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Cancer Biology Commons

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2010

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Articles 1 - 30 of 68

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Lin28b, Let-7, And The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Colon Cancer, Catrina E. King Dec 2010

Lin28b, Let-7, And The Molecular Pathogenesis Of Colon Cancer, Catrina E. King

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Lin28b is an RNA-binding protein that inhibits biogenesis of tumor-suppressive microRNAs of the let-7 family, and is involved in induction of pluripotency. Although LIN28B has been implicated in cancer, a specific role in colon tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. We have determined that colon tumors exhibit decreased levels of mature let-7 isoforms, and that constitutive let-7 expression inhibits migration and invasion of colon cancer cells in vitro. Importantly, down-regulation of let-7a and let-7b in colon tumors correlates with increased expression of LIN28B, suggesting tumor-promoting properties of this let-7 inhibitor. In order to determine the role of LIN28B in colon cancer ...


Alternative Splicing In Human Colorectal Cancer, Jae Hoon Bahn Dec 2010

Alternative Splicing In Human Colorectal Cancer, Jae Hoon Bahn

Doctoral Dissertations

Most human genes undergo alternative splicing, and many abnormal splicing processes are associated with human diseases. However, the molecular relationship between alternative splicing and tumorigenesis is not well understood. Here, we identified novel Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) splicing variants produced by exon skipping in human cancer cell lines as well as colon tumor tissues. To elucidate the mechanism involved in KLF4 alternative splicing, we developed KLF4 minigene system and found that RNA binding motif protein 5 (RBM5) plays an important role in KLF4 splicing, as assessed by gain and loss of functional studies. Several anti-tumorigenic compounds were also tested for ...


Mcam/Muc18 Regulates Melanoma Progression By Modulating The Expression Of Id-1, Maya Zigler Dec 2010

Mcam/Muc18 Regulates Melanoma Progression By Modulating The Expression Of Id-1, Maya Zigler

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The acquisition of the metastatic melanoma phenotype is associated with increased expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule MCAM/MUC18 (CD146). However, the mechanism by which MUC18 contributes to melanoma metastasis remains unclear. Herein, we stably silenced MUC18 expression utilizing lentivirus-incorporated small hairpin RNA, in two metastatic melanoma cell lines, A375SM and C8161, and conducted cDNA microarray analysis. We identified and validated that the transcriptional regulator, Inhibitor of DNA Binding-1 (Id-1), previously shown to function as an oncogene in several malignancies, was downregulated by 5.6-fold following MUC18 silencing. Additionally, we found that MUC18 regulated Id-1 expression at the transcriptional ...


Analyzing The Role Of Αvβ8 Integrin In Glioma-Induced Angiogenesis, Jeremy H. Tchaicha Dec 2010

Analyzing The Role Of Αvβ8 Integrin In Glioma-Induced Angiogenesis, Jeremy H. Tchaicha

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

In this study we aimed to determine the functional roles for αvβ8 integrin in astrocytoma-induced angiogenesis. These studies originate from our analyses of αvβ8 integrin in developmental brain angiogenesis. αv and β8 knockout (KO) mice develop brain-specific vascular phenotypes that resemble vascular pathologies observed in the malignant astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Indeed, a murine xenograft model of astrocytoma suggested a role for the integrin in glioma-induced angiogenesis. Primary mouse astroglia were cultured from wild type (WT) and β8 KO neonates and were immortalized (HPV:E6/E7) and transformed (HRas:G12V). WT and β8 KO transformed astroglia were intracranially injected into ...


Study Of The Structure And Function Of Cxc Chemokine Receptor 2, Hae Ryong Kwon Dec 2010

Study Of The Structure And Function Of Cxc Chemokine Receptor 2, Hae Ryong Kwon

Masters Theses

It has been shown that the amino terminus and second extracellular loop (EC2) of CXCR2 are crucial for ligand binding and receptor activation. The lack of an ionic lock motif in the third intracellular loop of CXCR2 focuses an investigation of the mechanism by which these two extracellular regions contribute to receptor recognition and activation.

