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Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Sep 2019

9th Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium, University Of Texas Md Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association

MD Anderson Cancer Center Postdoctoral Association Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium Abstracts

The mission of the Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) is to provide a platform for talented postdoctoral fellows throughout the Texas Medical Center to present their work to a wider audience. The MD Anderson Postdoctoral Association convened its inaugural Annual Postdoctoral Science Symposium (APSS) on August 4, 2011.

The APSS provides a professional venue for postdoctoral scientists to develop, clarify, and refine their research as a result of formal reviews and critiques of faculty and other postdoctoral scientists. Additionally, attendees discuss current research on a broad range of subjects while promoting academic interactions and enrichment and developing new collaborations.


Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces Accumulation Of Lysosomes And Caspase-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Gillian Conway, Zhonglei He, Ana L. Hutanu, George P. Cribaro, Eline Manaloto, Alan Casey, Damien Traynor, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Orla Howe, Carlos Barcia, James T. Murray, Patrick J. Cullen, James Curtin Sep 2019

Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces Accumulation Of Lysosomes And Caspase-Independent Cell Death In U373mg Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells, Gillian Conway, Zhonglei He, Ana L. Hutanu, George P. Cribaro, Eline Manaloto, Alan Casey, Damien Traynor, Vladimir Milosavljevic, Orla Howe, Carlos Barcia, James T. Murray, Patrick J. Cullen, James Curtin

Articles

Room temperature Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) has shown promising efficacy for the treatment of cancer but the exact mechanisms of action remain unclear. Both apoptosis and necrosis have been implicated as the mode of cell death in various cancer cells. We have previously demonstrated a caspase-independent mechanism of cell death in p53-mutated glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells exposed to plasma. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in caspase-independent cell death induced by plasma treatment. We demonstrate that plasma induces rapid cell death in GBM cells, independent of caspases. Accumulation of vesicles was observed in plasma ...


Role Of A 19s Proteasome Subunit- Psmd10(Gankyrin) In Neurogenesis Of Human Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Indrajit Sahu, Padma P. Nanaware, Minal Mane, Saim Wasi Mulla, Soumen Roy, Prasanna Venkatraman Aug 2019

Role Of A 19s Proteasome Subunit- Psmd10(Gankyrin) In Neurogenesis Of Human Neuronal Progenitor Cells, Indrajit Sahu, Padma P. Nanaware, Minal Mane, Saim Wasi Mulla, Soumen Roy, Prasanna Venkatraman

Open Access Articles

PSMD10(Gankyrin), a proteasome assembly chaperone, is a widely known oncoprotein which aspects many hall mark properties of cancer. However, except proteasome assembly chaperon function its role in normal cell function remains unknown. To address this issue, we induced PSMD10(Gankyrin) overexpression in HEK293 cells and the resultant large-scale changes in gene expression profile were analyzed. We constituted networks from microarray data of these differentially expressed genes and carried out extensive topological analyses. The overrecurring yet consistent theme that appeared throughout analysis using varied network metrics is that all genes and interactions identified as important would be involved in neurogenesis ...


Modeling Of Cisplatin-Induced Signaling Dynamics In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Reveals Mediators Of Sensitivity, Anne Margriet Heijink, Marieke Everts, Megan E. Honeywell, Ryan Richards, Yannick P. Kok, Elisabeth G. E. De Vries, Michael J. Lee, Marcel A T M Van Vugt Aug 2019

Modeling Of Cisplatin-Induced Signaling Dynamics In Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells Reveals Mediators Of Sensitivity, Anne Margriet Heijink, Marieke Everts, Megan E. Honeywell, Ryan Richards, Yannick P. Kok, Elisabeth G. E. De Vries, Michael J. Lee, Marcel A T M Van Vugt

Open Access Articles

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) display great diversity in cisplatin sensitivity that cannot be explained solely by cancer-associated DNA repair defects. Differential activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) to cisplatin has been proposed to underlie the observed differential sensitivity, but it has not been investigated systematically. Systems-level analysis-using quantitative time-resolved signaling data and phenotypic responses, in combination with mathematical modeling-identifies that the activation status of cell-cycle checkpoints determines cisplatin sensitivity in TNBC cell lines. Specifically, inactivation of the cell-cycle checkpoint regulator MK2 or G3BP2 sensitizes cisplatin-resistant TNBC cell lines to cisplatin. Dynamic signaling data of five cell cycle-related signals predicts ...


