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Cancer Biology Commons

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2011

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Articles 1 - 30 of 73

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

A Shared Gene Expression Signature In Mouse Models Of Ebv-Associated And Non-Ebv-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma, Kathryn T. Bieging, Kamonwan Fish, Subbarao Bondada, Richard Longnecker Dec 2011

A Shared Gene Expression Signature In Mouse Models Of Ebv-Associated And Non-Ebv-Associated Burkitt Lymphoma, Kathryn T. Bieging, Kamonwan Fish, Subbarao Bondada, Richard Longnecker

Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics Faculty Publications

The link between EBV infection and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is strong, but the mechanism underlying that link has been elusive. We have developed a mouse model for EBV-associated BL in which LMP2A, an EBV latency protein, and MYC are expressed in B cells. Our model has demonstrated the ability of LMP2A to accelerate tumor onset, increase spleen size, and bypass p53 inactivation. Here we describe the results of total gene expression analysis of tumor and pretumor B cells from our transgenic mouse model. Although we see many phenotypic differences and changes in gene expression in pretumor B cells, the transcriptional ...


The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle Dec 2011

The Cytoskeletal Mechanisms Of Cell-Cell Junction Formation In Endothelial Cells, Matthew K. Hoelzle

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Intercellular adhesions are essential for compartmentalization and integrity of tissues in an organism, cell-cell communication, and morphogenesis. The actin cytoskeleton and associated proteins play a vital role in establishing and maintaining cell-cell adhesion. However, the procedure by which cells establish adherens junctions remains largely unclear.

We investigated the dynamics of cell-cell junction formation and the corresponding architecture of the underlying cytoskeleton in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We show that the initial interaction between cells is mediated by protruding lamellipodia. Upon their retraction, cells maintain contact through thin bridges formed by filopodia-like protrusions connected by VE-cadherin-rich junctions.

Bridges ...


Regulation Of Hgf Expression By Δegfr-Mediated C-Met Activation In Glioblastoma Cells, Jeannine Garnett Dec 2011

Regulation Of Hgf Expression By Δegfr-Mediated C-Met Activation In Glioblastoma Cells, Jeannine Garnett

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Overexpression of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) and its ligand, the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and a constitutively active mutant of the epidermal growth factor receptor (∆EGFR/EGFRvIII), occur frequently in glioblastoma. c-Met is activated in a ligand-dependent manner by HGF or in a ligand-independent manner by ∆EGFR. Dysregulated c-Met signaling contributes to the aggressive phenotype of glioblastoma, yet the mechanisms underlying the production of HGF in glioblastoma are poorly understood. We found a positive correlation between HGF and c-Met expression in glioblastoma, suggesting that they are coregulated. This is supported by the finding that in a c-Met/HGF ...


The Role Of Tak1 In Pancreatic Cancer Development, Qianghua Xia Dec 2011

The Role Of Tak1 In Pancreatic Cancer Development, Qianghua Xia

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and the fifth leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Pancreatic cancer is a big challenge in large due to the lack of early symptoms. In addition, drug resistance is a major obstacle to the success of chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer. The underlying mechanism of drug resistance in human pancreatic cancers is not well understood. Better understanding of the mechanism of molecular pathways in human pancreatic cancers can help to identify the novel therapeutic target candidates, and develop the new preventive and clinic strategies to improve patient ...


The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song Dec 2011

The Role Of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Axl In Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma And Its Regulation By Hematopoietic Progenitor Kinase 1, Xianzhou Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most aggressive malignancies with less than 5% of five year survival rate. New molecular markers and new therapeutic targets are urgently needed for patients with PDA. Oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase Axl has been reported to be overexpressed in many types of human malignancies, including diffuse glioma, melanoma, osteosarcoma, and carcinomas of lung, colon, prostate, breast, ovary, esophagus, stomach, and kidney. However, the expression and functions of Axl in PDA are unclear. We hypothesized that Axl contributes to the development and progression of PDA. We examined Axl expression in 54 human PDA samples ...