The first objective of this investigation was to predict the structure of CXCR2 based on known structures of crystallized GPCRs. Rhodopsin, β2-adrenergic receptor, CXCR4 were used for homology modeling of CXCR2 structure. Highly conserved motifs found in sequence alignments of the template GPCRs were helpful ...


Integrin (Alpha 6 Beta 4) Regulation Of Eif-4e Activity And Vegf Translation: A Survival Mechanism For Carcinoma Cells, Jun Chung, Robin E. Bachelder, Elizabeth A. Lipscomb, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Integrin (Alpha 6 Beta 4) Regulation Of Eif-4e Activity And Vegf Translation: A Survival Mechanism For Carcinoma Cells, Jun Chung, Robin E. Bachelder, Elizabeth A. Lipscomb, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We define a novel mechanism by which integrins regulate growth factor expression and the survival of carcinoma cells. Specifically, we demonstrate that the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) translation in breast carcinoma cells. The mechanism involves the ability of this integrin to stimulate the phosphorylation and inactivation of 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), a translational repressor that inhibits the function of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF-4E). The regulation of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation by alpha 6 beta 4 derives from the ability of this integrin to activate the PI-3K-Akt pathway and, consequently, the rapamycin-sensitive kinase mTOR that ...


Evidence That Distinct States Of The Integrin Alpha6beta1 Interact With Laminin And An Adam, M. S. Chen, E. A. Almeida, A. P. Huovila, Y. Takahashi, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio, J. M. White Nov 2010

Evidence That Distinct States Of The Integrin Alpha6beta1 Interact With Laminin And An Adam, M. S. Chen, E. A. Almeida, A. P. Huovila, Y. Takahashi, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio, J. M. White

Arthur M. Mercurio

Integrins can exist in different functional states with low or high binding capacity for particular ligands. We previously provided evidence that the integrin alpha6beta1, on mouse eggs and on alpha6-transfected cells, interacted with the disintegrin domain of the sperm surface protein ADAM 2 (fertilin beta). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that different states of alpha6beta1 interact with fertilin and laminin, an extracellular matrix ligand for alpha6beta1. Using alpha6-transfected cells we found that treatments (e.g., with phorbol myristate acetate or MnCl2) that increased adhesion to laminin inhibited sperm binding. Conversely, treatments that inhibited laminin adhesion increased sperm ...


The Integrin Alpha6beta4 Functions In Carcinoma Cell Migration On Laminin-1 By Mediating The Formation And Stabilization Of Actin-Containing Motility Structures, Isaac Rabinovitz, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

The Integrin Alpha6beta4 Functions In Carcinoma Cell Migration On Laminin-1 By Mediating The Formation And Stabilization Of Actin-Containing Motility Structures, Isaac Rabinovitz, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Functional studies on the alpha6beta4 integrin have focused primarily on its role in the organization of hemidesmosomes, stable adhesive structures that associate with the intermediate filament cytoskeleton. In this study, we examined the function of the alpha6beta4 integrin in clone A cells, a colon carcinoma cell line that expresses alpha6beta4 but no alpha6beta1 integrin and exhibits dynamic adhesion and motility on laminin-1. Time-lapse videomicroscopy of clone A cells on laminin-1 revealed that their migration is characterized by filopodial extension and stabilization followed by lamellae that extend in the direction of stabilized filopodia. A function-blocking mAb specific for the alpha6beta4 integrin ...