Hsp90/Axl/Eif4e-Regulated Unfolded Protein Response As An Acquired Vulnerability In Drug-Resistant Kras-Mutant Lung Cancer, Haitang Yang, Shun-Qing Liang, Duo Xu, Zhang Yang, Thomas M. Marti, Yanyun Gao, Gregor J. Kocher, Heng Zhao, Ralph A. Schmid, Ren-Wang Peng Aug 2019

Hsp90/Axl/Eif4e-Regulated Unfolded Protein Response As An Acquired Vulnerability In Drug-Resistant Kras-Mutant Lung Cancer, Haitang Yang, Shun-Qing Liang, Duo Xu, Zhang Yang, Thomas M. Marti, Yanyun Gao, Gregor J. Kocher, Heng Zhao, Ralph A. Schmid, Ren-Wang Peng

Open Access Articles

Drug resistance and tumor heterogeneity are formidable challenges in cancer medicine, which is particularly relevant for KRAS-mutant cancers, the epitome of malignant tumors recalcitrant to targeted therapy efforts and first-line chemotherapy. In this study, we delineate that KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells resistant to pemetrexed (MTA) and anti-MEK drug trametinib acquire an exquisite dependency on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling, rendering resistant cancer cells selectively susceptible to blockage of HSP90, the receptor tyrosine kinase AXL, the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Mechanistically, acquisition of drug resistance enables KRAS-mutant lung cancer cells to bypass canonical ...


Leptin Promotes Expression Of Emt-Related Transcription Factors And Invasion In A Src And Fak-Dependent Pathway In Mcf10a Mammary Epithelial Cells, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Zuñiga-Eulogio, Arvey Tacuba-Saavedra, Magdalena Bueno-Salgado, Andrea Sánchez-Carvajal, Yovani Vargas-Santiago, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalán, Eduardo Pérez Salazar, Alejandra García-Hernández, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleón Navarro-Tito Aug 2019

Leptin Promotes Expression Of Emt-Related Transcription Factors And Invasion In A Src And Fak-Dependent Pathway In Mcf10a Mammary Epithelial Cells, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Zuñiga-Eulogio, Arvey Tacuba-Saavedra, Magdalena Bueno-Salgado, Andrea Sánchez-Carvajal, Yovani Vargas-Santiago, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalán, Eduardo Pérez Salazar, Alejandra García-Hernández, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleón Navarro-Tito

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Leptin is one of the main adipokines secreted in breast tissue, and has been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor progression in breast cancer. Leptin promotes EMT, cell migration and invasion in epithelial breast cells, leading to tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanism that underlies these events is not fully understood; however, the activation of different signaling pathways appears to be essential. In this sense, the effect of leptin on the activation of kinases like Src and FAK, which regulate signaling pathways that activate the EMT program, has not been completely described. Therefore, we investigated the involvement of these ...


Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Expression Levels Are Associated With Prognosis In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Andrew J. Piper, Jennifer L. Clark, Jose R. Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Ali Akalin, Leslie M. Shaw Aug 2019

Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 (Irs-1) And Irs-2 Expression Levels Are Associated With Prognosis In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (Nsclc), Andrew J. Piper, Jennifer L. Clark, Jose R. Mercado-Matos, Asia N. Matthew-Onabanjo, Chung-Cheng Hsieh, Ali Akalin, Leslie M. Shaw

Open Access Articles

The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has been implicated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) outcomes and resistance to targeted therapies. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this pathway contributes to the biology of NSCLC. The insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins are cytoplasmic adaptor proteins that signal downstream of the IGF-1R and determine the functional outcomes of this signaling pathway. In this study, we assessed the expression patterns of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in NSCLC to identify associations between IRS-1 and IRS-2 expression levels and survival outcomes in the two major histological subtypes of NSCLC, adenocarcinoma ...


