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Cancer Biology Commons

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2012

Chemicals and Drugs

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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett May 2013

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Alfred M Legendre DVM, MS, DACVIM

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett Oct 2012

Preclinical Single-Dose Safety And Pharmacokinetic Evaluation Of Fluorocoxib A: Pilot Study Of Novel Cyclooxygenase-2-Targeted Optical Imaging Agent In A Canine Model, Maria Cekanova, M Uddin, Alfred Legendre, Gina Gaylon, Joseph Bartges, Amanda Callens, L Marnett

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

We evaluated preclinical single-dose safety, pharmacokinetic properties, and specific uptake of the new optical imaging agent fluorocoxib A in dogs. Fluorocoxib A, N-[(5-carboxy-X-rhodaminyl)but-4-yl]-2-[1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acetamide, selectively binds and inhibits the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme, which is overexpressed in many cancers. Safety pilot studies were performed in research dogs following intravenous (i.v.) administration of 0.1 and 1  mg/kg fluorocoxib A. Blood and urine samples collected three days after administration of each dose of fluorocoxib A revealed no evidence of toxicity, and no clinically relevant adverse events were noted on physical examination of exposed dogs ...


Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod Oct 2012

Identification Of Padi2 As A Potential Breast Cancer Biomarker And Therapeutic Target., John L. Mcelwee, Sunish Mohanan, Obi L. Griffith, Heike C. Breuer, Lynne J. Anguish, Brian D. Cherrington, Ashley M. Palmer, Louise R. Howe, Venkataraman Subramanian, Corey P. Causey, Paul R. Thompson, Joe W. Gray, Scott A. Coonrod

Thompson Lab Publications

BACKGROUND: We have recently reported that the expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) is regulated by EGF in mammary cancer cells and appears to play a role in the proliferation of normal mammary epithelium; however, the role of PADI2 in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer has yet to be investigated. Thus, the goals of this study were to examine whether PADI2 plays a role in mammary tumor progression, and whether the inhibition of PADI activity has anti-tumor effects.

METHODS: RNA-seq data from a collection of 57 breast cancer cell lines was queried for PADI2 levels, and correlations with known ...


Mdm2-P53 Signaling In Tissue Homeostasis And The Dna Damage Response: A Dissertation, Hugh S. Gannon Jun 2012

Mdm2-P53 Signaling In Tissue Homeostasis And The Dna Damage Response: A Dissertation, Hugh S. Gannon

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The p53 transcription factor responds to various cellular stressors by regulating the expression of numerous target genes involved in cellular processes such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. As these downstream pathways are harmful to the growth and development of normal cells when prolonged or deregulated, p53 activity needs to be under tight regulatory control. The Mdm2 oncoprotein is the chief negative regulator of p53, and many mouse models have demonstrated that absence of Mdm2 expression leads to constitutive p53 activation in a variety of cell types. While unregulated p53 can be deleterious to cells, functional p53 is essential ...


Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells: A Dissertation, Nathan F. Moore Jun 2012

Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells: A Dissertation, Nathan F. Moore

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Tumor recurrence after chemotherapy is a major cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Recurrences are thought to be due to small subsets of stem-like cancer cells that are able to survive chemotherapy and drive tumor re-growth. A more complete understanding of stem-like cancer cell regulation is required to develop therapies to better target and eliminate these cells.

Slow-cycling stem cells are integral components of adult epithelial tissues and may give rise to cancer stem cell populations that share similar characteristics. These slow-cycling adult stem cells are inherently resistant to traditional forms of chemotherapy and transference of this characteristic may help ...


Antagonistic Pleiotropy: The Role Of Smurf2 In Cancer And Aging: A Dissertation, Charusheila Ramkumar Jun 2012

Antagonistic Pleiotropy: The Role Of Smurf2 In Cancer And Aging: A Dissertation, Charusheila Ramkumar

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In response to telomere shortening, oxidative stress, DNA damage or aberrant activation of oncogenes, normal somatic cells exit the cell cycle and enter an irreversible growth arrest termed senescence. The limited proliferative capacity imposed by senescence on cells impedes the accumulation of mutations necessary for tumorigenesis and prevents proliferation of cells at risk of neoplastic transformation. Opposite to the tumor suppressor function, accumulation of senescent cells in adult organisms is thought to contribute to aging by depleting the renewal capacity of tissues and stem/progenitor cells, and by interfering with tissue homeostasis and functions. The Antagonistic Pleiotropy Theory of senescence ...