Integrin Alpha 6 Beta 4 Mediates Dynamic Interactions With Laminin, Aydin Tozeren, Hynda K. Kleinman, Stephen Wu, Arthur M. Mercurio, Stephen W. Byers Nov 2010

Integrin Alpha 6 Beta 4 Mediates Dynamic Interactions With Laminin, Aydin Tozeren, Hynda K. Kleinman, Stephen Wu, Arthur M. Mercurio, Stephen W. Byers

Arthur M. Mercurio

We present here a novel form of dynamic adhesion in which both the integrin receptor and the ligand supporting dynamic adhesion have been identified. Laminar flow assays showed that laminin supported attachment of alpha 6 beta 4-positive cells in the presence of fluid shear stress (tau < or = 2 dyn/cm2), indicating that these cells adhered to laminin within a fraction of a second. Further increases in flow rate (3.5 dyn/cm2 < or = tau < or = 100 dyn/cm2) initiated rolling of attached cells in the direction of flow, suggesting that rapidly formed adhesion is reversible and repeatable. Laminin fragment E8 ...


Role Of E-Cadherin In The Response Of Tumor Cell Aggregates To Lymphatic, Venous And Arterial Flow: Measurement Of Cell-Cell Adhesion Strength, Stephen W. Byers, Connie L. Sommers, Becky Hoxter, Arthur M. Mercurio, Aydin Tozeren Nov 2010

Role Of E-Cadherin In The Response Of Tumor Cell Aggregates To Lymphatic, Venous And Arterial Flow: Measurement Of Cell-Cell Adhesion Strength, Stephen W. Byers, Connie L. Sommers, Becky Hoxter, Arthur M. Mercurio, Aydin Tozeren

Arthur M. Mercurio

Defects in the expression or function of the calcium dependent cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin are common in invasive, metastatic carcinomas. In the present study the response of aggregates of breast epithelial cells and breast and colon carcinoma cells to forces imposed by laminar flow in a parallel plate flow channel was examined. Although E-cadherin negative tumor cells formed cell aggregates in the presence of calcium, these were significantly more likely than E-cadherin positive cell aggregates to disaggregate in response to low shear forces, such as those found in a lymphatic vessel or venule (< 3.5 dyn/cm2). E-cadherin positive normal breast epithelial cells and E-cadherin positive breast tumor cell aggregates could not be disaggregated when exposed to shear forces in excess of those found in arteries (> 100 dyn/cm2). E-cadherin negative cancer cells ...


Human Colon Carcinoma Cells Use Multiple Receptors To Adhere To Laminin: Involvement Of Alpha 6 Beta 4 And Alpha 2 Beta 1 Integrins, Margaret M. Lotz, Cynthia A. Korzelius, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Human Colon Carcinoma Cells Use Multiple Receptors To Adhere To Laminin: Involvement Of Alpha 6 Beta 4 And Alpha 2 Beta 1 Integrins, Margaret M. Lotz, Cynthia A. Korzelius, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

In this study, we used clone A, a human colon carcinoma cell line, to characterize those integrins that mediate colon carcinoma adhesion to laminin. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the human beta 1 subunit inhibited clone A adhesion to laminin. They also precipitated a complex of surface proteins that exhibited an electrophoretic behavior characteristic of alpha 2 beta 1 and alpha 3 beta 1. A monoclonal antibody specific for alpha 2 (PIH5) blocked clone A adhesion to laminin, as well as to collagen I. An alpha 3-specific antibody (P1B5) had no effect on clone A adhesion to laminin, even though it ...


Regulation Of Cellular Interactions With Laminin By Integrin Cytoplasmic Domains: The A And B Structural Variants Of The Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin Differentially Modulate The Adhesive Strength, Morphology, And Migration Of Macrophages, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Regulation Of Cellular Interactions With Laminin By Integrin Cytoplasmic Domains: The A And B Structural Variants Of The Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin Differentially Modulate The Adhesive Strength, Morphology, And Migration Of Macrophages, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Several integrin alpha subunits have structural variants that are identical in their extracellular and transmembrane domains but that differ in their cytoplasmic domains. The functional significance of these variants, however, is unknown. In the present study, we examined the possibility that the A and B variants of the alpha 6 beta 1 integrin laminin receptor differ in function. For this purpose, we expressed the alpha 6A and alpha 6B cDNAs, as well as a truncated alpha 6 cDNA (alpha 6-delta CYT) in which the cytoplasmic domain sequence was deleted after the GFFKR pentapeptide, in P388D1 cells, an alpha 6 deficient ...