The Role Of E2f1 In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Jie Chen Dec 2011

The Role Of E2f1 In The Response To Dna Double Strand Breaks, Jie Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The importance of E2F transcription factors in the processes of proliferation and apoptosis are well established. E2F1, but not other E2F family members, is also phosphorylated and stabilized in response to various forms of DNA damage to regulate the expression of cell cycle and pro-apoptotic genes. E2F1 also relocalizes and forms foci at sites of DNA double-strand breaks but the function of E2F1 at sites of damage is still unknown. Here I reveal that E2F1 deficiency leads to increased spontaneous DNA break and impaired recovery following exposure to ionizing radiation. In response to DNA double-strand breaks, NBS1 phosphorylation and foci ...


Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore Dec 2011

Suppression Of Chronically Induced Breast Carcinogenesis And Role Of Mesenchymal Stem-Like Cells, Kusum Rathore

Doctoral Dissertations

Sporadic breast cancers are mainly attributable to long-term exposure to environmental factors, via a multi-year, multi-step, and multi-path process of tumorigenesis involving cumulative genetic and epigenetic alterations in the chronic carcinogenesis of breast cells from a non-cancerous stage to precancerous and cancerous stages. Epidemiologic and experimental studies have suggested that various dietary compounds like green tea and grape seed may be used as preventive agents for breast cancer control. In this research, I have developed a cellular model that mimics breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by cumulative exposures to low doses of environmental carcinogens. I used the chronic carcinogenesis model ...


Identification Of Factors Involved In Dna Methylation Of Cpg-Island-Promoters, Yan Zhang Dec 2011

Identification Of Factors Involved In Dna Methylation Of Cpg-Island-Promoters, Yan Zhang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Repression of many tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in cancer is mediated by aberrantly increased DNA methylation levels at promoter CpG islands (CGI). About one-fourth of empirically defined human promoters are surrounded by or contain clustered repetitive elements. It was previously observed that a sharp transition of methylation occurs between highly methylated repetitive elements (SINE or LINE) and unmethylated CGI-promoters (e.g. P16, VHL, CDH and RIL) in normal tissues. The functions that lead to increased CGI methylation in cancer remain poorly understood. We propose that CGI-promoters contain cis-elements for triggering de novo DNA methylation. In the first part of our ...


Function Of Znf668 In Cancer Development, Ruozhen Hu Dec 2011

Function Of Znf668 In Cancer Development, Ruozhen Hu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Human cancer develops as a result of accumulation of mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Zinc finger protein 668 (ZNF668) has recently been identified and validated as one of the highly mutated genes in breast cancer, but its function is entirely unknown. Here, we report two major functions of ZNF668 in cancer development.

(1) ZNF668 functions as a tumor suppressor by regulating p53 protein stability and function. We demonstrate that ZNF668 is a nucleolar protein that physically interacts with both MDM2 and p53. By binding to MDM2, ZNF668 regulates MDM2 autoubiquitination and prevents MDM2-mediated p53 ubiquitination and degradation; ZNF668 ...


The Utilization Of Mouse Models To Study Gene Functions: The Role Of Foxn3 And Chd2 In Murine Development And Cancer, George Azaz Samaan Dec 2011

The Utilization Of Mouse Models To Study Gene Functions: The Role Of Foxn3 And Chd2 In Murine Development And Cancer, George Azaz Samaan

Doctoral Dissertations

Murine model organisms are an essential tool in the scientific community quest to decipher the molecular etiology of human diseases. Currently, several methods are used to induce or reproduce human diseases in mouse models using advanced genetic engineering techniques to mutate the wild-type genes. We utilized the Baygenomics gene-trap method to study the effects of two mammalian genes: FOXN3 and CHD2. The Forkhead Box (FOX) family of transcription factors shares a common DNA-binding domain and has been associated with organ development, differentiation, cell growth and proliferation, and cancer. Meanwhile, the CHD (Chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein) family of proteins is ...


Mcnamara 2011 Mpmicro - Multi-Probe Microscopy (10/31/2011), George Mcnamara Oct 2011

Mcnamara 2011 Mpmicro - Multi-Probe Microscopy (10/31/2011), George Mcnamara

George McNamara

Multi-Probe Microscopy is an ~1500 page Word document summarizing what I know and/or found interesting in light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and digital image analysis, from 1995-2005. Very little has been updated since 2005.