Multimodal Quantitative Imaging Of Brain Cancer In Cultured Cells, Xin Feng, Alona Muzikansky, Alonzo H. Ross, Michael R. Hamblin, Peter R. Jermain, Anna N. Yaroslavsky Jul 2019

Multimodal Quantitative Imaging Of Brain Cancer In Cultured Cells, Xin Feng, Alona Muzikansky, Alonzo H. Ross, Michael R. Hamblin, Peter R. Jermain, Anna N. Yaroslavsky

Open Access Articles

Fluorescence emission, polarization and subcellular localization of methylene blue (MB) were studied in four cancerous and two normal human brain cell lines. Fluorescence emission and polarization images were acquired and analyzed. The co-localization of MB with mitochondria, lysosomes and nuclei of the cells was evaluated. Glioblastoma cells exhibited significantly higher MB fluorescence polarization compared to normal astrocytes. Preferential accumulation of MB in mitochondria of glioblastoma cells may explain higher fluorescence polarization values in cancer cells as compared to normal. These findings may lead to the development of a quantitative method for the detection of brain cancer in single cells.


Inactivating Mutations And X-Ray Crystal Structure Of The Tumor Suppressor Opcml Reveal Cancer-Associated Functions, James R. Birtley, Zachary Maben, Grant C. Weaver, Mollie M. Jurewicz, Lawrence J. Stern, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra Jul 2019

Inactivating Mutations And X-Ray Crystal Structure Of The Tumor Suppressor Opcml Reveal Cancer-Associated Functions, James R. Birtley, Zachary Maben, Grant C. Weaver, Mollie M. Jurewicz, Lawrence J. Stern, Chiara Recchi, Hani Gabra

Open Access Articles

OPCML, a tumor suppressor gene, is frequently silenced epigenetically in ovarian and other cancers. Here we report, by analysis of databases of tumor sequences, the observation of OPCML somatic missense mutations from various tumor types and the impact of these mutations on OPCML function, by solving the X-ray crystal structure of this glycoprotein to 2.65 A resolution. OPCML consists of an extended arrangement of three immunoglobulin-like domains and homodimerizes via a network of contacts between membrane-distal domains. We report the generation of a panel of OPCML variants with representative clinical mutations and demonstrate clear phenotypic effects in vitro and ...


Edb-Fn Targeted Peptide–Drug Conjugates For Use Against Prostate Cancer, Shang Eun Park, Kiumars Shamloo, Timothy A. Kristedja, Shaban Darwish, Marco Bisoffi, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari Jul 2019

Edb-Fn Targeted Peptide–Drug Conjugates For Use Against Prostate Cancer, Shang Eun Park, Kiumars Shamloo, Timothy A. Kristedja, Shaban Darwish, Marco Bisoffi, Keykavous Parang, Rakesh Tiwari

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men and is the leading cause of cancer-related male mortality. A disulfide cyclic peptide ligand [CTVRTSADC] 1 has been previously found to target extra domain B of fibronectin (EDB-FN) in the extracellular matrix that can dierentiate aggressive PCa from benign prostatic hyperplasia. We synthesized and optimized the stability of ligand 1 by amide cyclization to obtain [KTVRTSADE] 8 using Fmoc/tBu solid-phase chemistry. Optimized targeting ligand 8 was found to be stable in phosphate buered saline (PBS, pH 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5) and under redox conditions, with a ...


Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator-Like (Arntl/Bmal1) Is Associated With Bevacizumab Resistance In Colorectal Cancer Via Regulation Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A., Elke Burgermeister, Francesca Battaglin, Fagr Eladly, Wen Wu, Frank Herweck, Nadine Schulte, Johannes Betge, Nicolai Härtel, Jakob N. Kather, Cleo-Aron Weis, Timo Gaiser, Alexander Marx, Christel Weiss, Ralf Hofheinz, Ian S. Miller, Fotios Loupakis, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Annette T. Byrne, Matthias P. Ebert Jul 2019

Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Nuclear Translocator-Like (Arntl/Bmal1) Is Associated With Bevacizumab Resistance In Colorectal Cancer Via Regulation Of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A., Elke Burgermeister, Francesca Battaglin, Fagr Eladly, Wen Wu, Frank Herweck, Nadine Schulte, Johannes Betge, Nicolai Härtel, Jakob N. Kather, Cleo-Aron Weis, Timo Gaiser, Alexander Marx, Christel Weiss, Ralf Hofheinz, Ian S. Miller, Fotios Loupakis, Heinz-Josef Lenz, Annette T. Byrne, Matthias P. Ebert

Physiology and Medical Physics Articles

BACKGROUND: The identification of new biomarkers and the development of novel, targetable contexts of vulnerability are of urgent clinical need in drug-resistant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Aryl-Hydrocarbon-Receptor-Nuclear-Translocator-Like (ARNTL/BMAL1) is a circadian clock-regulated transcription factor promoting expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and tumour progression. We hypothesised that BMAL1 increases expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor A VEGFA gene and, thereby, confers resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab (Beva), a clinically used antibody for neutralization of VEGFA.

METHODS: PCR and immunohistochemistry were employed to assess BMAL1 expression in mice (C57BL/6 J

FINDINGS: In murine CRCs, high BMAL1 expression ...


F-Box Protein Fbxo16 Functions As A Tumor Suppressor By Attenuating Nuclear Beta-Catenin Function, Debasish Paul, Sehbanul Islam, Rajesh Kumar. Manne, U. S. Dinesh, Sunil K. Malonia, Biswanath Maity, Ramanamurthy Boppana, Srikanth Rapole, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Manas Kumar Santra Jul 2019

F-Box Protein Fbxo16 Functions As A Tumor Suppressor By Attenuating Nuclear Beta-Catenin Function, Debasish Paul, Sehbanul Islam, Rajesh Kumar. Manne, U. S. Dinesh, Sunil K. Malonia, Biswanath Maity, Ramanamurthy Boppana, Srikanth Rapole, Praveen Kumar Shetty, Manas Kumar Santra

Open Access Articles

Aberrant activation of beta-catenin has been implicated in a variety of human diseases, including cancer. In spite of significant progress, the regulation of active Wnt/beta-catenin-signaling pathways is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that F-box protein 16 (FBXO16) is a putative tumor suppressor. It is a component of the SCF (SKP1-Cullin1-F-box protein) complex, which targets the nuclear beta-catenin protein to facilitate proteasomal degradation through the 26S proteasome. FBXO16 interacts physically with the C-terminal domain of beta-catenin and promotes its lysine 48-linked polyubiquitination. In addition, it inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by attenuating the level of beta-catenin. Therefore, depletion ...


Tumor Cell-Organized Fibronectin Is Required To Maintain A Dormant Breast Cancer Population, Lauren E. Barney, Christopher L. Hall, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Akia N. Parks, Christopher Sparages, Sualyneth Galarza, Manu O. Platt, Arthur M. Mercurio, Shelly R. Peyton Jul 2019

Tumor Cell-Organized Fibronectin Is Required To Maintain A Dormant Breast Cancer Population, Lauren E. Barney, Christopher L. Hall, Alyssa D. Schwartz, Akia N. Parks, Christopher Sparages, Sualyneth Galarza, Manu O. Platt, Arthur M. Mercurio, Shelly R. Peyton

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Tumors can undergo long periods of dormancy, with cancer cells entering a largely quiescent, non-proliferative state before reactivation and outgrowth. For a patient, these post-remission tumors are often drug resistant and highly aggressive, resulting in poor prognosis. To understand the role of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in regulating tumor dormancy, we created an in vitro cell culture system that combines carefully controlled ECM substrates with nutrient deprivation to observe entrance into and exit from dormancy with live imaging. We saw that cell populations capable of surviving entrance into long-term dormancy were heterogeneous, containing quiescent, cell cycle arrested, and actively proliferating ...