Adam12 Induces Actin Cytoskeleton And Extracellular Matrix Reorganization During Early Adipocyte Differentiation By Regulating Beta1 Integrin Function, Nobuko Kawaguchi, Christina Sundberg, Marie Kveiborg, Behzad Moghadaszadeh, Meena Asmar, Nikolaj Dietrich, Charles Kumar Thodeti, Finn C. Nielsen, Peter Moller, Arthur M. Mercurio, Reidar Albrechtsen, Ulla M. Wewer Nov 2010

Adam12 Induces Actin Cytoskeleton And Extracellular Matrix Reorganization During Early Adipocyte Differentiation By Regulating Beta1 Integrin Function, Nobuko Kawaguchi, Christina Sundberg, Marie Kveiborg, Behzad Moghadaszadeh, Meena Asmar, Nikolaj Dietrich, Charles Kumar Thodeti, Finn C. Nielsen, Peter Moller, Arthur M. Mercurio, Reidar Albrechtsen, Ulla M. Wewer

Arthur M. Mercurio

Changes in cell shape are a morphological hallmark of differentiation. In this study we report that the expression of ADAM12, a disintegrin and metalloprotease, dramatically affects cell morphology in preadipocytes, changing them from a flattened, fibroblastic appearance to a more rounded shape. We showed that the highest levels of ADAM12 mRNA were detected in preadipocytes at the critical stage when preadipocytes become permissive for adipogenic differentiation. Furthermore, as assessed by immunostaining, ADAM12 was transiently expressed at the cell surface concomitant with the reduced activity of beta1 integrin. Co-immunoprecipitation studies indicated the formation of ADAM12/beta1 integrin complexes in these preadipocytes ...


Transcriptional Regulation Of Vegf-A By The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway, Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L. Lipson, Karen E. Sargent, Arthur M. Mercurio, Joan S. Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano Nov 2010

Transcriptional Regulation Of Vegf-A By The Unfolded Protein Response Pathway, Rajarshi Ghosh, Kathryn L. Lipson, Karen E. Sargent, Arthur M. Mercurio, Joan S. Hunt, David Ron, Fumihiko Urano

Arthur M. Mercurio

BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is crucial to many physiological and pathological processes including development and cancer cell survival. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) is the predominant mediator of angiogenesis in the VEGF family. During development, adverse environmental conditions like nutrient deprivation, hypoxia and increased protein secretion occur. IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha, master regulators of the unfolded protein response (UPR), are activated under these conditions and are proposed to have a role in mediating angiogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that IRE1alpha, PERK, and ATF6alpha powerfully regulate VEGFA mRNA expression under various stress conditions. In Ire1alpha(-/-) and Perk(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and ATF6alpha-knockdown ...


Endothelial Cells Assemble Two Distinct Alpha6beta4-Containing Vimentin-Associated Structures: Roles For Ligand Binding And The Beta4 Cytoplasmic Tail, Suzanne M. Homan, Arthur M. Mercurio, Susan E. Laflamme Nov 2010

Endothelial Cells Assemble Two Distinct Alpha6beta4-Containing Vimentin-Associated Structures: Roles For Ligand Binding And The Beta4 Cytoplasmic Tail, Suzanne M. Homan, Arthur M. Mercurio, Susan E. Laflamme

Arthur M. Mercurio

The alpha6beta4 laminin binding integrin functions in the assembly of type I hemidesmosomes, which are specialized cell-matrix adhesion sites found in stratified epithelial cells. Although endothelial cells do not express all the components of type I hemidesmosomes, endothelial cells can express the alpha6beta4 integrin. Because endothelial cells lose expression of alpha6beta4 in culture, we expressed recombinant alpha6beta4 in the dermal microvascular endothelial cell line, HMEC-1, to test whether endothelial cells can assemble adhesion structures containing alpha6beta4. Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we found that recombinant alpha6beta4 concentrates specifically in a novel fibrillar structure on the basal surface of endothelial cells in the ...


