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Human Adenovirus (HAdV) E1A is the first protein expressed during viral infection. The primary function of E1A is to reprogram the cell for viral replication, but it is additionally capable of transforming primary rodent cells in co-operation with other oncogenes such as HAdV E1B. Despite extensive study, little is known about the function and cellular targets of the C-terminal region of E1A. Importantly, this region is required for the transforming ability of E1A with E1B, but can also suppress transformation with Ras. Previous studies showed that interaction with the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) plays a role in both functions described ...


Clinical And Experimental Importance Of Circulating Tumor Cells In Prostate Cancer, Lori Lowes Sep 2015

Clinical And Experimental Importance Of Circulating Tumor Cells In Prostate Cancer, Lori Lowes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of death in men, primarily due to ineffective treatment in the metastatic setting. During this phase of PCa, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed into the bloodstream and their presence and number are important in patient prognosis. The CellSearch® system (CSS) is the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada approved instrument for detection of CTCs, making it the current clinical gold standard in CTC technology. Although the CSS provides a minimally invasive means of patient monitoring in the metastatic setting, little is known about the role of CTCs ...


Rapid Tumor Induction In Zebrafish By Talen-Mediated Somatic Inactivation Of The Retinoblastoma1 Tumor Suppressor Rb1, Staci L. Solin, Heather R. Shive, Kevin D. Woolard, Jeffrey J. Essner, Maura Mcgrail Sep 2015

Rapid Tumor Induction In Zebrafish By Talen-Mediated Somatic Inactivation Of The Retinoblastoma1 Tumor Suppressor Rb1, Staci L. Solin, Heather R. Shive, Kevin D. Woolard, Jeffrey J. Essner, Maura Mcgrail

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Investigating the in vivo role of tumor suppressor genes in cancer is technically challenging due to their essential requirement during early animal development. To address this bottleneck, we generated genetic mosaic adult zebrafish using TALEN genome editing and demonstrate somatic inactivation of the tumor suppressor retinoblastoma1 (rb1) induces tumorigenesis at high frequency. 11–33% of 1-cell stage embryos injected with TALEN mRNAs targeting rb1 exon 2 or 3 develop tumors beginning as early as 3.5 months of age. Lesions predominantly arise in the brain and show features of neuroectodermal-like and glial-like tumors. Mutant allele analysis is consistent with tumor ...


Clinical Significance Of The Integrin Α6Β4 In Human Malignancies, Rachel L Stewart, Kathleen L O'Connor Sep 2015

Clinical Significance Of The Integrin Α6Β4 In Human Malignancies, Rachel L Stewart, Kathleen L O'Connor

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Faculty Publications

Integrin α6β4 is a cellular adhesion molecule that binds to laminins in the extracellular matrix and nucleates the formation of hemidesmosomes. During carcinoma progression, integrin α6β4 is released from hemidesmosomes, where it can then signal to facilitate multiple aspects of tumor progression including sustaining proliferative signaling, tumor invasion and metastasis, evasion of apoptosis, and stimulation of angiogenesis. The integrin achieves these ends by cooperating with growth factor receptors including EGFR, ErbB-2, and c-Met to amplify downstream pathways such as PI3K, AKT, MAPK, and the Rho family small GTPases. Furthermore, it dramatically alters the transcriptome ...