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Articles 151 - 160 of 160

Full-Text Articles in Cancer Biology

The Role Of Tyrosine Phosphorylation In The Functions Of The Tumor Suppressor Gprc5a, Xiaofeng Lin Aug 2010

The Role Of Tyrosine Phosphorylation In The Functions Of The Tumor Suppressor Gprc5a, Xiaofeng Lin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The retinoic acid inducible G protein coupled receptor family C group 5 type A (GPRC5A) is expressed preferentially in normal lung tissue but its expression is suppressed in the majority of human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and tissues. This differential expression has led to the idea that GPRC5A is a potential tumor suppressor. This notion was supported by the finding that mice with a deletion of the Gprc5a gene develop spontaneous lung tumors. However, there are various tumor cell lines and tissue samples, including lung, that exhibit higher GPRC5A expression than normal tissues and some reports by other ...


E2f1 And Tumor Suppression: The Role Of P21, Mirnas, And The Dna Damage Response, Regina L. Weaks Aug 2010

E2f1 And Tumor Suppression: The Role Of P21, Mirnas, And The Dna Damage Response, Regina L. Weaks

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

E2F1 is a multi-faceted protein that has roles in a number of important cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and the DNA damage response (DDR). Moreover, E2F1 has opposing roles in tumor development, acting as either a tumor suppressor or an oncogene depending on the context. In human cancer, E2F1 is often deregulated through aberrations in the Rb-p16INK4a-cyclin D1 pathway. In these studies we examined three mechanisms by which E2F1 might mediate its tumor suppressive properties: p21-induced senescence, miRNAs, and the DNA damage response. We found that E2F1 acts as a tumor suppressor in response to ras activation ...


Role And Regulation Of Epha2 In Pancreatic Cancer, Pavel A. Levin Aug 2010

Role And Regulation Of Epha2 In Pancreatic Cancer, Pavel A. Levin

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cancer cause of death in the US. Gemcitabine is the first-line therapy for this disease, but unfortunately it shows only very modest benefit. The focus of the current study was to investigate the role and regulation of EphA2, a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in PDAC, to further understand this disease and identify new therapeutic targets.

The role of EphA2 was determined in PDAC by siRNA mediated silencing. In combination with gemcitabine, silencing of EphA2 caused a dramatic increase in apoptosis even in highly resistant cells in vitro. Furthermore, EphA2 silencing was found ...


Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot May 2010

Cip4 And Src In Promoting The Migration And Invasion Of Breast Cancers, Christina S. Pichot

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Cellular invasion represents a critical early step in the metastatic cascade, and many proteins have been identified as part of an “invasive signature.” The non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src is commonly upregulated in breast cancers, often in conjunction with overexpression of EGFR. Signaling from this pathway stimulates cell proliferation, migration, and invasion and frequently involves proteins that regulate the cytoskeleton. My data demonstrates that inhibition of Src, using the small-molecule inhibitor dasatinib, impairs cellular migration and invasion. Furthermore, Src inhibition sensitizes the cells to the effects of the chemotherapeutic doxorubicin resulting in dramatic, synergistic inhibition of proliferation with combination treatments. The ...


Delta Like Ligand 4 Is A Critical Regulator Of Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation Into Pericytes/Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Is Essential For The Vasculogenesis That Supports The Growth Of Ewing’S Sarcoma, Keri L. Stewart May 2010

Delta Like Ligand 4 Is A Critical Regulator Of Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation Into Pericytes/Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells And Is Essential For The Vasculogenesis That Supports The Growth Of Ewing’S Sarcoma, Keri L. Stewart

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

We have previously shown that vasculogenesis, the process by which bone marrow-derived cells are recruited to the tumor and organized to form a blood vessel network de novo, is essential for the growth of Ewing’s sarcoma. We further demonstrated that these bone marrow cells differentiate into pericytes/vascular smooth muscle cells(vSMC) and contribute to the formation of the functional vascular network. The molecular mechanisms that control bone marrow cell differentiation into pericytes/vSMC in Ewing’s sarcoma are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that the Notch ligand Delta like ligand 4 (DLL4) plays a critical role in this ...


Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, Fabiola C. Gomez May 2010

Mechanism-Based Strategies To Enhance The Actions Of A, Fabiola C. Gomez

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is an abundant molecular chaperone that regulates the functional stability of client oncoproteins, such as STAT3, Raf-1 and Akt, which play a role in the survival of malignant cells. The chaperone function of HSP90 is driven by the binding and hydrolysis of ATP. The geldanamycin analog, 17-AAG, binds to the ATP pocket of HSP90 leading to the degradation of client proteins. However, treatment with 17-AAG results in the elevation of the levels of antiapoptotic proteins HSP70 and HSP27, which may lead to cell death resistance. The increase in HSP70 and HSP27 protein levels is due ...


Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse May 2010

Xenoestrogen-Specific Mechanisms Of Developmental Reprogramming Correlate With Gene Expression And Tumor Development, Kristen L. Greathouse

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Environmental exposures during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiological responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life in a process known as developmental reprogramming. We have shown that neonatal exposure to the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) can developmentally reprogram the reproductive tract in genetically susceptible Eker rats giving rise to complete penetrance of uterine leiomyoma. Based on this, we hypothesized that xenoestrogens, including genistein (GEN) and bisphenol A (BPA), reprogram estrogen-responsive gene expression in the myometrium and promote the development of uterine leiomyoma. We proposed the mechanism that is responsible for the developmental reprogramming of gene expression was through ...


Survival Prediction For Brain Tumor Patients Using Gene Expression Data, Vinicius Bonato May 2010

Survival Prediction For Brain Tumor Patients Using Gene Expression Data, Vinicius Bonato

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Brain tumor is one of the most aggressive types of cancer in humans, with an estimated median survival time of 12 months and only 4% of the patients surviving more than 5 years after disease diagnosis. Until recently, brain tumor prognosis has been based only on clinical information such as tumor grade and patient age, but there are reports indicating that molecular profiling of gliomas can reveal subgroups of patients with distinct survival rates. We hypothesize that coupling molecular profiling of brain tumors with clinical information might improve predictions of patient survival time and, consequently, better guide future treatment decisions ...


The Consequences Of Disrupting The Mdm2-P53 Balance In Hematopoiesis, Hussein A. Abbas May 2010

The Consequences Of Disrupting The Mdm2-P53 Balance In Hematopoiesis, Hussein A. Abbas

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The bone marrow accommodates hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. These cells provide an indispensible resource for replenishing the blood constituents throughout an organism’s life. A tissue with such a high turn-over rate mandates intact cycling checkpoint and apoptotic pathways to avoid inappropriate cell proliferation and ultimately the development of leukemias. p53, a major tumor suppressor, is a transcription factor that regulates cell cycle, and induces apoptosis and senescence. Mice inheriting a hypomorphic p53 allele in the absence of Mdm2, a p53 inhibitor, have elevated p53 cell cycle activity and die by postnatal day 13 due to hematopoietic failure. Hematopoiesis ...


Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria May 2010

Inhibition Of Deubiquitinase Activity And Ubiquitination Of Jak2 Blocks Cytokine Signaling And Induces Tumor Cell Apoptosis, Vaibhav Kapuria

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

The Jak-stat pathway is critical for cellular proliferation and is commonly found to be deregulated in many solid tumors as well as hematological malignancies. Such findings have spurred the development of novel therapeutic agents that specifically inhibit Jak2 kinase, thereby suppressing tumor cell growth. Tyrphostin AG490, the first described Jak2 inhibitor, displays poor pharmacology and requires high concentrations for anti-tumor activities. Our research group screened a small library of AG490 structural analogues and identified WP1130 as a potent inhibitor of Jak2 signaling. However, unlike AG490, WP1130 did not directly inhibit Jak2 kinase activity. Our results show that WP1130 induces rapid ...