Regulation Of Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin Laminin Receptor Function By The Cytoplasmic Domain Of The Alpha 6 Subunit, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Regulation Of Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin Laminin Receptor Function By The Cytoplasmic Domain Of The Alpha 6 Subunit, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The alpha 6 beta 1 integrin is expressed on the macrophage surface in an inactive state and requires cellular activation with PMA or cytokines to function as a laminin receptor (Shaw, L. M., J. M. Messier, and A. M. Mercurio. 1990. J. Cell Biol. 110:2167-2174). In the present study, the role of the alpha 6 subunit cytoplasmic domain in alpha 6 beta 1 integrin activation was examined. The use of P388D1 cells, an alpha 6-integrin deficient macrophage cell line, facilitated this analysis because expression of either the alpha 6A or alpha 6B subunit cDNAs restores their activation responsive laminin ...


Transcriptional Activation Of Integrin Beta6 During The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Defines A Novel Prognostic Indicator Of Aggressive Colon Carcinoma, Richard C. Bates, David I. Bellovin, Courtney Brown, Elizabeth Maynard, Bingyan Wu, Hisaaki Kawakatsu, Dean Sheppard, Peter Oettgen, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Transcriptional Activation Of Integrin Beta6 During The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Defines A Novel Prognostic Indicator Of Aggressive Colon Carcinoma, Richard C. Bates, David I. Bellovin, Courtney Brown, Elizabeth Maynard, Bingyan Wu, Hisaaki Kawakatsu, Dean Sheppard, Peter Oettgen, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We used a spheroid model of colon carcinoma to analyze integrin dynamics as a function of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that provides a paradigm for understanding how carcinoma cells acquire a more aggressive phenotype. This EMT involves transcriptional activation of the beta6 integrin subunit and a consequent induction of alphavbeta6 expression. This integrin enhances the tumorigenic properties of colon carcinoma, including activation of autocrine TGF-beta and migration on interstitial fibronectin. Importantly, this study validates the clinical relevance of the EMT. Kaplan-Meier analysis of beta6 expression in 488 colorectal carcinomas revealed a striking reduction in median survival time of ...


The Activation Dependent Adhesion Of Macrophages To Laminin Involves Cytoskeletal Anchoring And Phosphorylation Of The Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin, Leslie M. Shaw, Jeanne M. Messier, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

The Activation Dependent Adhesion Of Macrophages To Laminin Involves Cytoskeletal Anchoring And Phosphorylation Of The Alpha 6 Beta 1 Integrin, Leslie M. Shaw, Jeanne M. Messier, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Macrophages require activation with either PMA (Mercurio, A. M., and L. M. Shaw. 1988. J. Cell Biol. 107:1873-1880) or interferon-gamma (Shaw, L. M., and A. M. Mercurio. 1989. J. Exp. Med. 169:303-308) to adhere to a laminin substratum. In the present study, we identified an integrin laminin receptor on macrophages and characterized cellular changes that occur in response to PMA activation that facilitate laminin adhesion. A monoclonal antibody (GoH3) that recognizes the integrin alpha 6 subunit (Sonnenberg, A., H. Janssen, F. Hogervorst, J. Calafat, and J. Hilgers. 1987. J. Biol. Chem. 262:10376-10383) specifically inhibited adhesion to laminin-coated ...


