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Cancer Biology Commons

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2005

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Articles 1 - 18 of 18

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2011

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova, Hildegard Schuller

Howard K. Plummer III

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Overcoming Fas-Mediated Apoptosis Accelerates Helicobacter-Induced Gastric Cancer In Mice, Xun Cai, Calin Stoicov, Hanchen Li, Jane E. Carlson, Mark T. Whary, James G. Fox, Jeanmarie Houghton Dec 2005

Overcoming Fas-Mediated Apoptosis Accelerates Helicobacter-Induced Gastric Cancer In Mice, Xun Cai, Calin Stoicov, Hanchen Li, Jane E. Carlson, Mark T. Whary, James G. Fox, Jeanmarie Houghton

Open Access Articles

The initiating molecular events in Helicobacter-induced gastric carcinogenesis are not known. Early in infection, Fas antigen-mediated apoptosis depletes parietal and chief cell populations, leading to architectural distortion. As infection progresses, metaplastic and dysplastic glands appear, which are resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis. These abnormal lineages precede, and are thought to be the precursor lesions of, gastric cancer. Acquisition of an antiapoptotic phenotype before transformation of cells suggests that loss of Fas sensitivity may be an early required trait for gastric cancer. We reasoned that forced Fas-apoptosis resistance would result in earlier and more aggressive gastric cancer in our mouse model. Fas ...


Growth Factor–Induced Shedding Of Syndecan-1 Confers Glypican-1 Dependence On Mitogenic Responses Of Cancer Cells, Kan Ding, Martha Lopez-Burks, José A. Sánchez-Duran, Murray Korc, Arthur D. Lander Nov 2005

Growth Factor–Induced Shedding Of Syndecan-1 Confers Glypican-1 Dependence On Mitogenic Responses Of Cancer Cells, Kan Ding, Martha Lopez-Burks, José A. Sánchez-Duran, Murray Korc, Arthur D. Lander

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Scholarship

The cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) glypican-1 is up-regulated by pancreatic and breast cancer cells, and its removal renders such cells insensitive to many growth factors. We sought to explain why the cell surface HSPG syndecan-1, which is also up-regulated by these cells and is a known growth factor coreceptor, does not compensate for glypican-1 loss. We show that the initial responses of these cells to the growth factor FGF2 are not glypican dependent, but they become so over time as FGF2 induces shedding of syndecan-1. Manipulations that retain syndecan-1 on the cell surface make long-term FGF2 responses glypican ...


Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas In Syrian Golden Hamsters Contain Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, T Masi, Maria Cekanova, K Walker, H Bernart, M Majidi, Jm Becker, Hildegard Schuller Sep 2005

Nitrosamine 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanone-Induced Pulmonary Adenocarcinomas In Syrian Golden Hamsters Contain Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms, T Masi, Maria Cekanova, K Walker, H Bernart, M Majidi, Jm Becker, Hildegard Schuller

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Cigarette smoking contributes to the development of lung cancer throughout the world, with cases of pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) the most numerous. Nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), which is formed from nicotine, has been demonstrated to cause mutations in genes that affect cell regulation and proliferation. Moreover, NNK has been shown to interact directly with and stimulate beta adrenergic receptor (ADRB) signal transduction pathways. Our goal was to determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Adrb2 from PAC tumors were induced in golden hamsters by the injection of NNK. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of Adrb2 clones ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Faculty Publications and Other Works -- Biochemistry, Cellular and Molecular Biology

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Hildegard M. Schuller

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller Aug 2005

Expression Of G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channels (Girks) In Lung Cancer Cell Lines, Howard Plummer 3rd, Madhu Dhar, Maria Cekanova Ms, Rndr, Phd, Hildegard Schuller

Madhu S Dhar

BACKGROUND: Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1) in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. METHODS: GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) assay. RESULTS: GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six ...


Beta1a Integrin Expression Is Required For Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Mitogenic And Transforming Activities And Localization To Focal Contacts, Hira Lal Goel, Michael Breen, Jianzhong Zhang, Ishita Das, Aznavoorian-Cheshire Sadie, Norman M. Greenberg, Ada Elgavish, Lucia R. Languino Aug 2005

Beta1a Integrin Expression Is Required For Type 1 Insulin-Like Growth Factor Receptor Mitogenic And Transforming Activities And Localization To Focal Contacts, Hira Lal Goel, Michael Breen, Jianzhong Zhang, Ishita Das, Aznavoorian-Cheshire Sadie, Norman M. Greenberg, Ada Elgavish, Lucia R. Languino

Open Access Articles

The cells' ability to proliferate in response to growth factor stimulation is significantly altered during cancer progression. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these alterations in prostate cancer, the role and expression of beta1A integrin and type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR), known to contribute to cell proliferation and transformation, were analyzed. Using small interfering RNA oligonucleotides to down-regulate beta1A, we show that beta1A expression is required for IGF-IR-mediated prostate cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. In vivo, using age-matched transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice at different stages of prostate cancer [prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, PIN; well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, WD ...