A Historical Perspective On Cancer, Rafael Sorkin Oct 2011

A Historical Perspective On Cancer, Rafael Sorkin

Rafael D. Sorkin

It is proposed that cancer results from the breakdown of universal control mechanisms which developed in mutual association as part of the historical process that brought individual cells together into multi-cellular communities. By systematically comparing the genomes of uni-celled with multi-celled organisms, one might be able to identify the most promising sites for intervention aimed at restoring the damaged control mechanisms and thereby arresting the cancer.


Loss Of P53 Ser18 And Atm Results In Embryonic Lethality Without Cooperation In Tumorigenesis, Heather L. Armata, Punita Shroff, David S. Garlick, Krista L. Penta, Andrew R. Tapper, Hayla Karen Sluss Sep 2011

Loss Of P53 Ser18 And Atm Results In Embryonic Lethality Without Cooperation In Tumorigenesis, Heather L. Armata, Punita Shroff, David S. Garlick, Krista L. Penta, Andrew R. Tapper, Hayla Karen Sluss

Open Access Articles

Phosphorylation at murine Serine 18 (human Serine 15) is a critical regulatory process for the tumor suppressor function of p53. p53Ser18 residue is a substrate for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-related (ATR) protein kinases. Studies of mice with a germ-line mutation that replaces Ser18 with Ala (p53(S18A) mice) have demonstrated that loss of phosphorylation of p53Ser18 leads to the development of tumors, including lymphomas, fibrosarcomas, leukemia and leiomyosarcomas. The predominant lymphoma is B-cell lymphoma, which is in contrast to the lymphomas observed in Atm(-/-) animals. This observation and the fact that multiple kinases phosphorylate p53Ser18 suggest Atm-independent tumor suppressive ...


Functional Ramifications For The Loss Of P-Selectin Expression On Hematopoietic And Leukemic Stem Cells, Con Sullivan, Yaoyu Chen, Yi Shan, Yiguo Hu, Cong Peng, Haojian Zhang, Linghong Kong, Shaoguang Li Sep 2011

Functional Ramifications For The Loss Of P-Selectin Expression On Hematopoietic And Leukemic Stem Cells, Con Sullivan, Yaoyu Chen, Yi Shan, Yiguo Hu, Cong Peng, Haojian Zhang, Linghong Kong, Shaoguang Li

GSBS Student Publications

Hematopoiesis is a tightly regulated biological process that relies upon complicated interactions between blood cells and their microenvironment to preserve the homeostatic balance of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), short-term HSCs (ST-HSCs), multipotent progenitors (MPPs), and differentiated cells. Adhesion molecules like P-selectin (encoded by the Selp gene) are essential to hematopoiesis, and their dysregulation has been linked to leukemogenesis. Like HSCs, leukemic stem cells (LSCs) depend upon their microenvironments for survival and propagation. P-selectin plays a crucial role in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph(+)) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In this paper, we show that cells deficient in P-selectin expression can repopulate the ...


Role Of Hypoxia And Glycolysis In The Development Of Multi-Drug Resistance In Human Tumor Cells And The Establishment Of An Orthotopic Multi-Drug Resistant Tumor Model In Nude Mice Using Hypoxic Pre-Conditioning, Lara Milane, Zhenfeng Duan, Mansoor M. Amiji Sep 2011

Role Of Hypoxia And Glycolysis In The Development Of Multi-Drug Resistance In Human Tumor Cells And The Establishment Of An Orthotopic Multi-Drug Resistant Tumor Model In Nude Mice Using Hypoxic Pre-Conditioning, Lara Milane, Zhenfeng Duan, Mansoor M. Amiji

Mansoor M. Amiji

Background The development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) cancer is a significant challenge in the clinical treatment of recurrent disease. Hypoxia is an environmental selection pressure that contributes to the development of MDR. Many cancer cells, including MDR cells, resort to glycolysis for energy acquisition. This study aimed to explore the relationship between hypoxia, glycolysis, and MDR in a panel of human breast and ovarian cancer cells. A second aim of this study was to develop an orthotopic animal model of MDR breast cancer. Methods Nucleic and basal protein was extracted from a panel of human breast and ovarian cancer cells ...