P53 Inhibits Alpha 6 Beta 4 Integrin Survival Signaling By Promoting The Caspase 3-Dependent Cleavage Of Akt/Pkb, Robin E. Bachelder, Mark J. Ribick, Alessandra Marchetti, Rita Falcioni, Silvia Soddu, Kathryn R. Davis, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

P53 Inhibits Alpha 6 Beta 4 Integrin Survival Signaling By Promoting The Caspase 3-Dependent Cleavage Of Akt/Pkb, Robin E. Bachelder, Mark J. Ribick, Alessandra Marchetti, Rita Falcioni, Silvia Soddu, Kathryn R. Davis, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

Although the interaction of matrix proteins with integrins is known to initiate signaling pathways that are essential for cell survival, a role for tumor suppressors in the regulation of these pathways has not been established. We demonstrate here that p53 can inhibit the survival function of integrins by inducing the caspase-dependent cleavage and inactivation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT/PKB. Specifically, we show that the alpha6beta4 integrin promotes the survival of p53-deficient carcinoma cells by activating AKT/PKB. In contrast, this integrin does not activate AKT/PKB in carcinoma cells that express wild-type p53 and it actually stimulates their ...


The Integrin Alpha 6 Beta 4 Is A Laminin Receptor, Edward C. Lee, Margaret M. Lotz, Glenn D. Steele Jr., Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

The Integrin Alpha 6 Beta 4 Is A Laminin Receptor, Edward C. Lee, Margaret M. Lotz, Glenn D. Steele Jr., Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

In this study, the putative laminin receptor function of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin was assessed. For this purpose, we used a human cell line, referred to as clone A, that was derived from a highly invasive, colon adenocarcinoma. This cell line, which expresses the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, adheres to the E8 and not to the P1 fragment of laminin. The adhesion of clone A cells to laminin is extremely rapid with half-maximal adhesion observed at 5 min after plating. Adhesion to laminin is blocked by GoH3, and alpha 6 specific antibody (60% inhibition), as well as ...


Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Is An Endogenous Inhibitor Of Snail Transcription: Implications For The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Robin E. Bachelder, Sang-Oh Yoon, Clara Franci, Antonio Garcia De Herreros, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Is An Endogenous Inhibitor Of Snail Transcription: Implications For The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Robin E. Bachelder, Sang-Oh Yoon, Clara Franci, Antonio Garcia De Herreros, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We report that the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is necessary for the maintenance of the epithelial architecture. Pharmacological inhibition of its activity or reducing its expression using small interfering RNAs in normal breast and skin epithelial cells results in a reduction of E-cadherin expression and a more mesenchymal morphology, both of which are features associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, GSK-3 inhibition also stimulates the transcription of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT. We identify NFkappaB as a transcription factor inhibited by GSK-3 in epithelial cells that is relevant for Snail expression ...


Release Of Camp Gating By The Alpha6beta4 Integrin Stimulates Lamellae Formation And The Chemotactic Migration Of Invasive Carcinoma Cells, Kathleen L. O'Connor, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Release Of Camp Gating By The Alpha6beta4 Integrin Stimulates Lamellae Formation And The Chemotactic Migration Of Invasive Carcinoma Cells, Kathleen L. O'Connor, Leslie M. Shaw, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

The alpha6beta4 integrin promotes carcinoma in-vasion by its activation of a phosphoinositide 3-OH (PI3-K) signaling pathway (Shaw, L.M., I. Rabinovitz, H.H.-F. Wang, A. Toker, and A.M. Mercurio. Cell. 91: 949-960). We demonstrate here using MDA-MB-435 breast carcinoma cells that alpha6beta4 stimulates chemotactic migration, a key component of invasion, but that it has no influence on haptotaxis. Stimulation of chemotaxis by alpha6beta4 expression was observed in response to either lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) or fibroblast conditioned medium. Moreover, the LPA-dependent formation of lamellae in these cells is dependent upon alpha6beta4 expression. Both lamellae formation and chemotactic migration are ...


