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Cancer Biology Commons

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2012

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Articles 91 - 101 of 101

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic Jan 2012

Cdk1 And Plk1 Mediate A Clasp2 Phospho-Switch That Stabilizes Kinetochore–Microtubule Attachments, Ana R. R. Maia, Zaira Garcia, Lilian Kabeche, Marin Barisic

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis relies on a dynamic kinetochore (KT)-microtubule (MT) interface that switches from a labile to a stable condition in response to correct MT attachments. This transition is essential to satisfy the spindle-assembly checkpoint (SAC) and couple MT-generated force with chromosome movements, but the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we show that during mitosis the MT- and KT-associated protein CLASP2 is progressively and distinctively phosphorylated by Cdk1 and Plk1 kinases, concomitant with the establishment of KT-MT attachments. CLASP2 S1234 was phosphorylated by Cdk1, which primed CLASP2 for association with Plk1. Plk1 recruitment to ...


Cutaneous Papilloma And Squamous Cell Carcinoma Therapy Utilizing Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspef), Dong Yin, Wangrong G. Yang, Jack Weissberg, Catherine B. Goff, Weikai Chen, Yoshio Kuwayama, Amanda Leiter, Hongtao Xing, Antonie Meixel, Daria Gaut, Fikret Kirkbir, David Sawcer, P. Thomas Vernier, Jonathan W. Said, Martin A. Gundersen, H. Phillip Koeffler Jan 2012

Cutaneous Papilloma And Squamous Cell Carcinoma Therapy Utilizing Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspef), Dong Yin, Wangrong G. Yang, Jack Weissberg, Catherine B. Goff, Weikai Chen, Yoshio Kuwayama, Amanda Leiter, Hongtao Xing, Antonie Meixel, Daria Gaut, Fikret Kirkbir, David Sawcer, P. Thomas Vernier, Jonathan W. Said, Martin A. Gundersen, H. Phillip Koeffler

Bioelectrics Publications

Nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) induce apoptotic pathways in human cancer cells. The potential therapeutic effective of nsPEF has been reported in cell lines and in xenograft animal tumor model. The present study investigated the ability of nsPEF to cause cancer cell death in vivo using carcinogen-induced animal tumor model, and the pulse duration of nsPEF was only 7 and 14 nano second (ns). An nsPEF generator as a prototype medical device was used in our studies, which is capable of delivering 7-30 nanosecond pulses at various programmable amplitudes and frequencies. Seven cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and five ...


The Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase Rnf4 Regulates The Localization And Function Of The Htlv-1 Oncoprotein Tax, Kimberly A. Fryrear, Xin Guo, Oliver Kerscher, O John Semmes Jan 2012

The Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligase Rnf4 Regulates The Localization And Function Of The Htlv-1 Oncoprotein Tax, Kimberly A. Fryrear, Xin Guo, Oliver Kerscher, O John Semmes

Arts & Sciences Articles

The Really Interesting New Gene (RING) Finger Protein 4 (RNF4) represents a class of ubiquitin ligases that target Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO)–modified proteins for ubiquitin modification. To date, the regulatory function of RNF4 appears to be ubiquitin-mediated degradation of sumoylated cellular proteins. In the present study, we show that the Human T-cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) oncoprotein Tax is a substrate for RNF4 both in vivo and in vitro. We mapped the RNF4-binding site to a region adjacent to the Tax ubiquitin/SUMO modification sites K280/K284. Interestingly, RNF4 modification of Tax protein results in relocalization of the ...


Evaluation Of Daily Oral Kinase Inhibitors In Pediatric Spnet Tumor Xenografts, Greg Heinicke Jan 2012

Evaluation Of Daily Oral Kinase Inhibitors In Pediatric Spnet Tumor Xenografts, Greg Heinicke

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Throughout the human body cells grow and die at different rates. Each tissue has specific cellular requirements that define the growth and death of its cells. For example red blood cells are replaced frequently whereas brain cells slowly die with age and are not replaced. Cancer comes from a fundamental breakdown in the regulation of growth. These new growing cells reach a point when they are too abundant. When they have surpassed the body's need for new cells, they form large masses called tumors. Tumors are deadly when they become malignant. Malignant cells have the ability to invade and ...


Effective Non-Viral Delivery Of Sirna To Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells With Lipid-Substituted Polyethylenimines, Breanne Landry Jan 2012

Effective Non-Viral Delivery Of Sirna To Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells With Lipid-Substituted Polyethylenimines, Breanne Landry

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach for AML treatment as the siRNA molecule can be designed to specifically target proteins that contribute to aberrant cell proliferation in this disease. However, a clinical-relevant means of delivering siRNA molecules must be developed, as the cellular delivery of siRNA is problematic. Here, we report amphiphilic carriers combining a cationic polymer (2 kDa polyethyleneimine, PEI2) with lipophilic moieties to facilitate intracellular delivery of siRNA to AML cell lines. Complete binding of siRNA by the designed carriers was achieved at a polymer:siRNA ratio of ~0.5 and led to siRNA ...