Drosophila Iap1-Mediated Ubiquitylation Controls Activation Of The Initiator Caspase Dronc Independent Of Protein Degradation, Tom V. Lee, Yun Fan, Shiuan Wang, Mayank Srivastava, Meike Broemer, Pascal Meier, Andreas Bergmann Sep 2011

Drosophila Iap1-Mediated Ubiquitylation Controls Activation Of The Initiator Caspase Dronc Independent Of Protein Degradation, Tom V. Lee, Yun Fan, Shiuan Wang, Mayank Srivastava, Meike Broemer, Pascal Meier, Andreas Bergmann

Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology Publications

Ubiquitylation targets proteins for proteasome-mediated degradation and plays important roles in many biological processes including apoptosis. However, non-proteolytic functions of ubiquitylation are also known. In Drosophila, the inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1) is known to ubiquitylate the initiator caspase DRONC in vitro. Because DRONC protein accumulates in diap1 mutant cells that are kept alive by caspase inhibition ("undead" cells), it is thought that DIAP1-mediated ubiquitylation causes proteasomal degradation of DRONC, protecting cells from apoptosis. However, contrary to this model, we show here that DIAP1-mediated ubiquitylation does not trigger proteasomal degradation of full-length DRONC, but serves a non-proteolytic function. Our ...


Mechanism Of Cyclin D1-Dependent Genomic Instability And Neoplastic Transformation, Laura Pontano Vaites Aug 2011

Mechanism Of Cyclin D1-Dependent Genomic Instability And Neoplastic Transformation, Laura Pontano Vaites

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Regulation of cyclin D1-dependent kinase activity is essential for cell cycle progression and DNA replication fidelity. Critically, impaired cyclin D1 phosphorylation and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis following the G1/S transition drives neoplastic growth, suggesting that posttranslational regulation is required for cell homeostasis. Elucidation of mechanisms facilitating S-phase cyclin D1 accumulation and novel functions of nuclear cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase is critical for understanding the role of cyclin D1 in tumorigenesis. The work presented herein demonstrates that accelerated, Fbx4-dependent cyclin D1 degradation following S-phase DNA damage is essential to maintain genome stability. Furthermore, Fbx4 functions as a bona fide tumor suppressor, as ...


Defining The Role Of Nras In Melanoma Maintenance, Sravya T. Challa, Sheri L. Holmen Aug 2011

Defining The Role Of Nras In Melanoma Maintenance, Sravya T. Challa, Sheri L. Holmen

Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program (UROP)

The incidence of melanoma has increased 600 percent over the last four decades; it is the most rapidly increasing malignancy among young people in the United States and is currently the leading cause of cancer death in women aged 25- 29. If detected early, the disease is easily treated; however, once the disease has metastasized it is largely refractory to conventional therapies and is associated with a high mortality rate. The development of cancer from a pre-malignant primary tumor to a metastatic cancer that develops at secondary sites is a multi-step process, thought to require many genetic and epigenetic events ...


Study Of Rest As A Negative Regulator Of P16ink4a, Monica B. Gireud Aug 2011

Study Of Rest As A Negative Regulator Of P16ink4a, Monica B. Gireud

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

STUDY OF REST AS A NEGATIVE REGULATOR OF P16INK4A

Monica Gireud, B.S.

Thesis Advisor: Vidya Gopalakrishnan, Ph.D.

The RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor (REST) is a negative regulator of neuronal differentiation. It is expressed ubiquitously in early embryos, but downregulated in neural progenitors concomitant with onset of neuronal differentiation in these cells. REST has been widely studied as a negative regulator of neuronal differentiation genes. Our recent work identified a novel role for REST in control of cell proliferation. However, the underlying molecular mechanism(s) are not known and is a focus of the current thesis project. Here ...


Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White Aug 2011

Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A patient diagnosed with a glioma, generally, has an average of 14 months year to live after implementation of conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Glioblastomas are highly lethal because of their aggressive nature and resistance to conventional therapies and apoptosis. Thus other avenues of cell death urgently need to be explored. Autophagy, which is also known as programmed cell death type II, has recently been identified as an alternative mechanism to kill apoptosis- resistant cancer cells. Traditionally, researchers have studied how cells undergo autophagy during viral infection as an immune response mechanism, but recently researchers have discovered ...


Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White Aug 2011

Mechanisms Of Adenovirus-Mediated Autophagy, Erin White

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

A patient diagnosed with a glioma, generally, has an average of 14 months year to live after implementation of conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Glioblastomas are highly lethal because of their aggressive nature and resistance to conventional therapies and apoptosis. Thus other avenues of cell death urgently need to be explored. Autophagy, which is also known as programmed cell death type II, has recently been identified as an alternative mechanism to kill apoptosis- resistant cancer cells. Traditionally, researchers have studied how cells undergo autophagy during viral infection as an immune response mechanism, but recently researchers have discovered ...


Enforced Expression Of Tbx1 In Fetal Thymic Epithelial Cells Antagonizes Thymus Organogenesis, Kim T. Cardenas Aug 2011

Enforced Expression Of Tbx1 In Fetal Thymic Epithelial Cells Antagonizes Thymus Organogenesis, Kim T. Cardenas

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Enforced expression of Tbx1 in fetal thymic epithelial cells antagonizes

thymus organogenesis

Kim T. Cardenas

The thymus and parathyroid glands originate from organ-specific domains of 3rd pharyngeal pouch (PP) endoderm. At embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5), the ventral thymus and dorsal parathyroid domains can be identified by Foxn1 and Gcm2 expression respectively. Neural crest cells, (NCCs) play a role in regulating patterning of 3rd PP endoderm. In addition, pharyngeal endoderm influences fate determination via secretion of Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen required for Gcm2 expression and generation of the parathyroid domain. Gcm2 is a downstream target of the transcription ...


Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song Aug 2011

Downregulation Of Pax2 Suppresses Ovarian Cancer Cell Growth, Huijuan Song

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

PAX2 is one of nine PAX genes regulating tissue development and cellular differentiation in embryos. PAX2 promotes cell proliferation, oncogenic transformation, cell-lineage specification, migration, and survival. Unattenuated PAX2 has been found in several cancer types. We therefore sought to elucidate the role of PAX2 in ovarian carcinomas. We found that PAX2 was expressed in low-grade serous, clear cell, endometrioid and mucinous cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively chemoresistant compared to high grade serous ovarian carcinomas. Four ovarian cancer cell lines, RMUGL (mucinous), TOV21G (clear cell), MDAH-2774 (endometrioid) and IGROV1 (endometrioid), which express high-levels of PAX2, were used to study the ...


Crosstalk Between R1175 Methylation And Y1173 Phosphorylation Negatively Modulates Egfr-Mediated Erk Activation, Jung-Mao Hsu Aug 2011

Crosstalk Between R1175 Methylation And Y1173 Phosphorylation Negatively Modulates Egfr-Mediated Erk Activation, Jung-Mao Hsu

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Post-translational protein modifications are critical regulators of protein functions as they expand the signaling potentials of the modified proteins, leading to diverse physiological consequences. Currently, increasing evidence suggests that protein methylation is as important as other post-translational modifications in the regulation of various biological processes. This drives us to ask whether methylation is involved in the EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) signaling, a biological process extensively regulated by multiple post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, glycosylation and ubiquitination. We found that EGFR R1175 is methylated by a protein arginine methyltransferase named PRMT5. During EGFR activation, PRMT5-mediated R1175 methylation specifically enhances EGF-induced EGFR ...


The Role Of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Lung Tumorigenesis, Jonathon D. Roybal Aug 2011

The Role Of Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts In Lung Tumorigenesis, Jonathon D. Roybal

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The extracellular milieu is rich in growth factors that drive tumor progression,but the mechanisms that govern tumor cell sensitivity to those ligands have notbeen fully defined. In this study, we address this question in mice that developmetastatic lung adenocarcinomas through the suppression of the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) enhance tumorgrowth and invasion by secreting VEGF-A that binds to VEGFR1, a processrequired for tumor growth and metastasis in mice and correlated with a poorprognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we discovered thatmiR-200 blocked CAF-induced tumor cell invasion by directly targetingVEGFR1 in tumor cells. In the context ...


Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang Aug 2011

Developmental Deregulation And Tumorigenesis Inhibition In 14-3-3zeta Knockout Mouse, Jun Yang

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cancer is second leading cause of death in the United States. Improving cancer care through patient care, research, education and prevention not only saves lives, but reduces health care cost as well. Breast cancer is the most leading cause of cancer incidence and cancer related death in women of the United States. 14-3-3s are a family of conserved proteins ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic organisms. They form complexes with hundreds of proteins by binding to specific phospho-serine/threonine containing motifs. In this way they regulate a variety of cellular processes and are involved in many human diseases especially cancer to ...


Role Of Prostaglandin E2 In The Regulation Of Pancreatic Stellate Cells Hyper Activity Associated With Pancreatic Cancer, Chantale Charo Aug 2011

Role Of Prostaglandin E2 In The Regulation Of Pancreatic Stellate Cells Hyper Activity Associated With Pancreatic Cancer, Chantale Charo

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal type of cancer due to its high metastasis rate and resistance to chemotherapy. Pancreatic fibrosis is a constant pathological feature of chronic pancreatitis and the hyperactive stroma associated with pancreatic cancer. Strong evidence supports an important role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2 generated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) during pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) are the predominant source of extracellular matrix production (ECM), thus being the key players in both diseases. Given this background, the primary objective is to delineate the role of PGE2 on human pancreatic stellate cells (PSC) hyper activation associated ...


Na/K-Atpase Mimetic Pnaktide Peptide Inhibits The Growth Of Human Cancer Cells, Zhichuan Li, Zhongbing Zhang, Joe X. Xie, Xin Li, Jiang Tian, Ting Cai, Hongaun Cui, Hanfei Ding, Joseph I. Shapiro Md, Zijian Xie Jul 2011

Na/K-Atpase Mimetic Pnaktide Peptide Inhibits The Growth Of Human Cancer Cells, Zhichuan Li, Zhongbing Zhang, Joe X. Xie, Xin Li, Jiang Tian, Ting Cai, Hongaun Cui, Hanfei Ding, Joseph I. Shapiro Md, Zijian Xie

Biochemistry and Microbiology

Cells contain a large pool of non-pumping Na/K-ATPase that participates in signal transduction. Here, we show that the expression of α1 Na/K-ATPase is significantly reduced in human prostate carcinoma as well as in several human cancer cell lines. This down-regulation impairs the ability of Na/K-ATPase to regulate Src-related signaling processes. Supplement of pNaKtide, a peptide derived from α1 Na/K-ATPase, reduces activities of Src and Src effectors. Consequently, these treatments stimulate apoptosis and inhibit growth in cultures of human cancer cells. Moreover, administration of pNaKtide inhibits angiogenesis and growth of tumor xenograft. Thus, the new findings demonstrate ...


Global Dna Demethylation During Erythropoiesis: A Dissertation, Jeffrey R. Shearstone Jul 2011

Global Dna Demethylation During Erythropoiesis: A Dissertation, Jeffrey R. Shearstone

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

In the mammalian genome, 5‟-CpG-3‟ dinucleotides are frequently methylated, correlating with transcriptional silencing. Genome-wide waves of demethylation are thought to occur only twice during development, in primordial germ cells and in the pre-implantation embryo. They are followed by de novo methylation, setting up a pattern that is inherited throughout development. No global methylation changes are thought to occur during further somatic development, although methylation does alter at gene-specific loci, contributing to tissue-specific patterns of gene expression. Here we studied DNA methylation in differentiating mouse erythroblasts in vivo using several approaches including genomic-scale, reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Surprisingly, demethylation ...


Metastatic Disease: Interactions Between Tumor Cells And Host Environment During Cancer Cell Spread, Jennifer M. Maclean Jul 2011

Metastatic Disease: Interactions Between Tumor Cells And Host Environment During Cancer Cell Spread, Jennifer M. Maclean

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tumor and metastasis formation are not cell autonomous phenomena, but rather an evolution of disease within and responding to the host environment. Metastatic spread from a primary tumor occurs as a result of a complex interplay between tumor cells and the host, wherein tumor cells must escape the primary tumor, enter the host vasculature, travel to and arrest in a distant tissue and survive and grow in that new organ. It is known that cells that progress through these stages must both escape and exploit host systems, yet the mechanisms used are not fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this ...