Protein Kinase C-Dependent Mobilization Of The Alpha6beta4 Integrin From Hemidesmosomes And Its Association With Actin-Rich Cell Protrusions Drive The Chemotactic Migration Of Carcinoma Cells, Isaac Rabinovitz, Alex Toker, Arthur M. Mercurio Nov 2010

Protein Kinase C-Dependent Mobilization Of The Alpha6beta4 Integrin From Hemidesmosomes And Its Association With Actin-Rich Cell Protrusions Drive The Chemotactic Migration Of Carcinoma Cells, Isaac Rabinovitz, Alex Toker, Arthur M. Mercurio

Arthur M. Mercurio

We explored the hypothesis that the chemotactic migration of carcinoma cells that assemble hemidesmosomes involves the activation of a signaling pathway that releases the alpha6beta4 integrin from these stable adhesion complexes and promotes its association with F-actin in cell protrusions enabling it to function in migration. Squamous carcinoma-derived A431 cells were used because they express alpha6beta4 and migrate in response to EGF stimulation. Using function-blocking antibodies, we show that the alpha6beta4 integrin participates in EGF-stimulated chemotaxis and is required for lamellae formation on laminin-1. At concentrations of EGF that stimulate A431 chemotaxis ( approximately 1 ng/ml), the alpha6beta4 integrin is ...


Ruthenium Complexes As Dna Photonucleases In Treatment Of Malignant Skin Carcinoma, Devi Kalyan Karumanchi Oct 2010

Ruthenium Complexes As Dna Photonucleases In Treatment Of Malignant Skin Carcinoma, Devi Kalyan Karumanchi

All Capstone Projects

A variety of Ruthenium complexes possessing terpyridine complexes as ligands in their coordination sphere have been investigated extensively as DNA photo nucleases in vitro. This work has led to the realization that compounds of Ruthenium bind to DNA purines and that the interactions are of an unprecedented bridging variety. Owing to the molar absorptivity of these complexes in the visible region, direct cleavage of duplex DNA by these complexes requires irradiation in the range of 400-500 nm.

Although the observation of DNA photo cleavage in vitro makes these systems good candidates for further investigation, it does not provide any information ...


Mechanistic And Signaling Analysis Of Muc4-Erbb2 Signaling Module: New Insights Into The Mechanism Of Ligand-Independent Erbb2 Activity, Goldi Kozloski Sep 2010

Mechanistic And Signaling Analysis Of Muc4-Erbb2 Signaling Module: New Insights Into The Mechanism Of Ligand-Independent Erbb2 Activity, Goldi Kozloski

Goldi A Kozloski

The membrane mucin Muc4 is aberrantly expressed in numerous epithelial carcinomas and is currently used as a cancer diagnostic and prognostic tool. Muc4 can also potentiate signal transduction by modulating differential ErbB2 phosphorylation in the absence and in the presence of the ErbB3 soluble ligand heregulin (HRG-beta1). These features of Muc4 suggest that Muc4 is not merely a cancer marker, but an oncogenic factor with a unique-binding/activation relationship with the receptor ErbB2. In the present study, we examined the signaling mechanisms that are associated with the Muc4-ErbB2 module by analyzing ErbB2 differential signaling in response to Muc4 expression. Our ...


Cd277 Is A Negative Co-Stimulatory Molecule Universally Expressed By Ovarian Cancer Microenvironmental Cells, Juan R. Cubillos-Ruiz, Diana Martinez, Uciane K. Scarlett, Melanie R. Rutkowski, Yolanda C. Nesbeth, Ana L. Camposeco-Jacobs, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia Sep 2010

Cd277 Is A Negative Co-Stimulatory Molecule Universally Expressed By Ovarian Cancer Microenvironmental Cells, Juan R. Cubillos-Ruiz, Diana Martinez, Uciane K. Scarlett, Melanie R. Rutkowski, Yolanda C. Nesbeth, Ana L. Camposeco-Jacobs, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

CD277, a member of the butyrophilin subfamily 3 (BTN3), shares significant sequence similarities and predicted common structural features with inhibitory B7-H4 and other members of the B7 superfamily. Here we report that CD277 is consistently expressed in stromal, as well as tumor cells in the microenvironment of human advanced ovarian carcinoma specimens, both of primary and metastatic origin. MHC-II+ myeloid antigenpresenting leukocytes (dendritic cells and macrophages) express significantly higher levels of surface CD277, compared to other tumor-infiltrating leukocyte subsets, and this expression is significantly up-regulated by multiple common tumor microenvironmental signals, including VEGF and CCL3. Most importantly, engagement of CD277 ...