Gene Expression Signature Of Atypical Breast Hyperplasia And Regulation By Sfrp1, Kelly J. Gregory, Giovanna M. Crisi, Brooke A. Bentley, Grace Makari-Judson, Holly S. Mason, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Karl J. Simin, Jacob P. S. Johnson, Ashraf Khan, Sallie S. Schneider, D. Joseph Jerry Jun 2019

Gene Expression Signature Of Atypical Breast Hyperplasia And Regulation By Sfrp1, Kelly J. Gregory, Giovanna M. Crisi, Brooke A. Bentley, Grace Makari-Judson, Holly S. Mason, Jun Yu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Karl J. Simin, Jacob P. S. Johnson, Ashraf Khan, Sallie S. Schneider, D. Joseph Jerry

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Atypical breast hyperplasias (AH) have a 10-year risk of progression to invasive cancer estimated at 4-7%, with the overall risk of developing breast cancer increased by ~ 4-fold. AH lesions are estrogen receptor alpha positive (ERalpha+) and represent risk indicators and/or precursor lesions to low grade ERalpha+ tumors. Therefore, molecular profiles of AH lesions offer insights into the earliest changes in the breast epithelium, rendering it susceptible to oncogenic transformation.

METHODS: In this study, women were selected who were diagnosed with ductal or lobular AH, but no breast cancer prior to or within the 2-year follow-up. Paired AH and ...


Pathognomonic And Epistatic Genetic Alterations In B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Man Chun John Ma, Benjamin J. Chen, Michael R. Green Jun 2019

Pathognomonic And Epistatic Genetic Alterations In B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Man Chun John Ma, Benjamin J. Chen, Michael R. Green

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL) encompasses multiple clinically and phenotypically distinct subtypes of malignancy with unique molecular etiologies. Common subtypes of B-NHL such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been comprehensively interrogated at the genomic level, but other less common subtypes such as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) remain sparsely characterized. Furthermore, multiple B-NHL subtypes have thus far not been comprehensively compared to identify conserved or subtype-specific patterns of genomic alterations. Here, we employed a large targeted hybrid-capture sequencing approach encompassing 380 genes to interrogate the genomic landscapes of 755 B-NHL tumors at high depth; primarily including DLBCL, MCL, follicular lymphoma ...


Somatic Molecular Analysis Augments Cytologic Evaluation Of Pancreatic Cyst Fluids As A Diagnostic Tool, Ali Sakhdari, Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Chi Young Ok, Otto Walter, Keith Tomaszewicz, Mandi-Lee Caporelli, Xiuling Meng, Jennifer Lafemina, Giles F. Whalen, Edward Belkin, Jaroslav Zivny, Wahid Y. Wassef, Bruce A. Woda, Lloyd Hutchinson, Ediz F. Cosar Jun 2019

Somatic Molecular Analysis Augments Cytologic Evaluation Of Pancreatic Cyst Fluids As A Diagnostic Tool, Ali Sakhdari, Parnian Ahmadi Moghaddam, Chi Young Ok, Otto Walter, Keith Tomaszewicz, Mandi-Lee Caporelli, Xiuling Meng, Jennifer Lafemina, Giles F. Whalen, Edward Belkin, Jaroslav Zivny, Wahid Y. Wassef, Bruce A. Woda, Lloyd Hutchinson, Ediz F. Cosar

Open Access Articles

Objective: Better tools are needed for early diagnosis and classification of pancreatic cystic lesions (PCL) to trigger intervention before neoplastic precursor lesions progress to adenocarcinoma. We evaluated the capacity of molecular analysis to improve the accuracy of cytologic diagnosis for PCL with an emphasis on non-diagnostic/negative specimens.

Design: In a span of 7 years, at a tertiary care hospital, 318 PCL endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirations (EUS-FNA) were evaluated by cytologic examination and molecular analysis. Mucinous PCL were identified based on a clinical algorithm and 46 surgical resections were used to verify this approach. The mutation allele frequency (MAF ...


Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Jun 2019

Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase: A Central Molecule Driving Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition In Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Miriam Daniela Zuniga-Eulogio, Miguel Angel Mendoza-Catalan, Hugo Alberto Rodriguez-Ruiz, Eduardo Castaneda-Saucedo, Carlos Ortuno-Pineda, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a reversible cellular process, characterized by changes in gene expression and activation of proteins, favoring the trans-differentiation of the epithelial phenotype to a mesenchymal phenotype. This process increases cell migration and invasion of tumor cells, progression of the cell cycle, and resistance to apoptosis and chemotherapy, all of which support tumor progression. One of the signaling pathways involved in tumor progression is the MAPK pathway. Within this family, the ERK subfamily of proteins is known for its contributions to EMT. The ERK subfamily is divided into typical (ERK 1/2/5), and atypical (ERK 3/4 ...


Integration Of Random Forest Classifiers And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks For Classification And Biomolecular Modeling Of Cancer Driver Mutations, Steve Agajanian, Odeyemi Oluyemi, Gennady M. Verkhivker Jun 2019

Integration Of Random Forest Classifiers And Deep Convolutional Neural Networks For Classification And Biomolecular Modeling Of Cancer Driver Mutations, Steve Agajanian, Odeyemi Oluyemi, Gennady M. Verkhivker

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Development of machine learning solutions for prediction of functional and clinical significance of cancer driver genes and mutations are paramount in modern biomedical research and have gained a significant momentum in a recent decade. In this work, we integrate different machine learning approaches, including tree based methods, random forest and gradient boosted tree (GBT) classifiers along with deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) for prediction of cancer driver mutations in the genomic datasets. The feasibility of CNN in using raw nucleotide sequences for classification of cancer driver mutations was initially explored by employing label encoding, one hot encoding, and embedding to ...


Jnk(1/2) Represses Lkb(1)-Deficiency-Induced Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression, Jian Liu, Tianyuan Wang, Chad J. Creighton, San-Pin Wu, Madhumita Ray, Kyathanahalli S. Janardhan, Cynthia J. Willson, Sung-Nam Cho, Patricia D. Castro, Michael M. Ittmann, Jian-Liang Li, Roger J. Davis, Francesco J. Demayo May 2019

Jnk(1/2) Represses Lkb(1)-Deficiency-Induced Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression, Jian Liu, Tianyuan Wang, Chad J. Creighton, San-Pin Wu, Madhumita Ray, Kyathanahalli S. Janardhan, Cynthia J. Willson, Sung-Nam Cho, Patricia D. Castro, Michael M. Ittmann, Jian-Liang Li, Roger J. Davis, Francesco J. Demayo

Open Access Articles

Mechanisms of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) development are poorly understood. Here, we report that JNK1/2 activities attenuate Lkb1-deficiency-driven LSCC initiation and progression through repressing DeltaNp63 signaling. In vivo Lkb1 ablation alone is sufficient to induce LSCC development by reducing MKK7 levels and JNK1/2 activities, independent of the AMPKalpha and mTOR pathways. JNK1/2 activities is positively regulated by MKK7 during LSCC development. Pharmaceutically elevated JNK1/2 activities abates Lkb1 dependent LSCC formation while compound mutations of Jnk1/2 and Lkb1 further accelerate LSCC progression. JNK1/2 is inactivated in a substantial proportion of human LSCC and JNK1 ...


Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin May 2019

Circulating Micrornas Mir-331 And Mir-195 Differentiate Local Luminal A From Metastatic Breast Cancer, Peter Mcanena, Kahraman Tanriverdi, Catherine Curran, K. Gilligan, Jane E. Freedman, James A. L. Brown, Michael J. Kerin

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death in women, with metastasis the principle cause of mortality. New non-invasive prognostic markers are needed for the early detection of metastasis, facilitating treatment decision optimisation. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small, non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression and involved in many cellular processes, including metastasis. As biomarkers, circulating miRNAs (in blood) hold great promise for informing diagnosis or monitoring treatment responses.

METHODS: Plasma extracted RNA from age matched local Luminal A (n = 4) or metastatic disease (n = 4) were profiled using Next Generation Sequencing. Selected differentially expressed miRNA were validated on a ...