Nnk-Induced Hamster Lung Adenocarcinomas Over-Express Beta2-Adrenergic And Egfr Signaling Pathways, Hildegard Schuller, Maria Cekanova Jun 2005

Nnk-Induced Hamster Lung Adenocarcinomas Over-Express Beta2-Adrenergic And Egfr Signaling Pathways, Hildegard Schuller, Maria Cekanova

Maria Cekanova MS, RNDr, PhD

Pulmonary adenocarcinoma (PAC) is the most common type of human lung cancer. A diagnosis of PAC, history of non-smoking and presence of mutations in the EGFR are predictive factors for responsiveness of lung cancer to EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Unfortunately, less than 50% of PAC cases demonstrate this mutation-based responsiveness. Our immunohistochemical analysis of NNK-induced PAC in hamsters demonstrates the simultaneous over-expression of a beta2-adrenergic receptor pathway, including PKA, cAMP, CREB and phosphorylated CREB and of an EGFR pathway, including over-expression of EGFR-specific phosphorylated tyrosine kinase, Raf-1 and ERK1/2 and their phosphorylated forms. These findings implicate, for the first ...


A Survivin Gene Signature Predicts Aggressive Tumor Behavior, Whitney Salz, Dan Eisenberg, Janet Plescia, David S. Garlick, Robert M. Weiss, Xue-Ru Wu, Tung-Tien Sun, Dario C. Altieri May 2005

A Survivin Gene Signature Predicts Aggressive Tumor Behavior, Whitney Salz, Dan Eisenberg, Janet Plescia, David S. Garlick, Robert M. Weiss, Xue-Ru Wu, Tung-Tien Sun, Dario C. Altieri

Open Access Articles

Gene signatures that predict aggressive tumor behavior at the earliest stages of disease, ideally before overt tissue abnormalities, are urgently needed. To search for such genes, we generated a transgenic model of survivin, an essential regulator of cell division and apoptosis overexpressed in cancer. Transgenic expression of survivin in the urinary bladder did not cause histologic abnormalities of the urothelium. However, microarray analysis revealed that survivin-expressing bladders exhibited profound changes in gene expression profile affecting extracellular matrix and inflammatory genes. Following exposure to a bladder carcinogen, N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine (OH-BBN), survivin transgenic animals exhibited accelerated tumor progression, preferential incidence of ...


Overexpression Of Cytochrome P450 1a1 And Its Novel Spliced Variant In Ovarian Cancer Cells: Alternative Subcellular Enzyme Compartmentation May Contribute To Carcinogenesis, Yuet-Kin Leung, Kin-Mang Lau, James A. Mobley, Zhong Jiang, Shuk-Mei Ho May 2005

Overexpression Of Cytochrome P450 1a1 And Its Novel Spliced Variant In Ovarian Cancer Cells: Alternative Subcellular Enzyme Compartmentation May Contribute To Carcinogenesis, Yuet-Kin Leung, Kin-Mang Lau, James A. Mobley, Zhong Jiang, Shuk-Mei Ho

Open Access Articles

Epithelial ovarian cancer derived from the human ovarian surface epithelium (HOSE) is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies among American women. Metabolic activation of endogenous and exogenous chemicals by cytochrome P450 (CYP) class I enzymes has been implicated in its etiology. In this study, we showed overexpression of CYP1A1 mRNA, but not CYP1B1 transcripts, in ovarian cancer cell lines when compared with primary cultures or immortalized HOSE cell lines. Importantly, we identified a novel, enzymatically active, spliced variant of CYP1A1 (CYP1A1v) formed by excision of an 84-bp cryptic intron in exon 2. CYP1A1v is overexpressed in ovarian cancer ...


Detection Of K-Ras Colorectal Point Mutations Using Endonuclease V/Ak16dligase And Ligase Detection Reaction Assays, Laura Mirch Apr 2005

Detection Of K-Ras Colorectal Point Mutations Using Endonuclease V/Ak16dligase And Ligase Detection Reaction Assays, Laura Mirch

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

This research investigates the benefits of utilizing PCR/Ligase Detection Reaction multiplexing coupled with endonuclease V/AK16D ligase treatment in the detection of known and unknown point mutations within DNA. The research focused specifically on the K-ras gene, implicated in the development of certain cancers including colorectal cancer. Identification of point mutations within this gene could lead to early detection of cancer, as well as identify those with a predisposition to develop cancer. An LDR technique was utilized to identify specific, known mutations within the gene sequence, while the endonuclease/ligase treatment identified unknown mutations within the gene sequence. Capillary ...