Role Of Jnk In A Trp53-Dependent Mouse Model Of Breast Cancer, Cristina Arrigo Cellurale, Claire R. Weston, Judith Reilly, David S. Garlick, D. Joseph Jerry, Hayla Karen Sluss, Roger J. Davis Aug 2010

Role Of Jnk In A Trp53-Dependent Mouse Model Of Breast Cancer, Cristina Arrigo Cellurale, Claire R. Weston, Judith Reilly, David S. Garlick, D. Joseph Jerry, Hayla Karen Sluss, Roger J. Davis

Open Access Articles

The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signal transduction pathway has been implicated in mammary carcinogenesis. To test the role of JNK, we examined the effect of ablation of the Jnk1 and Jnk2 genes in a Trp53-dependent model of breast cancer using BALB/c mice. We detected no defects in mammary gland development in virgin mice or during lactation and involution in control studies of Jnk1(-/-) and Jnk2(-/-) mice. In a Trp53(-/+) genetic background, mammary carcinomas were detected in 43% of control mice, 70% of Jnk1(-/-) mice, and 53% of Jnk2(-/-) mice. These data indicate that JNK1 and JNK2 are not essential ...


Effects Of The Bcr-Abll Oncogene On Dna Damage And Repair, Beth A. Burke Aug 2010

Effects Of The Bcr-Abll Oncogene On Dna Damage And Repair, Beth A. Burke

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a two-stage disease caused by the p210 BCR-ABL protein. BCR-ABL is a constitutively activated tyrosine kinase that activates signaling pathways to enhance proliferation and inhibit apoptosis. BCR-ABL kinase activity directly causes CML chronic phase, the first stage of CML, but the role of BCR-ABL in transitioning to blast crisis (BC), the second stage of disease, remains under investigation. Given that CML BC is marked by additional chromosomal abnormalities, the role of BCR-ABL in contributing to genomic instability through effects on DNA damage and DNA repair processes has been studied. We investigated what impact BCR-ABL has ...


Loss Of Gprc5a Enhances Survival In Normal And Malignant Lung Epithelial Cells By Eliciting Persistent Stat3 Activation Induced By Autocrine Lif, Yulong Chen Aug 2010

Loss Of Gprc5a Enhances Survival In Normal And Malignant Lung Epithelial Cells By Eliciting Persistent Stat3 Activation Induced By Autocrine Lif, Yulong Chen

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) is activated by cytokines and growth factors in many cancers. Persistent activation of Stat3 plays important role in cell growth, survival, and transformation through regulating its targeted genes.

Previously, we found that mice with a deletion of the G protein-coupled receptor, family C, group 5, member a (Gprc5a) gene develop lung tumors indicating that Gprc5a is a tumor suppressor. In the present study, we examined he mechanism of Gprc5a-mediated tumor suppression. We found that epithelial cells from Gprc5a knockout mouse lung (Gprc5a-/- cells) survive better in vitro in medium deprived of exogenous ...


Nherf1 – New Modifier Of Colorectal Cancer Progression, Yuho Hayashi Aug 2010

Nherf1 – New Modifier Of Colorectal Cancer Progression, Yuho Hayashi

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops from multiple progressive modifications of normal intestinal epithelium into adenocarcinoma. Loss of cell polarity has been implicated as an early event in this process, but the molecular players involved are not well known. NHERF1 (Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1) is an adaptor protein with apical membrane localization in polarized epithelia. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that NHERF1 plays a role in CRC. We examined surgical CRC resection specimens for changes in NHERF1 expression, and modeled these changes in two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) Caco-2 CRC cell systems. NHERF1 had significant alterations from ...