Mechanisms Of Kras-Mediated Pancreatic Tumor Formation And Progression: A Dissertation, Victoria A. Appleman May 2012

Mechanisms Of Kras-Mediated Pancreatic Tumor Formation And Progression: A Dissertation, Victoria A. Appleman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Pancreatic cancer is the 4th leading cause of cancer related death in the United States with a median survival time of less than 6 months. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) accounts for greater than 85% of all pancreatic cancers, and is marked by early and frequent mutation of the KRAS oncogene, with activating KRAS mutations present in over 90% of PDAC. To date, though, targeting activated KRAS for cancer treatment has been very difficult, and targeted therapies are currently being sought for the downstream effectors of activated KRAS. Activation of KRAS stimulates multiple signaling pathways, including the MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT signaling ...


The Molecular Mechanisms For Maintenance Of Cancer Stem Cells In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Haojian Zhang May 2012

The Molecular Mechanisms For Maintenance Of Cancer Stem Cells In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Dissertation, Haojian Zhang

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder associated with the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) that arises from a reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, thereby resulting in the formation of the chimeric BCR-ABL oncogene encoding a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase. BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) induce a complete hematologic and cytogenetic response in the majority of chronic phrase CML patients. However, TKIs cannot efficiently eradicate leukemia stem cells (LSCs) because of the insensitivity of LSCs to TKIs. Therefore, developing new strategies to target LSCs is necessary and critical for curing CML, and success of this approach ...


Increased Geranylgeranylated K-Ras Contributes To Antineoplastic Effects Of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors., Mandy A. Hall May 2012

Increased Geranylgeranylated K-Ras Contributes To Antineoplastic Effects Of Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors., Mandy A. Hall

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Ras family of small GTPases (N-, H-, and K-Ras) is a group of important signaling mediators. Ras is frequently activated in some cancers, while others maintain low level activity to achieve optimal cell growth. In cells with endogenously low levels of active Ras, increasing Ras signaling through the ERK and p38 MAPK pathways can cause growth arrest or cell death. Ras requires prenylation – the addition of a 15-carbon (farnesyl) or 20-carbon (geranylgeranyl) group – to keep the protein anchored into membranes for effective signaling. N- and K-Ras can be alternatively geranylgeranylated (GG’d) if farnesylation is inhibited but are preferentially ...


Oxaliplatin And Oxaliplatin Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, And Reactivity With Biologically Relevant Ligands, Amy Poynter May 2012

Oxaliplatin And Oxaliplatin Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, And Reactivity With Biologically Relevant Ligands, Amy Poynter

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Oxaliplatin is a third generation anticancer drug that has proven to be successful in fighting ovarian and testicular cancer. We are interested in determining how oxaliplatin and oxaliplatin derivatives interact with proteins, as well as how that interaction is affected by the size and shape of these platinum compounds. We have synthesized oxaliplatin as it is used in cancer treatment, as well as similar platinum compounds with the same diaminocyclohexane ligand as oxaliplatin but with additional bulk added to the nitrogen atoms. We are reacting oxaliplatin with key amino acids, including methionine, and will be comparing the kinetics of this ...


Analysis Of Integrin Α6Β4 Function In Breast Carcinoma: A Dissertation, Kristin D. Gerson Apr 2012

Analysis Of Integrin Α6Β4 Function In Breast Carcinoma: A Dissertation, Kristin D. Gerson

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The development and survival of multicellular organisms depends upon the ability of cells to move. Embryogenesis, immune surveillance, wound healing, and metastatic disease are all processes that necessitate effective cellular locomotion. Central to the process of cell motility is the family of integrins, transmembrane cell surface receptors that mediate stable adhesions between cells and their extracellular environment. Many human diseases are associated with aberrant integrin function. Carcinoma cells in particular can hijack integrins, harnessing their mechanical and signaling potential to propagate cell invasion and metastatic disease, one example being integrin α6β4. This integrin, often referred to simply as β4, is ...