Transcriptional Activation Of Integrin Beta6 During The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Defines A Novel Prognostic Indicator Of Aggressive Colon Carcinoma, Richard C. Bates, David I. Bellovin, Courtney Brown, Elizabeth Maynard, Bingyan Wu, Hisaaki Kawakatsu, Dean Sheppard, Peter Oettgen, Arthur M. Mercurio Jan 2005

Transcriptional Activation Of Integrin Beta6 During The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Defines A Novel Prognostic Indicator Of Aggressive Colon Carcinoma, Richard C. Bates, David I. Bellovin, Courtney Brown, Elizabeth Maynard, Bingyan Wu, Hisaaki Kawakatsu, Dean Sheppard, Peter Oettgen, Arthur M. Mercurio

Cancer Biology Publications and Presentations

We used a spheroid model of colon carcinoma to analyze integrin dynamics as a function of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process that provides a paradigm for understanding how carcinoma cells acquire a more aggressive phenotype. This EMT involves transcriptional activation of the beta6 integrin subunit and a consequent induction of alphavbeta6 expression. This integrin enhances the tumorigenic properties of colon carcinoma, including activation of autocrine TGF-beta and migration on interstitial fibronectin. Importantly, this study validates the clinical relevance of the EMT. Kaplan-Meier analysis of beta6 expression in 488 colorectal carcinomas revealed a striking reduction in median survival time of ...


Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Is An Endogenous Inhibitor Of Snail Transcription: Implications For The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Robin E. Bachelder, Sang-Oh Yoon, Clara Franci, Antonio Garcia De Herreros, Arthur M. Mercurio Jan 2005

Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Is An Endogenous Inhibitor Of Snail Transcription: Implications For The Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, Robin E. Bachelder, Sang-Oh Yoon, Clara Franci, Antonio Garcia De Herreros, Arthur M. Mercurio

Cancer Biology Publications and Presentations

We report that the activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is necessary for the maintenance of the epithelial architecture. Pharmacological inhibition of its activity or reducing its expression using small interfering RNAs in normal breast and skin epithelial cells results in a reduction of E-cadherin expression and a more mesenchymal morphology, both of which are features associated with an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Importantly, GSK-3 inhibition also stimulates the transcription of Snail, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT. We identify NFkappaB as a transcription factor inhibited by GSK-3 in epithelial cells that is relevant for Snail expression ...


Nf-Kb: A Novel Therapeutic Target For Cancer, Arun George Paul Jan 2005

Nf-Kb: A Novel Therapeutic Target For Cancer, Arun George Paul

Eukaryon

No abstract provided.


Combining Cytotoxic And Immune-Mediated Gene Therapy To Treat Brain Tumors, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Marianela Candolfi, Remy Greeno, Kurt Kroeger, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Jan 2005

Combining Cytotoxic And Immune-Mediated Gene Therapy To Treat Brain Tumors, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Marianela Candolfi, Remy Greeno, Kurt Kroeger, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a type of intracranial brain tumor, for which there is no cure. In spite of advances in surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, patients die within a year of diagnosis. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop novel therapeutic approaches for this disease. Gene therapy, which is the use of genes or other nucleic acids as drugs, is a powerful new treatment strategy which can be developed to treat GBM. Several treatment modalities are amenable for gene therapy implementation, e.g. conditional cytotoxic approaches, targeted delivery of toxins into the tumor mass, immune stimulatory strategies, and these will ...


Gene Therapy And Targeted Toxins For Glioma, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Marianela Candolfi, Kurt Kroeger, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro Jan 2005

Gene Therapy And Targeted Toxins For Glioma, James Curtin, Gwendalyn King, Marianela Candolfi, Kurt Kroeger, Pedro Lowenstein, Maria Castro

Articles

The most common primary brain tumor in adults is glioblastoma. These tumors are highly invasive and aggressive with a mean survival time of nine to twelve months from diagnosis to death. Current treatment modalities are unable to significantly prolong survival in patients diagnosed with glioblastoma. As such, glioma is an attractive target for developing novel therapeutic approaches utilizing gene therapy. This review will examine the available preclinical models for glioma including xenographs, syngeneic and genetic models. Several promising therapeutic targets are currently being pursued in pre-clinical investigations. These targets will be reviewed by mechanism of action, i.e., conditional cytotoxic ...