Green Tea Catechin Extract In Intervention Of Chronic Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Induced By Environmental Carcinogens, Kusum Rathore, Hwa-Chain Wang Dec 2011

Green Tea Catechin Extract In Intervention Of Chronic Breast Cell Carcinogenesis Induced By Environmental Carcinogens, Kusum Rathore, Hwa-Chain Wang

Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that green tea components may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In our research, we have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. In this study, we used our chronic carcinogenesis model as a target ...


Glioblastoma Derived Exosomes Induce Apoptosis In Cytotoxic T Cells Through A Fas Ligand Mediated Mechanism, Keith Sabin, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Robert Belton, Robert Winn Dec 2011

Glioblastoma Derived Exosomes Induce Apoptosis In Cytotoxic T Cells Through A Fas Ligand Mediated Mechanism, Keith Sabin, Richard Rovin, Johnathan Lawrence, Robert Belton, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme deploy s a number of weapons to thwart the immune system. Within the tumor microenvironment, cytotoxic T cells fall victim to Fas ligand (FasL) induced apoptosis. In prostate and colorectal cancer, exosomes can mediate this FasL induced T cell apoptosis. Exosomes are tiny, membrane bound vesicles that are released from a cell. They contain functional mRNA and protein and have cell surface molecules representative of their parent cell. It is not known if GBM derived exosomes can also mediate FasL triggered apoptosis. In this study, the role of tumor derived exosomes as the delivery vehicle for FasL ...


Green Tea Catechin Intervention Of Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Erk Pathway Activation And Chronically-Induced Breast Cell Carcinogenesis, Kusum Rathore, Shambhunath Choudhary, Agricola Odoi, Hwa-Chain Wang Dec 2011

Green Tea Catechin Intervention Of Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Erk Pathway Activation And Chronically-Induced Breast Cell Carcinogenesis, Kusum Rathore, Shambhunath Choudhary, Agricola Odoi, Hwa-Chain Wang

Hwa-Chain Robert Wang

No abstract provided.


Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma, Johnathan Lawrence, Nicholas Cook, Richard Rovin, Robert Winn Dec 2011

Leptin Promotes Glioblastoma, Johnathan Lawrence, Nicholas Cook, Richard Rovin, Robert Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

The hormone leptin has a variety of functions. Originally known for its role in satiety and weight loss, leptin more recently has been shown to augment tumor growth in a variety of cancers. Within gliomas, there is a correlation between tumor grade and tumor expression of leptin and its receptor. This suggests that autocrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment may promote the growth of high-grade gliomas. Leptin does this through stimulation of cellular pathways that are also advantageous for tumor growth and recurrence: antiapoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis, and migration. Conversely, a loss of leptin expression attenuates tumor growth. In animal models ...


Effects Of ß3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist On Gene Expression Of Leptin In Glioblastoma, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Nicholas J. Cook, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Belton, Robert J. Winn Dec 2011

Effects Of ß3-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist On Gene Expression Of Leptin In Glioblastoma, Johnathan E. Lawrence, Nicholas J. Cook, Richard A. Rovin, Robert J. Belton, Robert J. Winn

Johnathan Lawrence

In the 25 years since temozolomide entered phase I clinical trials, few new primary or adjuvant therapies have been developed for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors. Our laboratory has been exploring novel methods for the treatment of GBMs. Recent studies indicate that the expression of the hormone leptin and its receptor (OBR) increases in gliomas and positively correlates with the malignancy of the tumor. Interestingly, ß3-adrenergic receptor agonists are known to decrease leptin expression in adipocytes but have not been examined in GBM cells. We hypothesized that b3-adrenergic agonists downregulate the expression of leptin and its receptor. In ...


7 Alpha-Hydroxy-Beta-Sitosterol From Chisocheton Tomentosus Induces Apoptosis Via Dysregulation Of Cellular Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio And Cell Cycle Arrest By Downregulating Erk1/2 Activation, Noor Hasima Nagoor Dec 2011

7 Alpha-Hydroxy-Beta-Sitosterol From Chisocheton Tomentosus Induces Apoptosis Via Dysregulation Of Cellular Bax/Bcl-2 Ratio And Cell Cycle Arrest By Downregulating Erk1/2 Activation, Noor Hasima Nagoor

Noor Hasima Nagoor

In continuation of our interest towards the elucidation of apoptotic pathways of cytotoxic phytocompounds, we have embarked upon a study on the anticancer effects of 7 alpha-hydroxy-beta-sitosterol (CT1), a rare natural phytosterol oxide isolated from Chisocheton tomentosus. CT1 was found to be cytotoxic on three different human tumor cell lines with minimal effects on normal cell controls, where cell viability levels were maintained >= 80% upon treatment. Our results showed that cell death in MCF-7 breast tumor cells was achieved through the induction of apoptosis via downregulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. CT1 was also found to increase proapoptotic Bax ...