Localization Of Insulin Receptor Substrate-2 In Breast Cancer: A Dissertation, Jennifer L. Clark Mar 2012

Localization Of Insulin Receptor Substrate-2 In Breast Cancer: A Dissertation, Jennifer L. Clark

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and many of its downstream signaling components have long been implicated in tumor progression and resistance to therapy. The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and IRS-2 adaptor proteins are two of the major downstream signaling intermediates of the IGF-1R. Despite their considerable homology, previous work in our lab and others has shown that IRS-1 and IRS-2 play divergent roles in breast cancer cells. Signaling through IRS-1 promotes cell proliferation, whereas signaling through IRS-2 promotes cell motility and invasion, as well as glycolysis. Moreover, using a mouse model of mammary tumorigenesis, our lab demonstrated that IRS-2 ...


Simulating Molecular Mechanisms Of The Mdm2-Mediated Regulatory Interactions: A Conformational Selection Model Of The Mdm2 Lid Dynamics, Gennady M. Verkhivker Jan 2012

Simulating Molecular Mechanisms Of The Mdm2-Mediated Regulatory Interactions: A Conformational Selection Model Of The Mdm2 Lid Dynamics, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Diversity and complexity of MDM2 mechanisms govern its principal function as the cellular antagonist of the p53 tumor suppressor. Structural and biophysical studies have demonstrated that MDM2 binding could be regulated by the dynamics of a pseudo-substrate lid motif. However, these experiments and subsequent computational studies have produced conflicting mechanistic models of MDM2 function and dynamics. We propose a unifying conformational selection model that can reconcile experimental findings and reveal a fundamental role of the lid as a dynamic regulator of MDM2-mediated binding. In this work, structure, dynamics and energetics of apo-MDM2 are studied as a function of posttranslational modifications ...


Probing Molecular Mechanisms Of The Hsp90 Chaperone: Biophysical Modeling Identifies Key Regulators Of Functional Dynamics, Anshuman Dixit, Gennady M. Verkhivker Jan 2012

Probing Molecular Mechanisms Of The Hsp90 Chaperone: Biophysical Modeling Identifies Key Regulators Of Functional Dynamics, Anshuman Dixit, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Deciphering functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 chaperone machinery is an important objective in cancer biology aiming to facilitate discovery of targeted anti-cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in understanding structure and function of molecular chaperones, organizing molecular principles that control the relationship between conformational diversity and functional mechanisms of the Hsp90 activity lack a sufficient quantitative characterization. We combined molecular dynamics simulations, principal component analysis, the energy landscape model and structure-functional analysis of Hsp90 regulatory interactions to systematically investigate functional dynamics of the molecular chaperone. This approach has identified a network of conserved regions common to the Hsp90 chaperones that could ...


Kshv Infection Of Endothelial Cells Manipulates Cxcr7-Mediated Signaling: Implications For Kaposi’S Sarcoma Progression And Intervention, Jennifer Totonchy, Lisa Clepper, Janet Douglas, Liron Pantanowitz, Klaus Fruh, Ashlee V. Moses Jan 2012

Kshv Infection Of Endothelial Cells Manipulates Cxcr7-Mediated Signaling: Implications For Kaposi’S Sarcoma Progression And Intervention, Jennifer Totonchy, Lisa Clepper, Janet Douglas, Liron Pantanowitz, Klaus Fruh, Ashlee V. Moses

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

"CXCR7 was recently characterized as an alternative receptor for the chemokine CXCL12/SDF-1, previously thought to bind and signal exclusively through CXCR4.We recently identified CXCR7 as a key cellular factor in the endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction associated with KSHV infection. CXCL12 signaling is critically associated with tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis in several diverse tumors and is one of the most studied chemokine/chemokine receptor interactions in cancer systems. The tumorigenic activity of the CXCL12 signaling axis offers an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in multiple cancers including Kaposi’s Sarcoma (KS). However, most of the research to date ...


Effective Non-Viral Delivery Of Sirna To Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells With Lipid-Substituted Polyethylenimines, Breanne Landry Jan 2012

Effective Non-Viral Delivery Of Sirna To Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells With Lipid-Substituted Polyethylenimines, Breanne Landry

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising approach for AML treatment as the siRNA molecule can be designed to specifically target proteins that contribute to aberrant cell proliferation in this disease. However, a clinical-relevant means of delivering siRNA molecules must be developed, as the cellular delivery of siRNA is problematic. Here, we report amphiphilic carriers combining a cationic polymer (2 kDa polyethyleneimine, PEI2) with lipophilic moieties to facilitate intracellular delivery of siRNA to AML cell lines. Complete binding of siRNA by the designed carriers was achieved at a polymer:siRNA ratio of ~0.5 and led to siRNA ...