The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

University Scholar Projects

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph Loturco Phd May 2019

Notch Inhibitors And The Bet Inhibitor Jq-1 Decrease The Growth Of Primary Tumor Cells Derived From A Novel Mouse Model Of C11orf95-Rela Induced Brain Tumor, Ericka Randazzo, Jesse Dunnack, Justin Fang, Joseph Loturco Phd

University Scholar Projects

Brain tumors are the most common childhood solid malignancy, and because of remarkable advances in treating many cancers outside of the brain, they have become the leading cause of cancer mortality in children. Ependymomas are a class of brain tumors which can be further subdivided into three groups based upon their location and genetic features. Of the three classes, supratentorial ependymomas are the only subgroup known to be marked by an oncogenic driver gene, which consists of a fusion mutation between the C11orf95 and RELA genes. C11orf95-RELA positive tumors are the most aggressive and lethal of ...


Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone May 2019

Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia: A Case Study Correlating Cytogenetic Abnormality With Prognosis, Alyssa Lamond, Theresa Tellier-Castellone

Senior Honors Projects

Advancements in medical technology today have positively impacted the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cancers. Particularly acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has completely improved from having the poorest prognosis to one of the best. Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a malignant disease of hematopoietic tissue classified by WHO as leukemia with >20% blasts from the myeloid lineage, specifically promyelocytes. Determined in 1976, FAB classified AML subtypes M1-M7, with APL being M3. Specific characteristics classify the subtype of AML, with each resulting from a different genetic abnormality. The focus of APL diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis occurs around the known PML-RARα fusion gene. Flow ...


The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina May 2019

The Signaling Pathways Of Metallothionein-Mediated Chemotaxis In Breast Cancer, Jennifer Messina

Honors Scholar Theses

Metallothionein (MT) is a small, thiol rich protein released into the extracellular environment in response to stress. Elevated expression of MT has been linked to many inflammatory diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases, diabetes, and cancer. In breast cancer, high expression of MT has been associated with poor patient prognosis. Previous studies have shown that MT acts as a chemoattractant in lymphocytes, and that UC1MT, a monoclonal anti-MT antibody, can block this chemotactic response. In addition, it has been shown that both Cholera toxin and Pertussis toxin, which are known antagonists of G-protein coupled receptors, can inhibit MT-mediated chemotaxis. Here, I ...


Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost May 2019

Study Of Alpha Mangostin As A Chemoprotective Agent For Breast Cancer Via Activation Of The P53 Pathway, Vanessa Van Oost

Honors Program Projects

Breast carcinoma is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women and causes over 400,000 deaths each year worldwide. Current treatments such as chemotherapy are not selective for cancerous tissues but are destructive to normal tissues as well. This causes a range of side effects including pain, nausea, hair loss, weakness, and more. Inactivation of p53 is a very common mutation within human cancer cells. The ability to activate the p53 pathway which protects cells from tumor formation is lost in 50% of cancers. Due to the prevalence of this mutation, p53 is a uniquely valuable target for applied research ...


Exploiting Unique Biological Features Of Leukemia Stem Cells For Therapeutic Benefit, Haojian Zhang, Shaoguang Li Apr 2019

Exploiting Unique Biological Features Of Leukemia Stem Cells For Therapeutic Benefit, Haojian Zhang, Shaoguang Li

Open Access Articles

Cancer stem cells play a critical role in disease initiation and insensitivity to chemotherapy in numerous hematologic malignancies and some solid tumors, and these stem cells need to be eradicated to achieve a cure. Key to successful targeting of cancer stem cells is to identify and functionally test critical target genes and to fully understand their associated molecular network in these stem cells. Human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is well accepted as one of the typical types of hematopoietic malignancies that are derived from leukemia stem cells (LSCs), serving as an excellent model disease for understanding the biology of LSCs ...


Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi Apr 2019

Amphiphilic Peptides For Efficient Sirna Delivery, Saghar Mozaffari, Emira Bousoik, Farideh Amirrad, Robert Lamboy, Melissa Coyle, Ryley Hall, Abdulaziz Alasmari, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

A number of amphiphilic cyclic peptides—[FR]4, [WR]5, and [WK]5—containing hydrophobic and positively-charged amino acids were synthesized by Fmoc/tBu solid-phase peptide methods and evaluated for their efficiency in intracellular delivery of siRNA to triple-negative breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, in the presence and absence of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE). Among the peptides, [WR]5, which contains alternate tryptophan (W) and arginine (R) residues, was found to be the most efficient in the delivery of siRNA by improving the delivery by more than 3-fold when compared to other synthesized cyclic peptides that were not efficient ...


Crispr-Sonic: Targeted Somatic Oncogene Knock-In Enables Rapid In Vivo Cancer Modeling, Haiwei Mou, Deniz M. Ozata, Jordan L. Smith, Ankur Sheel, Suet-Yan Kwan, Soren Hough, Alper Kucukural, Zachary Kennedy, Yueying Cao, Wen Xue Apr 2019

Crispr-Sonic: Targeted Somatic Oncogene Knock-In Enables Rapid In Vivo Cancer Modeling, Haiwei Mou, Deniz M. Ozata, Jordan L. Smith, Ankur Sheel, Suet-Yan Kwan, Soren Hough, Alper Kucukural, Zachary Kennedy, Yueying Cao, Wen Xue

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

CRISPR/Cas9 has revolutionized cancer mouse models. Although loss-of-function genetics by CRISPR/Cas9 is well-established, generating gain-of-function alleles in somatic cancer models is still challenging because of the low efficiency of gene knock-in. Here we developed CRISPR-based Somatic Oncogene kNock-In for Cancer Modeling (CRISPR-SONIC), a method for rapid in vivo cancer modeling using homology-independent repair to integrate oncogenes at a targeted genomic locus. Using a dual guide RNA strategy, we integrated a plasmid donor in the 3'-UTR of mouse beta-actin, allowing co-expression of reporter genes or oncogenes from the beta-actin promoter. We showed that knock-in of oncogenic Ras and ...


A Non-Natural Nucleotide Uses A Specific Pocket To Selectively Inhibit Telomerase Activity, Wilnelly Hernandez-Sanchez, Wei Huang, Brian Plucinsky, Nelson Garcia-Vazquez, Nathaniel J. Robinson, William P. Schiemann, Anthony J. Berdis, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Derek J. Taylor Apr 2019

A Non-Natural Nucleotide Uses A Specific Pocket To Selectively Inhibit Telomerase Activity, Wilnelly Hernandez-Sanchez, Wei Huang, Brian Plucinsky, Nelson Garcia-Vazquez, Nathaniel J. Robinson, William P. Schiemann, Anthony J. Berdis, Emmanuel Skordalakes, Derek J. Taylor

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Telomerase, a unique reverse transcriptase that specifically extends the ends of linear chromosomes, is up-regulated in the vast majority of cancer cells. Here, we show that an indole nucleotide analog, 5-methylcarboxyl-indolyl-2′-deoxyriboside 5′-triphosphate (5-MeCITP), functions as an inhibitor of telomerase activity. The crystal structure of 5-MeCITP bound to the Tribolium castaneum telomerase reverse transcriptase reveals an atypical interaction, in which the nucleobase is flipped in the active site. In this orientation, the methoxy group of 5-MeCITP extends out of the canonical active site to interact with a telomerase-specific hydrophobic pocket formed by motifs 1 and 2 in the fingers ...


Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan Mar 2019

Unified Methods For Feature Selection In Large-Scale Genomic Studies With Censored Survival Outcomes, Lauren Spirko-Burns, Karthik Devarajan

COBRA Preprint Series

One of the major goals in large-scale genomic studies is to identify genes with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes which provide insight into the disease's process. With rapid developments in high-throughput genomic technologies in the past two decades, the scientific community is able to monitor the expression levels of tens of thousands of genes and proteins resulting in enormous data sets where the number of genomic features is far greater than the number of subjects. Methods based on univariate Cox regression are often used to select genomic features related to survival outcome; however, the Cox model assumes proportional ...